- The mitzvah of Kiddush is a Biblical commandment alluded to in the Ten Commandments. The Torah says, "זכור את יום השבת לקדשו" meaning "remember Shabbat to sanctify it," and one fulfills it by saying the text of Kiddish on Friday night.  Many authorities consider Kiddush of Yom Tov to be Derabbanan, yet it shares all the same halachas of Kiddush of Shabbat. In addition, Chazal instituted that Kiddish be made over a cup of wine. 
- Some authorities hold that the Biblical obligation is discharged with the prayer in Shul and that the Kiddish at home is entirely Derabbanan. 
Amount to Drink
- In order to fulfill this obligation, one should drink most of a cup that contains at least a reviit. Some say one should only drink a Melo Lugmav (a cheekful) and some say one should preferably drink a Revi'it.
- For Kiddish, the Revi'it should be considered to be 4.4oz. 
Kiddish in Shul
- In the days of the gemara, the Rabbis instituted a Kiddish in shul for the travelers who would eat and drink in the Shul. Nowadays, when guests don't eat their meals in shul, some say that its proper not to say Kiddush in shul, while others uphold this minhag to say Kiddush in shul on Friday night. 
- This minhag applies to Shabbat and Yom Tov except for the first day of Yom Tov of Pesach (and second in Chutz LaAretz). 
- The one making Kiddish in shul shouldn't drink from the wine but rather give it to children to drink. Some say that the children should be below the age of chinuch (6 or 7) while others say that it's better to give it a child above that age. If its not possible to find a child to drink the wine, an adult should drink it but should make sure to drink a Reviyit or more, say a Bracha Achrona, and have intent to fulfill the mitzvah of kiddish. 
- The minhag is to stand for kiddish in shul. 
Kiddish at night
- On Friday night, one should hurry home after shul to bring in the Shabbat and not taryy in conversation at shul. 
- Kiddush at night is considered greater than the Kiddush of the day. Therefore, if one has two bottles of wine the better bottle should be used for Kiddush at night. (However, the day is considered greater in general and should have the better selection by everything else). 
- The text of Kiddish includes Yom HaShishi, which are pesukim describing Shabbat, and two Brachot, Borei Peri HaGafen, and Mekadesh HaShabbat. 
- When reciting Kiddush on Friday night, we say the words "ויהי ערב ויהי בקר" - "Vayihi erev vayihi boker" quietly before saying "יום הששי" Yom Hashishi. While we generally avoid reciting Pesukim in ways which differ from their presentation in the Torah, nonetheless we only say the second part, and don't say the first part of the Pasuk quietly because Chazal understand the words "טוב מאד" as a reference to death. However, there is debate whether one is allowed to say only part of a Pasuk so some are careful to add the rest of the Pasuk "Vayar Elokim Et Kol Asher Asa Vehini Tov Meod, Veyihi Erev Vayihi Boker Yom Hashishi.
Kiddish of the day
- The text of Kiddish during the day is just Borei Pri Hagefen.  However, many have the minhag to say Pesukim before saying the Bracha. Some say two paragraphs, "Veshamaroo" and "Zachor" and others have the minhag to add another paragraph before these starting with "Im tashiv Mishabbos Raglecha" which are the Pesukim in Yeshaya which inlude the Pasuk from which the obligation of making Kiddush is derived. Many skip to the last sentence of "Zachor" starting with "Al cen berach" before saying the bracha on the wine.
- It's forbidden to taste anything before Kiddish. 
- It's permissible to drink water before Shacharit on Shabbat day since the obligation of Kiddish doesn't apply until one prayed. 
Eating before Mussaf
- Once the time for Mussaf (from Olot HaShachar) it’s forbidden to eat a meal (more than a KeBaytzah of bread) before praying Mussaf, however, it’s permissible to have a KeBaytzah of bread or a lot of fruit. 
- The custom is to be lenient to permit eating even more than a Kabaytzah of baked Mezonot (cakes and cookies) before Mussaf after having made Kiddish. 
- If one does eat before Mussaf one must first do Kiddish and have a Revi'it of wine or eat a Kezayit of baked mezonot (cakes and cookies) in order to fulfill Kiddish. 
Preparing the cup for Kiddish
- Some authorities say that one may not use a plastic or paper cup for Kiddish, however, many authorities permit but agree that it's preferable to use a real cup. 
- The cup of Kiddish should be rinsed out before being used if it isn't already clean. 
Eating before Kiddish
- Kiddush has to be made before eating/drinking because the Pasuk says "VeKarasa LiShabbos Oneg"  "And you shall call to the Shabbos a delight", which the Rabbanan learn to mean that there has to be a "calling" to the Shabbos, meaning saying Kiddush, prior to it being "a delight", refering to eating/drinking. 
