Food That Comes during a Meal
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- All foods that are part of a meal in order to accompany the bread or fill one’s appetite are covered by the Bracha HaMotzei on the bread and don’t require their own Brachot. 
- If one doesn’t want to eat bread it’s unclear whether it exempts the other foods and so it’s preferable to avoid this situation, however, if one is in such a situation one doesn’t need to make a Bracha Rishona on each food because there is at least a possibility that the Bracha on bread exempted it.  Some poskim hold that the bread covers the other foods whether or not one wants the bread. Nonetheless, if one is eating bread on Shabbat or Yom Tov in order to fulfill the obligation of eating the meal all other foods are covered by the bread. 
- If one ate less than a Kezayit of bread, according to Sephardim, one must make a Bracha Rishona and Acharona on the other foods.  According to Ashkenazim, it is a doubt if the bread covers the other foods.
- If someone has croutons which are hamotzei in a soup the bread doesn't exempt the soup and the soup doesn't exempt the bread. Rather one should first make hamotzei on the croutons and then the bracha on the soup.
- If someone sent foods to a friend and the food arrived during the meal, Sephardim hold that he food requires a new Bracha, whereas Ashkenazim hold that no new Bracha is needed. 
- Desserts served at a wedding after the dancing and the tables are moved according to some poskim require a bracha rishona and achrona since they’re not included in the meal at all. This even applies to cake since there is no safek that it isn’t the bread upon which he is eating as the main meal, it is clearly for the good taste. 
- If one has wine or grape juice, one must make it’s own Bracha even if one drinks it during the meal. 
- If one made Hagefen and drank a Melo Lugmav (cheekful), all other drinks are exempt from making a Bracha during the meal.  However, if one just heard Kiddish and didn’t drink wine or grape juice immediately, one must make a Bracha on wine or grape that one drinks during the meal. 
- One doesn’t make a Bracha on drinks during a meal as drinks are drunk because of the food.  However, it’s preferable to cover drinks by having wine and make a Bracha on wine and it’ll cover all other drinks.  Some Sephardim have a minhag to drink water before the meal (less than a Kezayit) and the Bracha on that will cover the other drinks. 
- An alcoholic drink doesn’t require a Bracha is drunk during the meal, however, if one drink it’s at the end of the meal before Birkat HaMazon, one should make a Bracha. 
- Coffee and tea at the end of the meal don’t require a Bracha. However, it’s preferable to cover these drinks by having another food that certainly requires a Bracha during the meal (such as sugar by itself). 
- If one eats (regular uncooked) fruit in a meal one should make a Bracha Rishona on the fruit but no Bracha Achrona. 
- A cooked dish made from fruit and is served as part of the main meal doesn’t require it’s own Bracha. For example, fruit soup, fruit salad, fritter, fruits mixed with chicken or meat, and fruit blintzes don’t require a Bracha during a meal. 
- Fruits served as an appetizer requires a separate Bracha unless the fruit is known to whet one’s appetite.  Citrus fruits such as grapefruit are assumed to be eaten to whet one’s appetite whereas sweet fruits such as melon require a Bracha. However, some hold that even sweet fruits don’t require a bracha if eaten as an appetizer and therefore advise to exempt it by eaten a fresh fruit not being used as an appetizer or to have a fruit less than a Kezayit prior to a meal with intent to cover the fruit during the meal. 
- There’s a doubt regarding compote and there’s what to rely to make a Bracha. 
- If one has fruit as one’s main meal and there are no other dishes for that meal, then no Bracha is required for the fruit if one is later in the meal going to eat the fruit with bread, while some say that it isn't necessary to eat the fruit with the bread at any point. However, it’s preferable to eat some fruit with bread in the beginning of the meal and then continue to eat fruit even without bread. 
- A vegetable salad doesn't require a bracha in a meal.
- Cooked vegetables in the meal are considered part of the meal and don't require a bracha.
