Eating in the Sukkah

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Based on the pesukim in the Torah which read -בַּסֻּכֹּת תֵּשְׁבוּ, שִׁבְעַת יָמִים; כָּל-הָאֶזְרָח, בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, יֵשְׁבוּ, בַּסֻּכֹּת. לְמַעַן, יֵדְעוּ דֹרֹתֵיכֶם, כִּי בַסֻּכּוֹת הוֹשַׁבְתִּי אֶת-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, בְּהוֹצִיאִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם: אֲנִי, ה אֱלֹקיכֶם.- "For a seven day period you shall live in booths. Every resident among the Israelites shall live in booths, in order that your [ensuing] generations should know that I had the children of Israel live in booths when I took them out of the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God." [1] there is a positive commandment to sit in the Sukkah for the 7 days of Sukkot. [2]

Eating in the Sukkah

  1. There’s an obligation to eat a Kezayit of bread in the Sukkah on the first night of Sukkot. [3] During the remaining days there is no obligation to eat in the Sukkah because you can just eat fruits or vegetables but there is still a mitzva to eat bread in the succa every day. [4]
  2. While sitting in the Sukkah, one should have intent that one will fulfill the mitzvah, and that Hashem commanded us to sit in Sukkot in order to remember the exodus from Egypt (Yetsiat Mitzrayim) and that the Sukkot are in commemoration for the clouds of glory. [5] According to most authorities, after the fact, if one didn't have these intentions then one fulfills the mitzvah as long as one had intention to fulfill the mitzvah. [6]

Who is obligated to eat in the Sukkah?

  1. One who is exempt from the sukkah yet chooses to remain there does not receive reward for remaining in the sukkah and is foolish.[7]

Women and Children

  1. Women are exempt from the Sukkah. [8]
  2. Very young children are exempt from the Sukkah, however, once they are reach that they no longer need their mother (around age 5) there is a mitzvah of Chinuch (training them in mitzvot) that a child be obligated in sitting in the sukkah. [9]

Rain or Sick

  1. A person who is sick is exempt from the Sukkah. [10]
  2. One is not required to eat in the sukkah if it is raining. [11] If it is raining and one began to eat inside, he may continue to eat inside even when it stops raining. [12] However, these rules only apply after the first night. For the rules for the first night see below.
  3. Even after it stops raining but the sukkah is still wet and the s'chach is dripping one is exempt from the sukkah.[13]
  4. One who is suffering from sitting in the sukkah is exempt. For instance, if one cannot sleep in the sukkah because of the wind, because of the flies buzzing, because of the cold, or even because of a small amount of rain he is exempt. Additionally, one is only exempt from the sukkah due to suffering if leaving the suka will help alleviate his suffering. [14]
  5. If on Shabbat the lights in the sukkah go out one is not obligated to go to his friend’s sukkah if this is difficult or uncomfortable; rather, he may eat his meal in his house.[15]
  6. If one feels crowded in the sukkah this does not constitute “suffering” and one must continue to live there.[16]
  7. In general, one cannot claim he is suffering and that he is therefore exempt from the sukkah if others typically would not suffer from experiencing the matter he is facing.[17]

Traveling

  1. Travelers who are traveling for business or for pressing matters [18] are exempt from a sukkah as long as they are traveling.[19] When they pause their journey, if they are unable to find a sukkah they are also exempt from sukkah then. [20]
  2. If one is involved in a mitzvah such as going to learn Torah [21] he is exempt from the mitzvah of sukkah.[22] Accordingly, those tending to the needs of the sick are exempt from the sukkah.[23]

Which foods can one eat outside the Sukkah?

Bread

  1. It is permissible to eat up to a KeBaytzah of bread outside the Sukkah but for any more than a KeBaytzah one must eat it in the Sukkah and make a Bracha of Leshev BaSukkah. [24]
  2. If one only ate a Kezayit of bread and other foods, according to Ashkenazim this is a meal and one must eat it in the Sukkah and even make the bracha of Leshev BaSukkah[25], however, according to Sephardim one doesn't have to eat this in the Sukkah and even if one eats in the Sukkah one does not make the bracha of LeShev BaSukkah. [26]
  3. For sephardim, if one sat in the sukkah, planning to eat less than a kebaytza of bread, and then decided he wanted to eat more than a kebaytza, he should recite a beracha then, even if what he has left is less than a kebaytza. [27]
  4. Some poskim hold that any food on shabbat needs to be eaten in the sukkah because it is achilat keva and not achilat arai. However, most poskim disagree. [28]

Fruits

  1. It is permissible to eat fruits even if one eats a lot of fruit. [29]Nonetheless, it's praiseworthy to have fruit in the Sukkah. [30]

