Difference between revisions of "Birchot HaShachar"

From Halachipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 32: Line 32:
 
# Ideally, one should say elokai neshama in connection with asher yatzar or any other beracha that begins with the words baruch. <ref> Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 21; Ben Ish Hai, Vayeshev, Halacha 1; Kaf HaChaim 46:4 </ref>  
 
# Ideally, one should say elokai neshama in connection with asher yatzar or any other beracha that begins with the words baruch. <ref> Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 21; Ben Ish Hai, Vayeshev, Halacha 1; Kaf HaChaim 46:4 </ref>  
 
==What is The Nature of Birkat HaShachar?==
 
==What is The Nature of Birkat HaShachar?==
<p style:"text-indent:2em">There is a famous discussion about Birkchot HaShachar based off the Gemara [[Brachot]] 60b. The Gemara says that when you hear a rooster, you should recite the Bracha of Leshechvi Binah, when you open your eyes, you say Poke'ach Ivriyim, when you sit up you say [[Matir]] Asurim, etc. The Gemara explains that each Bracha corresponds to a specific action or occurrence in the morning routine. The question becomes whether you only say these [[brachot]] if the corresponding situation relates to you or are they general [[brachot]] that everyone should say.</p>
+
<p style="text-indent: 2em">There is a famous discussion about Birkchot HaShachar based off the Gemara [[Brachot]] 60b. The Gemara says that when you hear a rooster, you should recite the Bracha of Leshechvi Binah, when you open your eyes, you say Poke'ach Ivriyim, when you sit up you say [[Matir]] Asurim, etc. The Gemara explains that each Bracha corresponds to a specific action or occurrence in the morning routine. The question becomes whether you only say these [[brachot]] if the corresponding situation relates to you or are they general [[brachot]] that everyone should say.</p>
<p style:"text-indent:2em">The Rambam (Hilchot [[Tefillah]] 7:7-9) says that they are subjective and should only be said if the corresponding occurrence is relevant to you. He notes, however,  that the minhag was to say the [[brachot]] in shul even if one wasn't obligated in a specific bracha, such as if one didn't hear the rooster that morning. The Ramban Pesachim, on the other hand, argues that Birkot HaShachar is objective and is meant to be a praise for the regular nature of the world. Therefore, everyone should say all of the [[Brachot]] even if you didn't benefit from that which a particular bracha relates to. </p>
+
<p style:"text-indent: 2em">The Rambam (Hilchot [[Tefillah]] 7:7-9) says that they are subjective and should only be said if the corresponding occurrence is relevant to you. He notes, however,  that the minhag was to say the [[brachot]] in shul even if one wasn't obligated in a specific bracha, such as if one didn't hear the rooster that morning. The Ramban Pesachim 7b s.v. VeHa, on the other hand, argues that Birkot HaShachar is objective and is meant to be a praise for the regular nature of the world. Therefore, everyone should say all of the [[Brachot]] even if one didn't benefit from the occurrences that the [[brachot]] relate to. </p>
<p style:"text-indent:2em">The Shulchan Aruch<ref>S"A 46:8</ref> rules like the Rambam, while the Rama accepts the opinion of the Ramban. Interestingly, the minhag of Sephardim follows the Rama.<ref>Yabia Omer 2:25:13</ref></p>
+
<p style:"text-indent: 2em">The Shulchan Aruch<ref>S"A 46:8</ref> rules like the Rambam, while the Rama accepts the opinion of the Ramban. Interestingly, the minhag of Sephardim follows the Rama.<ref>Yabia Omer 2:25:13</ref>The Magen Avraham 46:14 ponders whether a blind person could recite Poke'ach Ivrim or a deaf person recite HaNoten LaSechvi. He concludes<ref>Following the girsa of Rabbi Akiva Eiger and Pri Megadim</ref> that a blind person may recite Poke'ach Ivrim since he benefits from people who can see and guide him; a deaf person, though may not recite HaNoten LaSechvi. Considering that the Magen Avraham is following the Rama, why wouldn't a deaf person be able to recite the bracha which is meant to be a praise for the nature of the world?<ref>Indeed, the Pri Chadash 46:8 takes for granted that a deaf person could recite HaNoten LeSechvi according to the Rama. This is also the ruling of the Derech HaChaim 6:2 and Mishna Brurah 46:25, though he also cites a dissenting opinion. </ref> Its possible to suggest that the Magen Avraham understood that even if the Birkot HaShachar are praise to Hashem for the nature of the world, it can only be said by a person who could have potentially experienced that benefit and is at least minimally relevant to the occurrence for which the bracha was established.<ref>This logic is drawn out from the language of the Hagahot Maimoniyot cited by the Magen Avraham.</ref> </p>
 
==Text==
 
==Text==
 
# For Hebrew text of Birchot Haschachar [http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=6756&st=&pgnum=51 click here] and continue to go to the next page or [http://he.wikisource.org/wiki/%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%93%D7%95%D7%A8_%D7%AA%D7%95%D7%A8%D7%94_%D7%90%D7%95%D7%A8%5C%D7%91%D7%A8%D7%9B%D7%95%D7%AA_%D7%94%D7%A9%D7%97%D7%A8 click here].
 