- It's Rabbinically  forbidden to eat anything even water  before making Kiddish once the time for Kiddish has come.  This applies to the nighttime and daytime Kiddush.
- If one takes Shabbat upon oneself early, it's forbidden to eat before making Kiddish.  Therefore, one can accept Shabbat early, make Kiddish, and eat even before praying Arvit as long as it's not within a half hour of the time to say Arvit. 
- If one doesn't pray or take Shabbat upon oneself early The time that the prohibition begins from Ben HaShemashot. 
- Rinsing out one's mouth is permitted since one doesn't intend to get benefit from the water. 
- Ideally, one should say Kiddush as soon as one gets home from Shul on Friday night.
- One can say Kiddish before nightfall if one accepts upon oneself Shabbat early. 
- If one missed Kiddush on Friday night, it can and should be made up at any point during Shabbat day, which means that one would recite the longer Friday-night version of Kiddush on Shabbat day. 
- If one forgot to say Kiddish on Friday night and only remembered during Ben HaShemashot of Saturday, one should say Kiddish then with Shem UMalchut, however, according to Ashkenazim as long as one davened any of the Shabbat prayers, if one needs to make Kiddush during Ben HaShemashot it should be done without Shem Umalchut. 
Washing before or after Kiddish
- One should make Kiddish before washing for bread. However, Bedieved, if one did wash with a bracha before making Kiddish, according to Sephardim, one should make Kiddish on bread and not on wine.  According to Ashkenazim, Bedieved one can make still make the Kiddish on wine and then have the bread. 
- Nonetheless, some Ashkenazim have the Minhag (specifically German Jews) to specifically wash before making Kiddish over wine and they have what to rely on. 
- There is no difference concerning the order between the one making the Kiddish and other members of the family. 
- If one's minhag is to wash first, it's forbidden to dilute the wine between the washing and Kiddish as that would be an interruption between washing and the meal. Some say one also shouldn't pour the wine from the bottle between washing and the meal as it constitutes an interruption. 
- If by accident one washed one's hands for bread before Kiddish, according to Sephardim one should make Kiddish on bread  unless one person of the group hasn't yet washed and can perform Kiddish over wine for everyone else (by saying it aloud while they listen) and according to Ashkenazim one should make Kiddish on wine. 
Eating in the place one made Kiddish (Kiddush Bimakom Seuda)
- In the place where one made Kiddish one should make sure to have a meal there. This applies both for the nighttime and daytime Kiddush.
- One should begin to eat something immediately after Kiddish. After the fact, as long as one had intent to eat immediately one doesn't need to make Kiddish again even if one made a long interruption and had a Hesech HaDaat (interruption of thought). However, if one didn't have intent to eat right away and then made an interruption of 72 minutes a new Kiddush is needed. 
- In order to have Kiddish in the place where one eats and that the Kiddish is considered a proper Kiddish, one must eat at least a Kezayit of mezonot, bread, or a reviat of wine. 
- The Mitzvah of Kiddush is unique in that women are obligated even though it is a Mitzvat Aseh She’Hazman Grama, based on a Talmudic derivation that since women are obligated by the prohibitions of Shabbat, they are also obligated in the positive commandments of the day.
- Since women are obligated on a biblical level, they should either listen to their husband or hear another adult make Kiddish and answer Amen, or say it themselves. 
- A women can fulfill the obligation of her husband and family. 
Sitting or standing for Kiddush
- Many have the practice to sit for Kiddush, however, some have a Minhag to stand for Kiddish.  Nonetheless, one should stand for Vayichulu. 
- For Shabbat day, the accepted custom is to sit. 
- For Yom Tov Kiddush, many have the custom to sit, but some have the practice to stand.
What to use for Kiddush?
If there is no wine or grape juice
- If one doesn't have wine on Friday night, kiddush should be recited on the bread and one should keep one's hands on the bread throughout the kiddush. 
- If there's no wine available for Shabbat lunch one should use Chamar Medina for kiddush. If one doesn't even have Chamar Medina, one should just say hamotzi and eat the bread, and if he doesn't even have bread one may eat without Kiddish. 
- According to Sephardim, one should only use Chamar Medina for Shabbat lunch if the wine isn't available in the city but if it's just expensive one should use wine and not Chamar Medina.  According to Ashkenazim, if the wine is expensive one may use Chamar Medina for the daytime Kiddish and one who uses wine is fulfilling a preferred mitzvah. 
- One may not use soda for Kiddish because soda isn't considered Chamar Medina.