- In general, desserts aren’t covered by the Hamotzei and each food requires it’s own Bracha even if eaten during the meal except for mezonot which are Pas HaBah Bekisnin.  For example:
- If there’s a significant (and independent) layer of frosting on cake or a Krembo a Shehakol is required for the cream and no Bracha is required for the mezonot. 
- There’s a considerable dispute regarding ice cream and there’s what to rely on make the Bracha but it’s preferable to make the Bracha on another food that certainly requires a Shehakol during a meal.  Some Sephardim hold that one shouldn’t make a Bracha on ice cream in a meal but rather should cover it with another Shehakol, but some hold that one may make a bracha on ice cream in a meal. 
- Yogurt is usually eaten as part of the meal in satiate and so it doesn’t require a Bracha. 
Rice, Bisli, and Wafers
- Mezonot which isn’t similar to bread at all requires a Bracha if eaten as a dessert. Examples include: Bisli, puffed rice in chocolate, (or rice crispy treats), and Kabukim (peanuts with dough coating).  However, if one eats the mezonot to satiate it doesn’t require a Bracha in any case.  Some include wafers. 
- Some say that deep fried doughnuts require a bracha when eaten as a dessert at the end of the meal.
Cakes and Cookies
- In general, Pas HaBah BeKisnin such as cake, cookies, and biscuits don’t require a Bracha during the meal even if eaten as a dessert. 
- The minhag is not to make a Bracha on Pas HaBah Bekisnin as dessert unless it fulfills all three requirements of Pas HaBah BeKisnin.  For example, fruit filled pie fulfills all three requirements and requires a Bracha.  Some hold that one should recite mezonot on cakes at the end of the meal.
- However, the strict halacha requires a Bracha even the mezonot only fulfills the condition of having a sweet filler and having dough made with a majority of ingredients in comparison to the water not counting the flour. Examples include:
- Sufganiyot (doughnuts) filled with jelly,
- cake with a filler (cream, jelly) unless if the filler is a thick independent layer
- chocolate covered cookies or biscuits,
- sandwich cookies,
- pie (if shell is made with majority of ingredients in comparison to the water),
- Kabukim (peanuts with flour based coating) 
- However, if one eats the mezonot to satiate it doesn’t require a Bracha in any case. 
- To remove oneself from all doubt regarding mezonot one should either
- make a mezonot on something that certainly requires a mezonot during a meal and it will cover all other mezonot,
- eat a little mezonot before the meal and intend that it should cover the other mezonot during the meal,
- when making the HaMotzei have intention that the bread should cover the other mezonot
- eat the mezonot cakes after the Birkat HaMazon
- or make a Shehakol on something that certainly requires a Shehakol during a meal and have intent to cover the mezonot. 
- Sephardim hold that no bracha is made on pat haba bkisnin in a meal even if it fulfills all three conditions.
- Shulchan Aruch 177:1
- In the Gemara Brachot 41b, Rav Papa states that food which are eaten as part of the meal during the meal don’t require any Bracha and foods which are eaten not in context of the meal during the meal require a Bracha Rishona and not Bracha Achrona. Tosfot (D”H Hilchata) explains that the first category means to include foods which are normally eaten as the main part of the meal like meat, fish, vegetables, oatmeal. The second category includes foods which are not normally eaten as the main part of the meal like fruit. This explanation is accepted by the Rosh (Brachot 6:26), Bahag (quoted by Rosh), Rabbanu Yonah (29b s.v. VeRabbenu Yitzchak) in name of the Ri HaZaken, Mordechai (Brachot Siman 135), Smag (quoted by Bet Yosef 177:1), and Hagahot Maimon 4:20. The Tur and S”A 177:1 codify this explanation as the halacha. (Tosfot is in disagreement with Rashi Brachot 41b s.v. dvarim habayim machmat haseuda who holds that only food that one eats together in the same bite as bread is exempt. Baal Hameor Brachot 29a s.v. amar agrees.)
- The Mishna Brurah 177:1 explains that the language of Shulchan Aruch which is that the Hamotzei on bread covers foods which are normally eaten with bread to mean that anything which gives sustenance and is brought as the main meal is covered by the Hamotzei. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 43:1 concurs.