Drinks

  1. One may have drinks outside the Sukkah. [31] However, if one sits down to drink wine in a fixed manner (not just as a snack) especially if a group of people sit to drink wine one must drink it in the Sukkah but not make the Bracha of Leshev BaSukkah. According to Ashkenazim, preferably, one should not establish a fix drink of wine or beer except in a meal of a KeBaytzah of bread or at least a cooked dish made out of the five grains in which must eat in the Sukkah and could even make the Bracha of Leshev BaSukkah. [32] Nonetheless, it's praiseworthy to have all drinks in the Sukkah. [33]
  2. Even for those who usually do kiddush in shul on Friday nights it is preferable not to do kiddush in shul on Shabbat Sukkot since it is outside the Sukkah.[34]

Meat, Fish, Cheese

  1. If one makes a meal out of meat, fish, cheese, and the like, one should eat it in the Sukkah. However, if one doesn't eat it as a meal one may eat outside the Sukkah. [35] Nonetheless, it's praiseworthy to have meat, fish, rice, eggs, and cheese in the Sukkah. [36]

Cookies and Cakes

  1. If one ate a KeBaytzah of Pas Haba Bikisnin (cookies and cakes) or a cooked dish made out of the five grains (such as noodles) one must eat it in the Sukkah and the Ashkenazic minhag is to make a bracha of LeShev BaSukkah, but it's preferable to wait in the Sukkah for some time afterwards and have in mind when making the bracha that it should cover the eating and the sitting in the sukkah afterwards. [37] Sephardim hold that even though one must eat it in a Sukkah (if one eats more than a KeBaytzah) one doesn't make the bracha of LeShev BaSukkah unless one ate 162 grams of a mezonot food and it's preferable to eat 216 grams in order to make the bracha according to all opinions. [38]

If one is in the middle of a meal

  1. If one is in the middle of a bread meal one may not eat any food or drink outside the Sukkah and even if has food in one's mouth and one began chewing when one leaves the Sukkah one shouldn't continue chewing until one returns to the Sukkah. [39]

Bracha of Leshev BeSukkah

  1. Some say that It's proper to say the bracha of Leshev before making the HaMotzei. However, it's not an interruption if one does HaMotzei before the beracha of Leshev basukkah. On Shabbat and Yom Tov, the Leshev is said in Kiddish before one drinks from the wine. [40]
  2. One who eats while standing, can nevertheless recite the beracha of leshev besukkah. [41]
  3. For which foods it's proper to make LeShev BaSukkah, see above #Which_foods_can_one_eat_outside_the_Sukkah?.
  4. If one is fasting for a taanit chalom on sukkot, one should still not recite the beracha on sleeping or sitting in the sukkah, because the beracha was established for eating only. [42]

Temporarily Leaving the Sukkah

  1. Anytime one “leaves completely” from the sukkah he must make a new bracha upon returning to the sukah if he desires to eat foods requiring a leshev ba’sukkah. “Leaving completely” includes anytime a person plans on leaving the sukkah and not returning immediately thereby causing him to forget about the fact that he is planning on returning to the sukkah soon (“hesech ha’daas”). [43]

If one is not Eating

  1. If one plans to sit or sleep in the sukkah for a significant period of time without eating foods that require a sukkah, one should not recite a bracha of leshev ba’sukkah. Some poskim, however, assume that one can recite leshev ba’sukkah.[44]

First Night of Sukkot

  1. There is an obligation to eat a Kezayit of bread in the Sukkah on the first night of Sukkot.[45] According to many rishonim, there is an obligation to eat a meal in the Sukkah each day and night of Yom Tov.[46]

Kiddush

  1. On the first night of Sukkot, one should wait to do Kiddish until after Tzet HaKochavim. However, after the fact if one made Kiddish during Bein HaShemashot and ate a Kezayit of bread one should make sure to have another Kezayit after Tzet HaKochavim but one doesn’t need to make another Bracha of LeShev BaSukkah. [47]
  2. The order of kiddush is hagefen, kiddush hayom, leshev ba’sukkah, and then on the first night, shehechiyanu. The reason that leshev follows kiddush hayom is because we only sit in the sukkah due to the sanctity of the day. Also, we delay shehechiyanu until the end in order to ensure that it covers both the kiddush hayom and the sukkah itself.[48] After the fact, if one made Shehecheyanu before Kiddish one fulfilled one's obligation (and one shouldn't go repeat it after Kiddish). [49]
  3. According to Ashkenazim, if one didn’t sit in the sukkah on the first night but recited kiddush with Shehechiyanu indoors, one should repeat Shehechiyanu the next time one eats in the sukkah even. According to Sephardim, one should not.[50]
  4. If one didn’t make a Shehecheyanu on the first night of Sukkot, one can make it the rest of days and nights of Sukkot. [51]