Questions and Answers
- Rambam Sefer Hamitzvot Aseh 155, Chinuch 31, Smag Aseh 29, Sefer Hamitzvot of Rav Saadia Gaon Aseh 33 all count the mitzva to sanctify the shabbat with words based on this pasuk.
- Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:1) writes that there is a positive biblical commandment to remember Shabbat based on the pasuk "זכור את יום השבת לקדשו" (Shemot 20:7). In 29:4, he writes that the primary time for the mitzvah is Friday night. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:1 rules like the opinion of the Rambam. [However, it seems that Tosfot (Nazir 4a s.v. My Hee; first opinion) holds that the mitzvah of Kiddish is Derabbanan and the pasuk of Zachor is only an asmachta]. Tosafot Pesachim 106a “zochrayhu” states two opinions: 1) the cup of wine is diRabanan; 2) the cup of wine is diorayta, but the drinking is dirabanan.
- Mishna Brurah 271:2, Nitei Gavriel (Yom Tov vol 2, 29:1)
- Pesachim 106a states that the Kiddish is supposed to be said over a cup of wine. Tosfot (s.v. Zochrayhu; first opinion) and Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:6) write that saying Kiddish over the cup of wine is Derabbanan. Tosfot's second opinion holds saying Kiddish over a cup of wine is Deoraittah, but drinking it is Derabbanan.
- Magan Avraham 271:1 writes that since the Rambam and Tosfot hold that the Deorittah part of Kiddish is that it is stated orally, one should be able to fulfill this obligation with one's Maariv prayer in Shul. This is quoted as halacha by the Bear Hetiev 271:2. However, there is a great discussion in the achronim and many argue on the Magan Avraham (Mishna Brurah 271:2 (based on the Tosfet Shabbat 271:3) argues that since one doesn't have intention to fulfill the obligation of Zachor, the prayer in shul doesn't fulfill the obligation of Kiddish). There is a dispute whether a women's lighting Shabbat candles can fulfill Kiddish Deoritta, Sh"t Mishneh Halachot 7:37 holding that it can fulfill the Deoritta obligation, while Sh"t Az Nidabru 12:1 strongly disagrees.
- What is the minimum amount of wine one should drink for Kiddish? S"A 271:13 writes that for kiddush one must drink a Melo Lugmav, which is a cheekful and is the equivalent of the majority of a Revi'it. Kitzur S"A 77:9 agrees. Kaf HaChaim 271:83 and Or Letzion (vol 2, 20:22) write that it's preferable to drink a complete Reviyit. On the other hand, Biur Halacha 174:6 s.v. VeChen writes that since there's a dispute whether the Birkat HaMazon will exempt the Bracha Achrona of the wine, one should preferably drink only a Melo Lugmav and not a Reviyit. Then he ends off by referencing the Shulchan Aruch's ruling in 190:3 and says that one should have intent that the Birkat HaMazon will exempt the wine before the meal. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1, p 274) simply writes that one must drink a Melo Lugav and doesn't say it's preferable to drink a Reviyit.
- See also S"A 190:3 who writes that because there is a dispute whether one is obligated to make a Bracha Achrona for a Kezayit or a Reviyit of wine, one shouldn't enter into that dispute and for a Kos Shel Bracha, when one needs to drink more than a Melo Lugmav, one's only option is to drink more than a Reviyit. Kaf HaChaim 271:84 quotes the Pri Megadim who explains that this doesn't apply to Kiddush before a meal since the Birkat HaMazon exempts the wine from a Bracha Achrona.
- Mishna Brurah 272:30 rules that the obligation to have most of a Revi'it applies regardless of which drink you use for kiddush. Rav Tzvi Pesach Frank in Har Tzvi 1:159, however, says that since the Taz (210:1) holds that one would be obligated to say a beracha acharona on less than a Revi'it of liquor because less than that already is considered to be significant enough for a beracha acharona, the same would apply for how much you need to drink for kiddish. In regards to Bracha Achrona, Mishna Berura 190:14 based on the Magen Avraham 190 also writes that there's no difference between wine and other drinks in opposition to the Taz's opinion in that regard as well.
- Haggadah Kol Dodi (Rabbi Dovid Feinstein, 5730, pg 4) writes that the Revi'it for kiddush on Shabbat (using the method of measuring finger-widths) should be 4.42 oz.