- Magen Avraham 177:1, Mishna Brurah 177:3, Avnei Isfeh 4:26(3)
- Aruch Hashulchan 177:2
- Magen Avraham 177:1, Halachos of Brachos chap 5 pg 98
- Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 9:3, Chazon Ovadia Berachot page 81, Kaf hachayim 177:4, Sh"t Shemesh U'magen OC 1:27, Igrot Moshe OC 4:41, Chelkat Yaakov 2:112. Or Letzion 2:46:14 leaves it as a doubt and advises making a bracha on the foods before the bread. On the other hand, Rav Moshe Halevi in Birkat Hashem (vol 3, p. 339) says even less than a Kezayit of bread exempts the rest of the meal.
- Mishna Brurah 177:3 has a doubt if the bread covers the other foods if doesn't want the bread and all the more so if one just eats less than a kezayit. Accordingly, Rav Elyashiv (cited by Vezot Habracha ch. 8 fnt. 7) holds that less than a kezayit can cover other foods if it is eaten in order to fill oneself up. Dagul Mirvavah 167:6, however, holds that bread doesn't cover the other foods without a kezayit. That's also the opinion of Igrot Moshe OC 4:41.
- Shaarei Habracha 8:6 quoting Rav Wosner
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama 177:5
- Rav Belsky in Shulchan Halevi 3:6 p. 32
- S”A 174:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 43:2, Vezot HaBracha (pg 72, Chapter 8)
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 73, Chapter 8)
- Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 48:18, Vezot HaBracha (pg 73, chapter 8)
- S”A 174:7, Chaye Adam 43:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 43:2. See also Vezot HaBracha (pg 72, chapter 8) who adds that on fruit juice one doesn’t make a Bracha during the meal.
- Beiur Halacha 174 s.v. VeHaMinhag, Vezot HaBracha (pg 70, chapter 8) writes that this it’s an obligation but a righteous practice.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 70, chapter 8)
- Mishna Brurah 174:39, Vezot HaBracha (pg 73, Chapter 8)
- Mishna Brurah 174:39, Vezot HaBracha (pg 73, Chapter 8)
- In the Gemara Brachot 41b there’s three opinions whether one should make a Bracha on fruit in a meal. Rav Sheshet holds that one must make both Bracha Rishona and Bracha Achrona, Rav Huna states that one must make a Bracha Rishona and not Bracha Achrona, and Rabbi Chiya holds that fruit doesn’t require any Bracha. Then the Gemara continues that the halacha follows the guidelines of Rav Papa, foods which are brought as part of the meal don’t require a Bracha and foods which are not brought as part of the meal require a Bracha Rishona and not Bracha Achrona. [Rashi writes that Rav Papa holds that fruit are in a third category of food which is normally brought as dessert and require both a Bracha Rishona and Bracha Achrona like the opinion of Rav Sheshet.] Tosfot (D”H Hilchata) rules like Rav Huna as fruit is considered fruit that is not brought as part of the meal and so it should require a Bracha Rishona. This opinion is accepted by the Rosh. Tur and S”A 177:2 rule like the Tosfot.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 76, chapter 8)
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 77, chapter 8) in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman, see what he writes about Rav Elyashiv’s opinion on page 288, Birur 13(2):6.
- Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 93-4, chapter 5) writes that Rav Shlomo Zalman holds that a Bracha is required, whereas Rav Elyashiv argues. Rav Nissim Karelitz (Chut Shani Brachot p. 168) writes that fruit appetizers don't require a bracha since they whet a person's appetite. Or Letzion 2:46:15 agrees with Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 78, chapter 8)
- The Rosh (Brachot 6:28) at first has a doubt about someone who establishes a meal on fruit whether the fruit is considered a food which is brought because of the meal or not and decides that it makes sense that it is considered like food brought as part of the meal and doesn’t require a Bracha. The Rosh then brings a proof to this from the Yerushalmi. This is also the ruling of the Tur 177:3 and Ritva (Brachot 41b) that if one establishes one’s meal on fruit the fruit is covered even if one doesn’t eat it with bread.