If it rains the first night of Sukkot

  1. If it rains the first night of Sukkot,
    1. According to Sephardim, one is exempt from the Sukkah and one should eat in the house.[52] However, if one wants to be strict one may wait a little bit for the rain to stop but one should not wait too long which would cause oneself pain on Yom Tov. If after eating the house the rains stops then if it’s before Chatzot (halachic midnight) one should go into the Sukkah to eat one Kezayit of bread and make Leshev BaSukkah and if it’s after Chatzot one shouldn’t make the Bracha of Leshev unless one eats a KeBaytzah of bread. [53]
    2. According to Ashekenazim, some poskim hold that one is not exempt from the Sukkah and one should wait an hour or two for the rain to stop if it does then one should eat in the Sukkah with a bracha of Leshev BaSukkah but if it doesn't one should recite Kiddush and eat a Kezayit of bread in the Sukkah without the bracha of LeShev BaSukkah. [54] Other poskim hold that one may say Kiddush in the Sukkah without waiting for the rain to stop. [55]
  2. If one recited Kiddush and are a Keyazit of bread in the Sukkah while it was raining and then one wakes up in the middle of the night and sees that it is not raining, some poskim say that one does not have to get up to eat in the Sukkah[56], while others say that one should get up to eat in the Sukkah.[57]
  3. Some poskim permit sitting under an umbrella held in hand even over ten Tefachim, unlike a more permanent umbrella such as one supported by a table because it is still considered sitting under the schach. One should not recite a beracha [58]

Kiddush During the Day

  1. According to Ashkenazim, if one plans to eat mezonot products after reciting the daytime kiddush he should recite leshev ba’sukkah before drinking the wine. [59] According to Sephardim, no leshev is recited for mezonot. [60]
  2. Regarding one who plans on eating bread after the daytime kiddush, some recite leshev before drinking the wine, whereas others recite leshev only before eating the bread. [61]
  3. According to Sephardim, it is proper to stand for Kiddush. The Ashkenazic practice, however, is to sit. [62]

Lighting Candles in the Sukkah

  1. Ideally the Yom Tov candles should be lit where they are going to eat. That is, the Sukkah. However, if there is any concern that it might cause a fire one should just have electric lights in the Sukkah and light the candles indoors in the kitchen or bedroom where they can be enjoyed on Yom Tov.[63]
  2. Even though women are exempt from eating in the Sukkah the mitzvah of lighting Yom Tov candles, nonetheless women have the initial right to light the candles instead of having the men light.[64]

Forgetting to say Yaale VeYavo

  1. If on the first night of Sukkot one had the required Kezayit of bread and in benching one forgot to say Yaale VeYavo
  • if one remembers after saying Baruch Atta Hashem and didn’t conclude Boneh Yerusalayim, one should conclude with Lamdeni Chukecha, and go back to Yaale VeYavo.
  • if one remembers after the entire Bracha of Boneh Yerushalayim, one should insert the Bracha of Baruch Atta Hashem… Asher Nattan Moadim LeSimcha…Mikadesh Yisrael VeHaZmanim (as printed in the siddur).
  • if one remembers after saying Baruch Atta Hashem Eloken Melech HaOlam (of the Bracha of HaTov VeHaMeitiv), one should conclude with Asher Nattan Moadim Lisimcha… and then start the Bracha of HaTov VeHaMeitiv again.
  • if one didn’t remember until the middle of HaTov VeHaMeitiv or later, one must repeat benching. [65]
  1. If one forgot Yaale VeYavo in benching any other day or night of Sukkot
  • if one remembers after Boneh Yerusalayim one should say Baruch Atta Hashem…Asher Nattan Moadim LeSimcha…Mikadesh Yisrael VeHaZmanim.
  • if one didn’t remember until the middle of HaTov VeHaMeitiv or later, one doesn’t repeat benching. [66]

Ushpizin

  1. It is proper to bring a chair for the ushpizin, like we have a chair at a brit mila for eliyahu hanavi zachur latov, because if there's no chair they will not come. [67]

Eating or sleeping in the Sukkah before Sukkot

  1. It’s permissible to eat in the Sukkah before Sukkot (erev Sukkot) and it’s not an issue of Bal Tosif. [68]

Other activities in the Sukkah

  1. Sleeping in the Sukkah (click the link)
  2. One should live in one's Sukkah like one lives in one's house the rest of the year. Therefore, one should eat, drink, sleep, hang out, speak to one's friend, and learn in the Sukkah. [69]
  3. One should even bring one's nice utensils into the Sukkah just like uses them during the year in the house, however, one should not bring one's cooking pots into the Sukkah. [70]
  4. One should not do any degrading activity in the Sukkah. Therefore one should not clean the dishes in the Sukkah, however, one may clean the cups. [71]
  5. One may not go to the bathroom in the Sukkah even if one goes in a pot. [72]
  6. One shouldn't change a baby's diaper in the sukkah. [73]
  7. It is permissible to have marital relations in the sukkah. [74]
  8. It is permissible to smoke in the sukkah, disregarding the permissibility of smoking in general. [75]
  9. Because of the holiness of the Sukkah, it's proper to minimize one's mundane speech in the Sukkah and increase one's speech in Torah and holy matters and all the more so one should be careful not to speak any forbidden speech such as Lashon Hara or getting angry. [76]