# For Hebrew text of Birchot Haschachar [http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=6756&st=&pgnum=51 click here] and continue to go to the next page or [http://he.wikisource.org/wiki/%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%93%D7%95%D7%A8_%D7%AA%D7%95%D7%A8%D7%94_%D7%90%D7%95%D7%A8%5C%D7%91%D7%A8%D7%9B%D7%95%D7%AA_%D7%94%D7%A9%D7%97%D7%A8 click here].

Revision as of 03:55, 22 October 2013

When to say these Brachot

  1. Originally, Chazal instituted that every Bracha of Birkot HaShachar be said when a person gets the particular enjoyment that relates to that Bracha, however, nowadays, the minhag is to make all the Brachot together when one gets to Shul. [1]
  2. The earliest time to say Birchot HaShachar is from Chatzot (midnight). [2]
  3. If one woke up before Olot HaShachar even if one will go to sleep afterwards, one should make Brachot HaShachar except for Elokei Nishama and HaMaavir Shenah which should be said without Shem UMalchut. In the morning, one should make Elokei Netsor and HaMaavir Shenah with Shem UMalchut. [3] However, if one slept the day before some say one may make the Bracha oneself. [4]
  4. According to some poskim, the beracha "Sheasa Li Kol Tzorki" should not be recited on Yom Kippur and Tisha BeAv. [5] Others disagree. [6]

How to make the Brachot

  1. One may say Brachot HaShachar while standing or sitting. [7]
  2. Some say that one shouldn't say Birchot HaShachar while walking or doing any other task such as getting dressed. [8]

Order of Berachot

  1. Some poskim say that if you mistakenly say zokef kfufim before matir asurim that you should not go back and say matir asurim. [9]
  2. If one switched the order of the berachot of shelo asani goy, shelo asani aved, and shelo asani isha he can still recite all three. [10]

Who is obligated in these Brachot?

  1. Even though the Brachot were instituted for particular action or enjoyment, even if one doesn’t do that action or get that enjoyment the Brachot are still made, for example, one should make HaNoten LiSichvei Binah even if one didn’t hear the rooster crow, or a blind person can make the Bracha of Pokeach Ivrim. [11]
  2. Women make birkot hashachar except that instead of shelo asani isha they say sheasani kiritzono without reciting Hashem's name. Instead of shelo asani aved, they say shelo asani shifcha and instead of shelo asani goy they say shelo asani goya. [12]
  3. If a blind person wants he can recite pokeach ivrim but if he asks, we tell him not to recite it because safek berachot lihakel. [13]
  4. A convert cannot recite shelo asani goy but if he wants he can recite it without Hashem's name. [14]

If one didn’t sleep

  1. Even if didn’t sleep at all at night, Ashkenazim may make all the Brachot HaShachar oneself except for Elokei Nishama, HaMaavir Sheynah, and Brachot HaTorah which one should hear from someone who did sleep. [15]Sephardim may make all the Brachot HaShachar (including Brachot HaTorah) except for Netilat Yadayim (and Asher Yatzer which he could make himself if he goes to the bathroom). [16]

If one forgot to say Brachot HaShachar

  1. If one forgot to say Brachot HaShachar and remembered in middle of Pesukei DeZimrah one should say it between the paragraphs in Pesukei DeZimrah. [17]
  2. If one forgot to say Brachot HaShachar and only remembered in Brachot Kriyat Shema one shouldn’t interrupt to say the Brachot but rather have intent not to fulfill one’s obligation of Elokei Nishama with the Bracha of Mechaya Meytim. [18]
  3. If one forgot to say Brachot HaShachar before Davening one may say all the brachot afterwards except for Elokei Nishama which some say was fulfilled with the Bracha of Mechaye Maytim. [19]