- The Gemara Pesachim 100b brings down such a custom to say the kiddush on friday night in shul. The Tur 269 writes that saying Kiddush in shul was only established in order to fulfill the obligation of Kiddush for the guests who would eat their meal in shul. He says that nowadays that guests don't eat their meal in shul one shouldn't say Kiddush in shul. The Beit Yosef 269 quotes the Rabbenu Yonah, Ran, and Rashba who defend this practice of saying Kiddush in shul even if guests don't even their meal in shul. Additionally. the Rambam (Sh"t Harambam 37) writes that this minhag shouldn't be discontinued because all establishments that the rabbis made must remain even if the reason no longer applies. Nonetheless, the Bet Yosef writes that the more proper minhag is not to say Kiddush in Shul. S”A 269 rules that some have this practice to say Kiddush in shul, but its better not to. Mishna Brurah 269:5 writes that the common minhag is to say Kiddush in shul and one shouldn't uproot it. Yalkut Yosef 269:2 writes that if there are some in shul who will not say Kiddush at their homes at all, it is not just justified but even encouraged to say Kiddush in shul, but otherwise a shul who doesn't yet have that and doesn't yet have an established minhag, shouldn't say the kiddush in shul. He continues that whatever shul already has the minhag to say it, they should not be stopped because this minhag has its basis.
- Sh"t Yachin Uboaz 118 writes that that the Rashbetz wouldn't answer amen to the kiddush in shul because of the safek beracha livatala.
- Mishna Brurah 269:5, BeYitchak Yikare adds second day in chutz la'aretz
- S”A 269, Mishna Brurah 269:1, Yalkut Yosef 269:2
- Rama 269:1
- Yalkut Yosef Shabbat 1 271:1
- The Ran on Gemarah Pesachim 106a says that the Kiddish of the night is Deoritta while that of the day is Derabbanan.
- Gemarah Pesachim (105a)
- Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:7) writes that the order of Kiddish is Vayichulu (which are pesukim said based on Minhag), the Borei Pri Hagefen and then Mikdash HaShabbat (the text of which can be found in Rambam 29:2).
- Tanit 27b, Megillah 22a. "כל פסוקא דלא פסקיה משה אנן לא פסקינן"
- Rama 271:10, Levush 271:10, Aruch HaShulchan 271:25, Chatom Sofer OC 10
- The Gemara Pesachim 106a states that the primary Kiddish is at night, but there's also a Kiddish of the day. Even though it seems to be Deorittah as the gemara learns it from a pasuk, the Rishonim agree that the pasuk is only an asmachta (Ravad and Magid Mishna (Hilchot Shabbat 29:10), quoted by Bear Heitiv 289:2) and the obligation of Kiddish during the day is only Rabbinic. The gemara concludes that the text of such a Kiddish is just Borei Pri HaGefen. Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:10) and S"A 289:1 rule this as halacha.
- Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:10) and S"A 289:1 rule that since there's an obligation to make Kiddish it's forbidden to eat anything before Kiddish just like the Kiddish of Friday night.
- Tur writes in the name of his father, the Rosh, and S"A 289:1
- The Gemara Brachot 28b writes that the halacha doesn’t follow Rav Huna who says that it’s forbidden to taste any food before praying Mussaf. The Tur 286:3 writes that even though we don’t hold like Rav Huna we only permit have a snack but a meal is forbidden. The Bet Yosef quotes the Raavad, Rashba, and perhaps the Rabbenu Yerucham who agree. S”A 286:3 writes that it’s forbidden to eat a meal before praying Mussaf but it’s permissible to have a snack. The Magan Avraham 286:2 writes that the snack is the same as before Mincha where S”A 232:3 writes that one may have a KeBaytzah of bread and a lot of fruit but not more. Kitzur S"A 77:15 agrees. See Rav Mordechai Eliyahu's comment on Kitzur S"A 77:15 where he writes that we only rely on this in situations of pressing need.
- Shaar HaTziyun 286:7 writes that the measure for a meal before mussaf in regards to baked mezonot is the same as by Sukkah. Mishna Brurah 639:15-6 (regarding Sukkah) quotes some who say that if one establishes a meal out of the Pas HaBah Bekisnin certainly it requires a Sukkah. However, if one didn’t have it as a meal if one had more than a KeBaytzah then there’s a dispute whether one needs a Sukkah and if one eats less than a KeBaytzah then certainly it doesn’t require a Sukkah. Nonetheless, Halichot Shlomo (Tefillah 14:9, pg 179-80) writes that the minhag is to lenient to have even more than a Kabaytzah of baked mezonot.