Learning in the Sukkah

  1. One should learn in the Sukkah unless one isn't unable to concentrate in which case one should learn inside.[77]
  2. If the cold or heat (if one doesn't have air conditioning in the Sukkah) bothers oneself and one can't concentrate to learn one may learn inside. [78]
  3. If it's a pain to bring all the Seforim into the Sukkah many times (as one needs the space to eat or sleep) then one doesn't have to learn in the Sukkah, however, if one can leave all the Seforim in the Sukkah for the entire holiday one must do that. [79]
  4. One who usually learns in a Bet Midrash doesn't have to learn in a Sukkah. [80]
  5. One should pray in a shul and not in one's Sukkah even if one can get a minyan in the Sukkah. If there's no shul in one's city if one is able to concentrate in the Sukkah one should pray in the Sukkah. [81]
  6. If one usually does Havdalah at home during Sukkot one should do it in the Sukkah. However, those who listen to Havdalah in the shul can do so also on Sukkot. [82] If one does it in the succah there is a discussion if you should recite the beracha. [83]
  7. A community committee meeting can take place as usual and doesn't have to be in the Sukkah. [84]

Links

Sources

  1. Vayikra (23:42-43)
  2. Rambam (Sefer HaMitzvot, Aseh #168), Chinuch Mitzva 325. The Tur 625 explains that the reason we were commanded to do this specifically in tishrei and not in nissan is to make it clear that we aren't doing it for the shade it provides but rather because it is Hashem's command as this is a time that people normally move indoors and we move outdoors for this time.
  3. Rambam Hilchot Succa 6:7, S”A 639:3, Chazon Ovadyah pg 132
  4. Mishna Brurah 639:24
  5. There is a dispute in Gemara Sukkah 11b whether the Sukkot that Jews sit in are in commemoration of actual sukkot that Bnei Yisrael sat in in the desert or the Ananei Hakavod (clouds of glory) that God gave us for protection. The Tur 625:1 writes that the Sukkot are in commemoration of the Ananei Hakavod and the Jews sit in the Succa specifically in the winter (instead of when Bnei Yisrael left Eygpt) to show that even though the norm is to move back into your house for the winter, we move outside to fulfill G-d’s will. The Bach 625:1 s.v. BaSukkot says that the fact that the Tur wrote this indicates that one hasn't fulfilled one's mitzva completely if while sitting in the Sukkah one didn’t remember the exodus from Egypt (Yetsiyat Mitzrayim) since the pasuk states explicitly that the mitzvah of Sukkot is to remind us of the exodus. The Mishna Brurah 625:1 writes that one should have the intent that Hashem commanded us to sit in Sukkot in order to remember the exodus from Egypt (Yetsiat Mitzrayim) and that the Sukkat are in commemoration for the clouds of glory.
    • See also the Tur 417 who quotes his brother regarding the connection between Sukkot and Yacov Avinu. See more about that idea on dailyhalacha.com.
  6. The Pri Megadim (A"A Intro to Siman 625) writes that this is only in order to do the mitzvah in it's best way, however, after the fact even without the intent one has still fulfilled one's obligation as long as one had the intent to fulfill the mitzvah (as part of the concept that mitzvot need kavana). Chazon Ovadyah (Sukkot pg 97) and Mishna Brurah (625:1) agree with the Pri Megadim, unlike the Bikkurei Yaakov (625:3) who holds that one doesn't fulfill one's obligation at all without the proper intent. Rav Shternbuch in Moadim UZmanim (vol 1 pg 169) writes that although lacking the Kavanna doesn’t take away the mitzvah, however, one still loses the separate mitzvah of having kavanah.
  7. Rama 639:7. The Biur Halacha 639 explains that one is only considered foolish if one became exempt while sitting in the sukkah and continued to sit there. This is particularly true with rain because Chazal compare rain on Sukkot to a servant who served his master water and had it splashed back in his face. Once the master demonstrated that he wasn’t interested in the services, if the servant forces his master to allow him to serve him the servant would be foolish. That is why remaining in the sukkah when it rains is foolish. Nonetheless, if one is technically exempt not because of suffering, (i.e. if it began to rain and then the rain stopped and he is still in the middle of eating his meal inside) and he chooses to return to the sukkah he will receive reward.
  8. Mishna Sukkah 28a, Shulchan Aruch 640:1
  9. Shulchan Aruch 640:2, Mishna Brurah 640:2. The Magen Avraham 640 says that it is prohibited to feed children outside the sukkah, just like it is forbidden to feed children not kosher food. Sh"uT Binyan Av 1:25 says that a man cannot feed the child outside the sukkah but a woman can. The Mishna Brurah 640:5 quotes this magen avraham and adds that on shouldn't even tell the child to eat outside the sukkah. Rav Moshe Shternbuch in Tshuvot Vihanhagot 3:211 says very young children are exempt based on the fact that they need their mothers to eat properly. Aruch Hashulchan 640:2 justifies not obligating them in sukka because children have a lower tolerance for the cold.