- [The Mordechai (Brachot Siman 135, quoted by Bet Yosef 177:3) agrees with the Rosh but adds that it’s preferable to make a Bracha on a fruit first in order to exempt the fruit in the meal. The Halacha Brurah (Birur Halacha 177:17) explains that the Mordechai means that one should have fruit before the meal, make a Bracha on it and have in mind to exempt the other fruit in the meal.]
- However, the Rabbenu Yonah (29b s.v. Amar Rav Papa (at the end)) holds that if one has fruit as one’s main meal it is only exempted by the Hamotzei on the bread when one starts eating the fruit with bread and then continues to eat fruit without bread.
- S”A 177:3 rules that if one made fruit as one’s main meal the Bracha on the bread covers the fruit even if one eats the fruit without bread. However, because some argue it’s preferable to eat a little of the fruit with bread and then continue to eat fruit without bread.
- The language of Shulchan Aruch sounds like even according to the first opinion it is necessary to eat the fruit with bread in the beginning or the end. This is explicit in the Taz 177:2 and Birkat Hashem 2:10:75. However, Halacha Brurah 177:14 and Vezot Habracha (p. 77) explain Shulchan Aruch to mean that it isn't necessary to eat any of it with bread.
- Beiur Halacha (D”H Tov) explains that when one eats bread with the fruit in order to exempt the fruit one should ate a significant amount and not just a taste. This is also the opinion of Halacha Brurah 177:14.
- Or Letzion 2:46:16
- Kaf Hachaim 583:12, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo 1:18). See Dirshu 177:13 who quotes Rav Elyashiv and Rav Nissim Karelitz as holding that gourd is a safek if it is covered by the bread and so one should make a bracha on a banana to cover it.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 74, Chapter 8)
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 73-4, Chapter 8). Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 186) writes that candies and gum require Shehakol during a meal. Ben Ish Chai says that when one is safek about a food in a meal one should make shehakol on sugar. Chazon Ovadyah (Brachot 74-5) asks a question on this since because the Bracha on sugar is a big dispute and leaves it unresolved.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 75, note 9), there he also includes ice cream in a cone, however this is dependant on whether ice cream requires at all during a meal, see further.
- Halachos of Brachos (chap 5 , pg 87) quoting Rav Shlomo Zalman, Vezot HaBracha (chap 8, pg 74 note 8) quoting Rav Elyashiv and Rav Pinchas Sheinburg, and Shevet HaLevi 1:205:174 all hold that ice cream in a meal requires a bracha since it is clearly a snack. However, Vezot Habracha (chap 8, pg 74 note 8) quotes Rav Moshe Feinstein as holding that no bracha is made on ice cream as dessert in a meal. Similarly, Vayishma Moshe v. 2 p. 79 quoting Rav Elyashiv writes that dessert doesn't require a bracha since it is commonly brought at the end of the meal. However, it is better to eat them with a little bread to exempt them.
- Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 198, 807 and Sherit Yosef vol 3, pg 299) quoting his father Rav Ovadyah Yosef writes that no bracha is made on ice cream as dessert but it is preferable to save it for after birkat hamazon to make a bracha on it. [However, Halacha Brurah 177:13 also quotes his father Rav Ovadyah Yosef but quotes him as saying the opposite that one should make a bracha on ice cream in a meal.] Or Letzion (vol 2, 12:12) and Birkat Hashem 3:10:73:1 write that one should make a bracha on ice cream as dessert.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 74, chapter 8)
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 74-5, chapter 8). Birkat Hashem v. 3 10:77 agrees that Bisli requires a bracha for dessert.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 75, chapter 8), Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 95, chapter 5)
- Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 484, addendum 2) writes that the dough of wafers is so thin it isn’t a bread family food and accordingly it requires a Bracha if eaten as dessert. However, Vezot HaBracha (pg 26, chapter 4) writes in name of Rav Pinchas Shienburg that wafers aren’t in the bread family, but questions it and leaves it unresolved.