- Magan Avraham 286:1, Buir Halacha 286:3 D”H Achilat, Mishna Brurah 286:7, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 52:17
- Sh"t Igrot Moshe O"C 3:39 forbids using a plastic or paper cup as they aren't considered a nice cup and it's worse off than a broken cup (which is forbidden by S"A 183:3. Mishna Berura 183:11 says that even if it is just the base that is cracked one should still be strict.) The Radiance of Shabbos (page 44) points out that this doesn't depend on the quality of the plastic at all. Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 12:23 differentiates between a cup that would be used for hot liquids and could be reused and one that's ruined after it's first use. Even if one personally doesn't reuse it, it is still considered a kli. This is true for kiddush, havdala, and netilat yadayim. Sh"t Beer Moshe 5:55 on the other hand, only allows cup that are commonly reused and therefore only permits plastic cups and not paper cups, or small shot glasses because those are rarely reused. Sh"t Az Nidabru 6:49 is the most lenient allowing any disposal cup, however, it's still preferable to use a better cup as a hidur mitzva. Shevut Yitzchak (vol 1, 4:5, pg 48) in name of Rav Elyashiv and Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat vol 2) concur with the lenient opinion. See further: Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz on yutorah.org. Although many poskim, say that using two plastic cups doesn't help at all, see Rav Dov Lior for the explanation of it, though he writes that he doesn't necessarily think that it helps the issue.
- S"A 183:1 writes that one should wash out the cup used for Kiddush, both the inside and outside, however, if the cup is clean it doesn't need to be cleaned out. Chaye Adam (Shabbat 6:13) agrees. Mishna Brurah 183:3 writes that it is proper to clean it out unless it is completely clean.
- Tosfot and Rosh Pesachim 110a
- Mishna Brurah 271:11 writes that the prohibition is only Rabbinic.
- Maggid Mishna (Hilchot Shabbat 29:5) explains that the Rambam holds drinking water before Kiddish is permitted, while the Rashba (Sh"t 3:264) forbids it. Hagahot Maimon 29:5 in name of Maharam as well as the Tur 271:4 also forbid. Bet Yosef says that the Rambam is unclear and may hold that even water is forbidden. S"A 271:4 rules that even water is forbidden.
- Pesachim 106b records a dispute whether one who tasted food before Kiddish can still make Kiddish. Bet Yosef 271:4 implies from there that Lechatchila, it's forbidden to eat or drink before Kiddish. Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:5), Tur and S"A 271:4 all rule that it's forbidden to eat before making Kiddish.
- Kitzur S"A 77:13
- Magan Avraham in name of the Bach writes that it's forbidden to eat before making Kiddish if one accepted Shabbat early.
- Magan Avraham 271:5 writes that one is allowed to accept Shabbat early, and then make Kiddish to permit eating, all before praying Arvit. Beir Heitev 271:4 quotes this as halacha. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:4 and Mishna Brurah 271:11 limit the permit to eat to when one is more than a half hour before nightfall as is the halacha everyday of not eating before Arvit.
- Magan Avraham 271, Mishna Brurah 271:11 and Ben Ish Chai Beresheet 17 write that the prohibition begins at Ben HaShemashot.
- Magan Avraham 271:5 writes that rinsing out one's mouth is permitted as it isn't called drinking. Bear Hetiev 271:4 and Mishna Brurah agree. However, Ben Ish Chai Beresheet 17 is more stringent and only permits if one was fasting and only during Ben HaShemashot.
- Pesachim 106a learns that the primary way to do Kiddish, a remembrance of Shabbat is with wine on Friday night because that's the beginning of the day (in the Jewish calendar). Shulchan Aruch, O”C 271:1
- Magan Avraham writes that Kiddish can be made during the day if one accepts upon oneself Shabbat early. Many achronim including Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:2 and Mishna Brurah 271:11 concur.
- The Gemara Pesachim 105a rules that if one missed saying Kiddish on Friday night one can make it up through the rest of Shabbat. Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:4), Tur and S"A 271:8 rule like the gemara pesachim. This is agree upon by the achronim including Aruch HaShulchan 271:21, Ben Ish Hai (Bereshit 19), and Hacham Ovadia Yosef, in Halichot Olam. Aruch HaShulchan and Ben Ish Chai write that even if the person ate intentionally one should still make Kiddish the next day. Additionally, achronim including the Chaye Adam (Shabbat 6:2), Aruch HaShulchan 271:21, and Ben Ish Chai (Beresheet 19) hold that we don't say Vayichulu if the Kiddish is said during the day since Vayichulu was instituted for the incoming of Shabbat. [This finds it's source in the Magid Mishna (Hilchot Shabbat 29:4).]