  10. Shulchan Aruch 640:3 based on Mishna Sukkah 25a.
  11. Mishnah Sukkah 28b
  12. Mishna Brurah 639:38 based on Rashi Sukkah 29a "viyardu." Ritva Sukkah 29a "Tannu Rabanan," writes that one is not required to eat in the sukkah if there are rain-clouds in the sky and it appears as if it is going to rain. Rav Shalom Schwadron in Daat Torah OC 639:5 says that most poskim don't accept this opinion but he is in doubt if you can recite a beracha in such a situation.
  13. Shevet Hakehati 1:199
  14. Shulchan Aruch 640:4, Rama 639:2, 639:5, and 640:4
  15. Rama 640:4
  16. Rama 640:4. Mishna Brurah 640:26 however writes that a fastidious person for whom this is difficult is exempt.
  17. Rama 640:4. Nonetheless, the Mishna Brurah 640:29 writes that if one is a fastidious individual and other fastidious people of the same type would suffer from what he is undergoing, this would suffice to exempt him.
  18. Igrot Moshe OC 3:93 and Yalkut Yosef as quoted in Piskei Teshuvot p. 385 no. 38 hold that these are the travelers referred to in the Shulchan Aruch, whereas those who travel for pleasure or without a real need and claim that they are exempt from sukkah are acting improperly.
  19. Shulchan Aruch 640:8
  20. Rama 640:8
  21. Mishna Brurah 640:35
  22. The Shulchan Aruch 640:7 as explained by the Mishna Brurah feels that in such a case one is not required to enter a sukkah even when one reaches a resting point on his mitzvah journey, whereas the Rama writes that if this is not difficult and will not affect his ability to perform the mitzvah one should find a sukkah in which to eat and sleep.
  23. Shulchan Aruch 640:3 as explained by the Mishna Brurah. Note that this rule does not include those helping one who is mitztaer, but only the sick as defined above.
  24. The Mishna in Sukkah 25a states that one may eat a snack (achilat arai) outside of the sukkah. The Gemara Sukkah 26a, states that the quantity of an achilat arai is the amount that a yeshiva student would eat in the morning on his way to the beit midrash. Tosafot there "Tarti", say that this amount is a k'beitzah. This is the conclusion of Shulchan Aruch 639:2, Mishna Brurah 639:13, Beiur Halacha s.v. KeBaytzah, Natai Gavriel 48:2, Chazon Ovadyah (Sukkot pg 132), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 142).
  25. Natai Gavriel 48:7
  26. Chazon Ovadyah (Sukkot pg 134)
  27. Chazon Ovadia pg. 133
  28. Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 143, Chazon Ovadia Sukkot pg. 141
  29. This is an argument in the gemara Yoma 79b. Tosafot 26a s.v. tarti rule that it is permitted even in a large quantities because fruit is always considered arai. The Rosh Sukkah 2:13 quotes the Maharam Mirutenberg that one may not eat even fruit outside the sukkah but explains that the Maharam only refers to eating more than a k'beitzah but permits eating less than a k'beitzah of fruit. Shulchan Aruch and Rama 639:2 rule like tosafot, as does Natai Gavriel 50:1
  30. Chazon Ovadyah (pg 138), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 143), Nitei Gavriel 50:12
  31. Shulchan Aruch 639:2
  32. Mishna Brurah 639:13, Natai Gavriel 50:3
  33. Shulchan Aruch 639:2
  34. Mateh Efraim 625:40
  35. Rosh Sukkah 2:13 quotes Rabbeinu Peretz that the leniency of eating fruit outside of the sukkah does not apply to meat, fish and cheese. Shulchan Aruch 639:2 doesn't rule explicitly on these items but Mishna Brurah 639:13 says that Shulchan Aruch implies that it is permissible to eat these items outside of the sukkah, like fruit. This is also the conlusion of Natai Gavriel 50:2
  36. Chazon Ovadyah (Sukkot pg 138), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 143). see also Halichot Olam 2: page 281.
  37. Mishna Brurah 639:16, Maamar Mordechai 639:2, Natai Gavriel 49:1-3
  38. Chazon Ovadyah (Sukkot pg 132-6), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 142-3)
  39. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 143), Halichot Olam 2:pg. 271, Meiri Sukka 26b "Hamishnah Hachamishit", Shaar Hatziyun 639:29
  40. Shulchan Aruch and Rama 643:3, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg 145, Chazon Ovadyah (Sukkot pg 172).
    The Rosh (Sukkah 4:3) cites the practice of the Maharam Rotenberg to recite the bracha of leshev ba’sukkah prior to making a hamotzei on a meal he would eat in the sukkah. He explained that the Maharam held that one should recite a bracha for any use of the sukkah including sitting in there. Since one is technically obligated in the bracha prior to eating, one should recite that bracha first. However, the Rosh notes, the minhag is only to recite leshev ba’sukkah when one eats a meal. If so, one should first recite hamotzei to start the meal and then leshev ba’sukkah. The S”A 643:3 codifies the opinion of the Maharam but also mentions the common minhag. Chazon Ovadia (Sukkot p. 172) writes it is proper to follow the Maharam. Nitai Gavriel 45:3 advises following the minhag. Rabbi Eli Mansour writes that both practices are valid