- Birkat Hashem v. 3 10:77 explains that since the deep fried doughnut isn't considered Pat Haba Bkisnin it isn't considered bread at all and the Hamotzei doesn't exempt it and it would require a bracha. Even according to the Rabbenu Tam that a doughnut is Pat Haba Bkisnin it could be that he would agree that it would require a bracha like the opinions who hold that Pat Haba Bkisnin for dessert require a bracha.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 75, chapter 8)
- The Rosh Brachot 6:30 writes that one recite a mezonot on lachmaniyot in the middle of a meal. This is also the opinion of Tosfot 41b s.v. elah, Tosfot HaRosh 42a s.v. lachmaniyot, and Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 29a s.v. vomrim. Even though the Mishna 42a states that parperet in a meal is exempt and Tosfot, Rosh, and Rabbenu Yonah explain that to mean cooked bread which is mezonot, the Magen Avraham 168:22 explains that it is exempt if a person is eating them as an appetizer to whet one's appetite. Generally, though the mezonot does require a bracha. That is the ruling of Shulchan Aruch 168:8 based on the Tosfot, Rosh, Tur, and Rabbenu Yerucham. The Magen Avraham expands the Rosh to all pat haba bkisnin as is evident in the rishonim.
- The Dagul Mirvavah 168:8 points out that because of the dispute about what is pat haba bkisnin one should not recite mezonot in a meal since according to some opinions it is considered bread. Even Haozer 168:8 and Biur Halacha 168:8 s.v. teunin agree. Biur Halacha concludes that the minhag is not to recite mezonot in a meal unless they fulfill all three conditions of pat haba bkisnin. He adds that someone has what to rely upon to recite the bracha as long as it fulfills the conditions of being sweet dough and filled. [However, the Magen Giborim (Elef Hamagen 168:29) answers the Dagul Mirvavah's question by saying that since it is a doubt if each pat haba bkisnin is bread or not one didn't have intention to exempt it and then it is certainly obligated in a bracha.]
- Interestingly, although Tosfot and Rosh hold that a bracha is required for pat haba bkisnin, the opinion of the Rashba 41a s.v. vepat haba bkisnin, Ritva Hilchot Brachot 3:1, Raah Brachot 42a s.v. matniten birach, Meiri Brachot 42a s.v. berach al haparperet is that no bracha is made upon pat haba bkisnin at all. Bet Yosef 177:1-2 cites the Rashba.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 75, chapter 8)
- Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 96, chapter 5) in name of Rav Pinchas Sheinburg writes that apple pie fulfills all three requirements of Pas HaBah Bekisnin and so it requires a Bracha, however, if it’s eaten for satiation as is the usual case it doesn’t require a Bracha. See Vezot HaBracha (pg 316, Birur Halacha 39:4(3) writes that there’s a doubt whether the pie crust should be considered crumbling but concludes that there’s room to make a Bracha according to the halacha even if it only fulfills the other two requirements.
- Rav Schachter (Brachot Shiur 83 min 12-17) explains that Rav Moshe's opinion was that the cakes and cookies today are very sweet and are certainly Pat Haba Bkisnin and as such one should recite a bracha of Mezonot on them for dessert. He added that generally a person is full before dessert and as such it would require a bracha unless one is actually hungry and eating dessert to fill oneself up.
- Vezot HaBracha (Birur Halacha 12, pg 241-3)
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 75, chapter 8)
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 75-6, chapter 8)
- Halacha Brurah 168:29 since we are concerned for the opinion of the Rashba and Safek Brachot Lehakel. Birkat Hashem v. 3 10:76 agrees. Yalkut Yosef 177:3 argues that one has what to rely upon to recite a bracha for a pat haba bkisnin that fulfills all three conditions. He explains that the Rashba would agree that a bracha is recited on pat haba bkisnin if eaten as dessert and he only meant that it doesn't have a bracha when it is part of the main course.