- Ben Ish Chai Beresheet 19 writes that one could argue that according to the Magan Avraham, once one prayed on Shabbat the obligation of Kiddish is only Derabbanan and whenever there is a doubt about a Derabbanan obligation one may be lenient (Safek Derabbanan Lekula). If this was the case, one should say that if it is Ben HaShemashot one no longer needs to say Kiddush. However, the Ben Ish Chai rejects such an argument because some commentators limit the Magan Avraham to a case where one doesn't have wine or one specifically had Kavana in davening to fulfill one's obligation. Therefore, the Ben Ish Chai rules that one can still make Kiddish during Ben HaShemashot with a Bracha because of the rule Safek Deorittah LeChumra just like if there's a doubt concerning Birkat HaMazon. Halichot Olam (vol 3, pg 25-7) agrees. However, the Mishna Brurah 271:39 (Shaar Hatziyun 47) rules that if one did say Tefillot Shabbat and it's Ben HaShemashot, one should make the bracha without Shem UMalchut. See Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com.
- Tur 271:12 quotes Rav Amram Goan (Siddur vol 2, Siman 17) who wrote that one should make Kiddish on wine and then wash for bread, however, if one washed first one should make Kiddish on bread in accordance with Rav Bruna in Pesachim 106b. Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:9-10) and the Ran in explaining the Rif (22a) concur. The Maharam MeRotenburg's (quoted by the Tur 271:12) practice was to make Kiddush before washing. S"A 271:12 rules that one should make Kiddush and then wash, however, if one washed first one should make Kiddush on the bread.
- Kaf HaChaim 271:76 adds that the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot 71c) agrees because the order should be kept as Kiddish being the completion of prayer and washing as the start of the meal. Gra 271:12, Maamer Mordechai 271:16, and Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 273) concur with S"A. Therefore, Sephardim shouldn't change from the ruling of S"A even Bedieved. However, the Kaf HaChaim 271:77 argues that Bedieved one should say Kiddish on wine because one has what to rely on.
- However, the Rashbam (Pesachim 106b), and Baal HaMoar (Pesachim 21b s.v. Amar Rav Bruna) explain the gemara differently than the Ran and say that lechatchila one should make Kiddish first, however if one doesn't one can still make Kiddish on wine. Rabbenu Tam (Pesachim 106b s.v. Mekadesh) and the Ri (Pesachim 106b s.v. Zimnin) hold that even Lechatchila one should wash before making Kiddish on wine. Hagahot Maimon 29:100, Sh"t Rashba 1:752, Rokeach (115), and Mordechai (Pesachim 106b; pg 37c) side with Rabbenu Tam and Ri. Such was the minhag of the Rosh (quoted by Tur 271:12) and the minhag of Ashkenaz as writes the Rama 271:12. The Taz 271:14 and Chaye Adam (Shabbat 6:12) rule that the Rama is only bedieved. Therefore, Mishna Brurah 271:62 writes that since many achronim side with Shulchan Aruch and one satisfies all opinions one should make Kiddish first, however Bedieved one can rely on the Rama to make Kiddish on wine if one did in fact wash first. Kaf HaChaim 271:77 adds in the name of the Bach that if one didn't make the bracha on Netilat yadayim one should make Kiddish on wine and then rewash so that one doesn't loose the Kiddish over wine.
- See previous note. Rama 271:12 writes that such was the minhag of Ashkenaz to wash before Kiddish. The Bet Yosef 271:12 comments that he saw some Sephardim who had such a practice but sternly disagreed based on the Rif and Rambam.
- Magan Avraham 271:26 in name of Hagahot Mordechai (it seems that he means Mordechai pg 37b), Bach 271:11 (s.v. VeleInyan) distinguish between the one making Kiddish and the other members of the family for whom Kiddish won't be an interruption. Kaf HaChaim 271:79 argues that there's no difference between the one making Kiddish and the other family members.
- Magan Avraham 271:27 writes that even according to Rabbenu Tam (Pesachim 106 s.v. Mekadesh) that Lechatchila one can wash before Kiddish, explains that Bet Hillel (Brachot) says to make Kiddish first in the case where one has to dilute the wine becasue diluting wine takes precision and is definitely an interruption. Magan Avraham adds that according to the stringent opinion in S"A 166:1 (which is the Tur based on the Yerushalmi) one should be strict not to make any interruption. The Magan Avraham is brought as halacha by the Tosfet Shabbat 271:34 and Kaf HaChaim 271:78.
- S"A 271:12
- Menuchat Ahava (vol 1 pg 143) see dailyhalacha
- Mishna Brurah 271:62
- Shmuel in Gemara Pesachim 101a says that one should only say Kiddush in the place where one is going to have a meal. The Rosh (Pesachim 10:5) says that this is based on the pasuk "VeKarata LeShabbat Oneg" which Chazal explain with "Kriyah" as a reference to Kiddush and "Oneg" to the meal and so the pasuk means, in the place of Oneg one should have Kriyah. S"A 273:4 and Kitzur S"A 77:14 codify this as the halacha.