  41. Chazon Ovadia Sukkot pg. 175
  42. Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 145
  43. Mishna Brurah 639:46. It may be that this only applies while one is in the midst of his meal, however if after birkat hamazon one leaves for even a small amount of time it could be that he is obligated to make a new bracha upon returning. However, the Shaar Ha’tziyun 639:91 concludes safek brachos le’hakel.
  44. * The Gemara (Sukkah 45b) records a dispute whether one should recite one bracha of leshev ba’sukkah for all of Sukkot or for each day. Tosfot (s.v. echad) explains that the opinion who says to make it each day really holds one should recite a bracha each time one enters the sukkah. The Rosh (Sukkah 4:3), Rif (22a), and Rambam (Sukkah 6:12) hold like the opinion who holds one should make it each time one enters the sukkah.
    • The Rosh notes that the minhag is only to recite the bracha when sitting down to eat in the sukkah since it is most permanent of one’s actions in the sukkah. S”A 639:4 and Rama codify this minhag. Nonetheless, the Chaye Adam 147:15 and Mishna Brurah 639:45 write that if one enters the sukkah for a significant amount of time and doesn’t eat, one should still recite a bracha since there’s nothing to exempt that time spent in the sukkah. The Piskei Teshuvot (p. 377) cites a dispute whether we accept the Chaye Adam and suggests that one should avoid this situation by eating some food that requires a leshev ba’sukkah.
  45. The Rabbis in the Mishna (Sukkah 27a) hold that there is an obligation to eat in the Sukkah on the first night and afterwards it is optional to eat in the Sukkah. The gemara explains that the reason for the Rabbis is that there is a gezerah shava between Sukkot and Pesach and just like there is an obligation to eat Matzah on the first night of Pesach, so too there is an obligation to eat bread on the first night of Sukkot. This is codified by the Rambam (Sukkah 6:7) and Shulchan Aruch 639:3.
  46. The Gemara Brachot 49b states that on Yom Tov one would have to repeat Birkat HaMazon if one forgot to say Yaaleh VeYavo because there is an obligation to eat a meal. The rishonim point out that this seems to be at odds with the gemara Sukkah 27a which says that it is optional to have a meal on Sukkot other than on the first night.
    • Some rishonim answer that there is an obligation to eat a meal each day and night of Yom Tov because of Yom Tov, but the obligation unique to the Sukkah is just the first night. If so, what's the difference between the obligation to eat a meal due to the fact that it is Yom Tov and the obligation to eat a because of the Sukkah? Rabbenu Yehuda (Tosfot Brachot 49b s.v. Iy) answers that if it rains and one has to eat inside, if the obligation is just because of Yom Tov one would fulfill one's obligation. However, if the obligation is because of the Sukkah one would have to eat in the Sukkah anyway after the rain stops. The Rosh (Brachot 7:23) quotes Rabbenu Yehuda with a slight discrepancy; he states that one should eat one's meal in the rain as opposed to waiting until the rain stops.
    • Some rishonim argue that there is no obligation to eat in the Sukkah if it rains outside and the first night is no different. Such is the opinion of the Rashba (responsa 4:78) and Raavad (cited by Kol Bo 87 and Beit Yosef 639:3). According to the Trumat HaDeshen (Pesakim n. 160), the Smag (Asin 43), and Or Zaruah 2:301 also agree. S”A 639:3-5 rules like the Rashba that one is not obligated to eat in the Sukkah besides the first night and one is not obligated to eat in the Sukkah on the first night if it rains. Chazon Ovadia (p. 100 and 122) rules like S”A in both instances.
    • However, the Magen Avraham (188:7 and 639:10) and Mishna Brurah 639:23 hold that one is obligated to eat in the sukkah each day and night of Sukkot. Also, the Rama 639:5 rules that one is obligated to eat in the sukkah on the first night if it rains.
    • Alternatively, the Ritva (Sukkah 27a s.v. VeShiur) quotes his Rebbe as explaining that while one can fulfill the regular Yom Tov meal by eating a Kezayit of bread outside the Sukkah, the first night meal needs to be eaten in the Sukkah even if it is only a Kezayit. The Tur 639:3 agrees. This opinion is also cited by the Ran (Sukkah 12b s.v. Matnitin). Accordingly, one would be obligated to eat a meal each day and night of Yom Tov.
    • Other rishonim answer simply that the Gemara Brachot which said that it is an obligation to eat a meal on Yom Tov was only referring to the first nights of Pesach and Sukkot. However, there's no obligation to eat a bread meal the rest of the days of Pesach and Sukkot. This is the opinion of the Tosfot (Sukkah 27a s.v. Iy), Rashba (Brachot 49b s.v. Tefillah and responsa 3:287), and Smag (Asin 43).
  47. Rama 639:3 writes that one make sure not to eat until nighttime. Mishna Brurah 639:25 explains that this is based on the connection between Pesach and Sukkot and by Matzah one may only eat at night as it says in the פסוק. Mishna Brurah continues that after the fact if one ate one should eat another Kezayit but not make another LeShev BaSukkah because of Safek Brachot LeHakel. Nitei Gavriel (Sukkot 38:12) extends the Rama to not even making Kiddish before nighttime. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 138) agrees with the above halachot.
  48. S”A 643:1, Mishna Brurah 643:1, Chazon Ovadia Sukkot pg. 95
  49. Mishna Brurah 643:3
  50. The Ran (Sukkah 22a s.v. VeIm) cites the Raavad who says that if one didn’t eat in the sukkah on the first night and said shehechiyanu indoors, one should say shehechiyanu the next time one eats in the sukkah for the sukkah itself. This is codified by the Rama 641:1. Chazon Ovadia (p. 127), however, is concerned for the Bach (responsa 132) who argues that the bracha of shehechiyanu can exempt a mitzvah even if it isn’t present when the bracha was made. Seemingly, this is only relevant for the Rama under extenuating circumstances. See Eliyah Rabba 641:2.
  51. Magen Avraham 643:1, Mishna Brurah 643:2, Chazon Ovadyah (pg. 95)
  52. S”A 639:3-5 rules like the Rashba that one is not obligated to eat in the Sukkah besides the first night and one is not obligated to eat in the Sukkah on the first night if it rains. Chazon Ovadia (p. 100 and 122) rules like S”A in both instances.
  53. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 140), Chazon Ovadyah (Sukkot pg 122)
  54. Rama 639:5, Mishna Brurah 639:35
    • Practically, the Rama 639:3 writes, that if it rains one should remain in the sukkah for kiddush and eating of the first kezayit of bread.
    • However, the Gra (639:3), in explaining the opinion of Tosfot, writes that eating in the sukkah while it is raining is worthless since it isn’t considered a sukkah. Rather one should eat in the sukkah after it stops raining.
    • Accordingly, the Tzlach (Brachot 49b) writes that a person should wait an hour or two for the rain to stop so that one can eat in the sukkah after it stops raining. The Mishna Brurah 639:35 agrees.
    • However, the Shvut Yaakov 3:45 (cited by Shaarei Teshuva 639:13) writes vehemently against those who would wait until midnight to start the meal to wait for the rain to stop. He explains that either one is exempt from the sukkah altogether, like S”A, or one should eat in the sukkah while it is raining, but waiting to eat only detracts from simchat Yom Tov.
    • Chachmat Shlomo 639:5 writes that one is usually exempt from sitting in the Sukkah when it is raining because doing so would be causing oneself pain. On the first night, however, since it is a mitzvah to eat in the sukkah, that in and of itself is a reason why it would be considered an enjoyment and not a pain to eat in the rain.
    • Rabbi Zvi Sobolofsky (“Eating In The Succah The first Night Of Succos and Hilchos Mitztaer” min 30-3) quotes Rabbi Mordechai Willig as having ruled that if it rains on the first night of Sukkot one may say Kiddush in the Sukkah without waiting for the rain to stop. Similarly, Rav Hershel Schachter (“Inyonei Sukkos 2” min 51-2) said that if it is raining the minhag is to say Kiddush without leshev ba’sukkah, eat a kezayit of bread in the sukkah, and then if it stops raining have another kezayit in the sukkah.
  55. Rabbi Tzvi Sobolovsky in a shiur on yutorah.org (min 30-3) quotes Rabbi Mordechai Willig as having ruled that if it rains on the first night of Sukkot one may say Kiddush in the Sukkah without waiting for the rain to stop.
  56. Mishna Brurah 639:36
  57. Rabbi Tzvi Sobolovsky in a shiur on yutorah.org (min 30-5) quotes Rabbi Mordechai Willig as having ruled that if it rains on the first night of Sukkot and one ate in the Sukkah, and then fell asleep, if one wakes up and sees that it stopped raining, one should get up and eat a Kezayit in the Sukkah in order to be certain that one fulfilled this mitzvah deoritta.
  58. Halichot Shlomo 2:8-20, Shalmei Moed pg. 112, She’arim Metzuyanim b’Halachah 135:5, and Nefesh Chayah OC 629. Rav Elyashiv quoted in Succat Chayim page 52, however, does not permit this. The Brisker Rav (HaSuccah Hashalem, Miluim 13:4) did in fact do this himself.
  59. Mishna Brurah 643:9
  60. Chazon Ovadia p. 134
  61. Mishna Brurah 643:9
  62. The Rambam (Sukkah 6:12) writes that one should stand for kiddush and then sit for the bracha of leshev ba’sukkah. The Maggid Mishna explains that the Rambam held that one should recite the bracha immediately prior to fulfilling the mitzvah of sitting in the sukkah. The Raavad, however, argues that the bracha is really made upon the eating and so it should be said sitting before eating. The Maggid Mishna and Rosh (Sukkah 4:3) agree with the Raavad and explain that the language of ‘leshev ba’sukkah’ doesn’t refer to literally sitting but to dwelling as per the pasuk “BaSukkot Teshvu”. Shulchan Aruch 643:2 holds the Rambam and Rama like the Raavad.