- Kitzur S"A 77:14
- Preferably, Rama 273:3 writes that one should make one's meal immediately after Kiddish. Mishna Brurah 273:12 explains that preferably, one should eat one's meal right after Kiddish without waiting. However, Bedieved, Mishna Brurah 273:12 and Piskei Teshuvot 273:3 based on Aruch HaShulchan 263:1 write that one shouldn't make a new Kiddish even if one had a long break or made a change in place and returned to the place of the Kiddish. On the other hand, if one didn't have in mind to eat immediately and then made an interruption, Mishna Brurah 273:14 writes that a new Kiddush is needed. Halichot Olam (vol 3, pg 3) defines this interruption as 72 minutes.
- S"A 173:5 writes in name of the Geonim that one can fulfill the obligation to eat in the place of where one makes Kiddish by eating bread or wine. Magan Avraham 173:10 and Mishna Brurah 173:21 rule that a Kezayit is needed to fulfill this obligation. Mishna Brurah 173:25 comments that certainly mezonot fulfills the obligation as it's more significant than wine. Mishna Brurah 173:25 writes in name of Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger and Tosefet Shabbat that wine doesn't fulfill one's obligation according to many and so one should only rely on this in cases of need. Piskei Teshuvot writes that it seems that there's a dispute between the Magan Avraham 173:11 and the Shaarei Teshuva 289:1 whether one can fulfill one's fulfill with mezonot that's not Pat HaBah Bekisnin. The Mishna Brurah 173:25 holds like the Magan Avraham and one can fulfill one's obligation by having any mezonot. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchato 52:24, Sh"t Az Nidabru 8:31, Kiddush KeHilchato (pg 195), Sh"t Or Letzion (vol 2, 20:28), and Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 196; Halichot Olam (Vol 3, pg 1)) agree.
- On Berachot 20b, Rava says that women are obligated in Kiddish on a Deoritta level because the torah compares the positive and negative commandments of Shabbat by swiching the terms "Zachor" and "Shamor" implying that anyone who is obligated in the negative commands is also obligated in the positive ones. S"A 271:2 and Kitzur S"A 77:4 codify this as the halacha. A woman's obligation applies both at night (Mishna Berura 271:3) and during the day (Mishna Berura 289:6). Maharam Chalava pesachim 106a "bayom mai" disagrees and says that women aren't obligated during the day
- Since women are obligated in Kiddish on a biblical level, they can definitely make Kiddish for themselves. Additionally since a man is obligated, a women can fulfill her obligation with the man's Kiddish as they both have a Deorittah obligation. According the Magan Avraham that one fulfills the Deorittah obligation in prayer, if a man and women have both already prayed, they can fulfill each other's obligation since they have equal obligations. However, if the man prayed and the women didn't, then the man is obligated on a Rabbinical level and the women is obligated on a Biblical level. If so, Rav Yechezkel Landau in Dagul Mirvavah 271:2 asks, whether the women can't fulfill her obligation with the man's reading, or perhaps she can because nonetheless, men are able to fulfill the obligation of others using Arevim Zeh LaZeh (the side is also not definite because the Rosh (Brachot 3:13 last line) writes that women aren't included in Arevim). He leaves it unanswered and the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:4 writes that it's preferable that women say the kiddish along with the one making Kiddish so that they are fulfilling their own obligation. However, the Sh"t Rabbi Akiva Eiger 1:7 argues that certainly women are included in Arevim Zeh LaZeh (and explains that the Rosh was talking about mitzvot that women are exempt from) and so a man with a Derabbanan obligation can fulfill a woman's obligation even if she is has a Deorittah obligation. Aruch HaShulchan 271:6 and Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat vol 2 pg 24) concur.
- S"A 271:2 writes that since women are obligated in Kiddish on a Deorittah level, they can fulfill the obligation of a man who also has such an obligation. Even though the Maharshal and Bach argue with this, the Taz, Magan Araham, Gra, Mishna Brurah 271:4 all agree with Shulchan Aruch that a women can fulfill the obligation of a man. Nonetheless, Eliyah Rabbah, Derech Chaim, and Mishna Brurah 271:4 write that it's preferable that a women not fulfill the obligation of men not in her family because it's not entirely appropriate.
- Sources that one should sit: Tosfot 43a writes that to be included in Kiddish one should sit. [Additionally, from the discussion of the Rambam (Hilchot Succah 6:12) writes that one the first night of Sukkot one should say the Kiddish standing so that one can make the bracha of LeShev BaSukkah before sitting down, implying that during the rest of the year one should say Kiddish sitting.]