  63. Mateh Efraim 625:33 writes that the candles should be lit in the sukkah. Chazon Ovadia (Sukkot p. 207) writes that the candles can be lit indoors if there's any concern of danger. Responsa Maamer Mordechai 4:12 clarifies that the candles can be lit in the kitchen or bedroom but the woman should be sure to benefit from them during the night and not just leave them in the kitchen and go somewhere else. Aseh Lecha Rav 2:42 agrees.
  64. Chazon Ovadia (Sukkot p. 213)
  65. Chazon Ovadyah (pg 101)
  66. Chazon Ovadyah (pg 101)
  67. Chid"a in Moreh Bietzbah 289, Leket Hakatzir 32:5 pg. 461
  68. Chazon Ovadyah pg 481 holds that’s there no issue of Bal Tosif before the mitzvah was done.
  69. Shulchan Aruch 639:1 writes that one should live in one's Sukkah like one lives in one's house the rest of the year which includes eating, drinking, and sleeping. Mishna Brurah 639:2 adds speaking to one's friend and BeYitzchak Yikare 639:1 adds hanging out. Regarding speaking with friends, Chazon Ovadia Sukkot pg. 147 quotes those who disagree and say that one should only speak words of torah in the sukkah. See also Sh"t Minchat Shlomo 2:58. Minhagei Chatam Sofer 8:12 it is tells that that the Chatam Sofer only left the sukka once each day for Shacharit. He even said mincha and maariv in the sukkah. Regarding learning in the Sukkah see further.
  70. Shulchan Aruch 639:1 writes that one should bring one's nice untensils into the Sukkah, however, the cooking pots shouldn't brought in the Sukkah. The Rama adds that one may leave the cooking pots in the Sukkah during the meal but not after the meal, however, the Mishna Brurah 639:5 writes that the minhag is to be strict not to even bring cooking pots in the Sukkah during the meal.
  71. Rama 639:1, Mishna Brurah 639:9. However, the Ben Ish Chai Haazinu Halacha 9 forbids even cleaning cups except if they are small cups like coffee cups.
  72. Chayei Adam 147:2, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 135:2, Aruch Hashulchan 639:4. Chazon Ovadia Sukkot pg. 131 is mekil for someone who is old or sick and it is too difficult for him to leave the sukka to go in a pot, just he warns that he should make sure to cover the pot properly.
  73. Yalkut Yosef moadim pg. 142, Chazon Ovadia Sukkot pg. 129.
  74. Chazon Ovadia Sukkot pg. 130
  75. Chazon Ovadia Sukkot pg. 130, for smoking in general, see Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Kibbud Av Vaem 7:footnote 16 and Smoking
  76. Mishna Brurah 639:2, Baer Heitev 639:2, Kaf Hachaim 639:5-6, Bikkurei Yaakov 639:2
  77. Shulchan Aruch 639:4. Nitei Gavriel 58:1 quotes the Yarot Dvash (Dorosh 6 s.v. VeZehu) who explains that one who sits in the sukkah with pure intent, learns, and enjoys the holiday merits a special level of divine presence.
  78. Mishna Brurah 639:29 writes that if it's too cold for oneself in the sukkah and one can't concentrate one may learn inside. Natai Gavriel 48:7 extends this where it's too hot and one doesn't have air conditioning in the sukkah.
  79. Mishna Brurah 639:29, Natai Gavriel 58:3. see also Kaf Hachaim 639:62 Chazon Ovadia Sukkot pg. 127 and Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 141
  80. Shulchan Aruch HaRav 639:4, Kaf HaChaim 639:63, Natai Gavriel 58:6
  81. Shulchan Aruch 639:4 writes that if one wants one may pray in the Sukkah. The Mishna Brurah 639:30 explains that in the place where one has greater kavanah (concentration) one should pray unless there is a shul in the city in which case one should go there (because during the rest of the year one would leave one's house to go to the shul. Pri Megadim (M"Z 639:14), Kaf HaChaim 639:67, and Nitei Gavriel 58:8 add that one should pray in the established shul even if one can get a minyan in the Sukkah.
  82. Mishna Brurah 639:30, Shaar HaTziyun 639:57, Kaf HaChaim 639:66.
  83. Shevet ha-Levi 6:42 says no beracha of leshev basuccah is recited because it isn't a keviat seuda, see above. However, Chazon Ish quoted in Rivevos Efrayim 1:428 and 3:424 rules that since it is wine for havdala it elevates the level of drinking to keviat seuda, and therefore would require the beracha. Rav Elyashiv in Succas Chayim page 202 rules that this applies only to wine and not to grape juice. The steipler in Orchos Rabbeinu 2: page 228 as well as Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchita 58:22 recommend eating bread immediately after havdala to avoid any doubts, and recite leseh basuccah Shemirat Shabbat kihilchita recommends reciting the leshev basuccah before the boreh pri hagefen. Sh"t Minchat Yitzchak 9:163 says that one should have in mind when eating seudat shlishit to have in mind specifically, that the leshev basukkah recited then will not cover havdala, then when reciting havdala say the beracha and immediately start eating melaveh malka.
  84. Nitei Gavriel 58:10 who explains that the Sukkah is supposed to replace one's home but anyway for the meeting one always leaves one's home to go another place and also that they wouldn't be able to concentrate as well in the Sukkah.