- (2) Reasons one should sit: Mishna Brurah 271:46 brings the reason of the Kol Bo that one should sit as a part of Kiddish BeMakom Sueda making Kiddish in the place one will eat, and the reason of the Gra that because sitting represents an established setting and one is able to fulfill the obligation of others only is such a setting. Mishna Brurah extrapolates from the Gra's reasoning that even those who listen should preferably sit, and if they are not only standing but even moving here and there during Kiddish one certainly doesn't fulfill his/her obligation. Chaye Adam (Shabbat 6:13) writes that it's preferable to sit during Kiddish so one can see the cup (like the Rama writes 271:10 that one should look at the cup) and one's family as one makes Kiddish.
- (3) Practices: Therefore, S"A 271:10 rules that one should stand for Vayichulu implying that one should sit for the rest of Kiddish. However, Arizal (quoted by Aruch HaShulchan 271:21) held one should stand for Kiddish out of respect for the Shabbat queen (similar to the reason Ashkenazim stand for Havdalah, see Mishna Brurah 296:27). Lastly, Rama 271:10 writes that one is permitted to stand for the entire Kiddish, but it's preferable to sit for Kiddish. Sh"t Igrot Moshe 5:16 writes that even the Rama only writes that it's permissible to stand for Kiddish but preferably one should sit, and so if one doesn't have a custom one should follow the S"A.
- S"A 271:10 rules that one should stand for Vayichulu. Mishna Brurah 271:45 explains that the one should stand for Vayichulu because it acts as a testimony which in court would require one to stand. Rama 271:10 writes that the Minhag was to sit for Vayichulu except for the beginning of Vayichulu (during the words of Yom HaShishi Vayichulu HaShamayim because the first letter of those words spell Hashem's name). Mishna Brurah 271:47 explains that one can sit for Vayichulu because once one stood while it's said in Shul it can be said seated during Kiddish. Nonetheless, Mishna Brurah 268:19 writes that the minhag is like S"A to stand for Vayichulu. See further Rabbi Lebowitz's article on [download.yutorah.org/2009/1109/735392.pdf yutorah.org].
- Rav Moshe Shternbuch (Teshuvot V’hanhagot #254) writes that even those who stand for Friday night Kiddush should sit for Shabbat day Kiddish because the reason of standing for Vayichulu and continuing doesn't apply as there is no Vayichulu, nor is there a Shabbat queen to greet.
- Sh"t Igrot Moshe 5:16 writes that the only reason to stand the entire Kiddish on Shabbat is because once one is standing for Vayichulu one can continue standing for the rest of the Kiddish, however since there's no Vayichulu on Yom Tov one must sit according to all opinions.
- Aruch HaShulchan 271:24, Nitei Gavriel (Yom Tov vol 2, 29:18
- S"A 272:9 writes that some say one should say kiddush on chamar medina, some say not to say kiddush at all, and some who say that bread should be used for kiddush because of its importance. Rama 279:2 comments that the minhag is like the last opinion. Kaf HaChayim 272:50 and Yalkut Yosef 272:16 write that Shulchan Aruch holds like the last opinion. Mishnah Berura 272:28 says to put your hands on the challah. Rav Avigdor Neventzahl in his commentary on Mishna Brurah (Biyitzchak Yikare 272:28) says that one should actually hold the challah.
- S"A 289:2, Mishna Brurah 289:10. The logic behind not using bread for kiddish during the day is explained by Mishna Brurah 272:31 that if one were to recite the daytime kiddish over bread, it would be the same procedure as if he wasn't saying kiddush at all. Therefore, to make it apparent that we are saying kiddish also, we say a beracha that wouldn't normally be recited, even if that is a shehakol. As for the definition of chamar medina Mishnah Berura 272:24 says that even beer is only permitted in a place where it is a common drink. Mishna Brurah 272:25 prohibits the use of milk or oil, and Mishna Brurah 272:30 permits the use of liquor. Rav Avigdor Neventzahl in Biyitzchak Yikare footnote 25 says that according to Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach milk is not allowed even in places where it is commonly used like Switzerland. He also says that juice, tea, or coffee maybe permitted but soda is definitely not because it is just like water. Rav Moshe Feinstein in Iggerot Moshe OC 2:75 defines chamar medina as something you would serve to guests who you want to show respect to. Also see Shevet Halevi 3:26 and 5:32 where Rav Vosner says even where you have wine, chamar medina can be used because in the times of the gemara, wine was far more widespread. Today however, most people do not drink wine so often so other drinks are not inferior to wine for kiddish.
- Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 1, pg 289)
- Mishna Brurah 272:29
- Sh"t Igrot Moshe 2:75 rules that soda is just like water and can not be used for Kiddish.