If one forgot to say Brachot HaTorah

  1. If one forgot to say Brachot HaTorah and remembered in middle of Pesukei DeZimrah one should say it between the paragraphs in Pesukei DeZimrah. [20]
  2. If one forgot to say Brachot HaTorah and only remembered in Brachot Kriyat Shema one shouldn’t interrupt to say the Brachot but rather have intent to fulfill one’s obligation of Brachot HaTorah with Ahavat Olam and then learn a little right after davening. [21]
  3. If one forgot to say Brachot HaTorah before Davening and only remembered afterwards and didn’t learn right after davening, one shouldn’t say Brachot HaTorah because there’s of a doubt in the poskim if one fulfilled one’s obligation. [22]

When to say Birchot HaTorah

  1. One should say Birchot HaTorah prior to saying any pesukim as tefillah. [23]

Elokai Neshama

  1. One should pause between the words elokai and neshama so as not to give the impression that the neshama is his G-d. [24]
  2. Ideally, one should say elokai neshama in connection with asher yatzar or any other beracha that begins with the words baruch. [25]

What is The Nature of Birkat HaShachar?

There is a famous discussion about Birkchot HaShachar based off the Gemara Brachot 60b. The Gemara says that when you hear a rooster, you should recite the Bracha of Leshechvi Binah, when you open your eyes, you say Poke'ach Ivriyim, when you sit up you say Matir Asurim, etc. The Gemara explains that each Bracha corresponds to a specific action or occurrence in the morning routine. The question becomes whether you only say these brachot if the corresponding situation relates to you or are they general brachot that everyone should say.

The Rambam (Hilchot Tefillah 7:7-9) says that they are subjective and should only be said if the corresponding occurrence is relevant to you. He notes, however, that the minhag was to say the brachot in shul even if one wasn't obligated in a specific bracha, such as if one didn't hear the rooster that morning. The Ramban Pesachim 7b s.v. VeHa, on the other hand, argues that Birkot HaShachar is objective and is meant to be a praise for the regular nature of the world. Therefore, everyone should say all of the Brachot even if one didn't benefit from the occurrences that the brachot relate to.

The Shulchan Aruch[26] rules like the Rambam, while the Rama accepts the opinion of the Ramban. Interestingly, the minhag of Sephardim follows the Rama.[27]The Magen Avraham 46:14 ponders whether a blind person could recite Poke'ach Ivrim or a deaf person recite HaNoten LaSechvi. He concludes[28] that a blind person may recite Poke'ach Ivrim since he benefits from people who can see and guide him; a deaf person, though may not recite HaNoten LaSechvi. Considering that the Magen Avraham is following the Rama, why wouldn't a deaf person be able to recite the bracha which is meant to be a praise for the nature of the world?[29] Its possible to suggest that the Magen Avraham understood that even if the Birkot HaShachar are praise to Hashem for the nature of the world, it can only be said by a person who could have potentially experienced that benefit and is at least minimally relevant to the occurrence for which the bracha was established.[30]

Text

  1. For Hebrew text of Birchot Haschachar click here and continue to go to the next page or click here.

Sources

  1. S”A 6:2 and 46:2. The source for the Brachot of Shelo Asani Goy, Shelo Asani Isha, and Shelo Asani Eved is the Gemara Menachot 43b, which is codified by the S"A 46:4.
  2. Magan Avraham 47:13, Kaf HaChaim 46:49, Or Letzion (vol 2, 4:9)
  3. Mishna Brurah 47:30
  4. Piskei Teshuvot 494:7
  5. Ben Ish Hai, Vayeshev, 9; Kaf Hachaim 46:17
  6. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 320), Mishna Berura 554:31, {http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=951 Rabbi Eli Mansour}
  7. Yalkut Yosef (Birchat HaShachar pg 23)
  8. Kaf HaChaim (Rav Chaim Palagi 9:7)
  9. Yalkut Yosef Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 4 since safek berachot lihakel.
  10. Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 10
  11. Rama 46:8, Mishna Brurah 46:25, Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 11.
  12. Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 26.
  13. Yalkut Yosef Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 27.
  14. Yalkut Yosef Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 31.
  15. Rama 46:8, Mishna Brurah 46:24
  16. Kaf HaChaim 46:49, Sh"t Yabia Omer 5:6, Tefillah KeHilchata (chap 9 note 159) quoting Chacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul, Yalkut Yosef Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 13
  17. Ishei Yisrael 5:27
  18. Mishna Brurah 52:9
  19. Kaf HaChaim 46:9, Mishna Brurah 52:9
  20. Mishna Brurah 51:10
  21. Mishna Brurah 52:9
  22. S”A 47:8
  23. S”A 46:9, Mishna Brurah 46:27
  24. Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 1; Ben Ish Hai, Vayeshev, Halacha 2; Kaf HaChaim 6:5
  25. Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Birkot Hashachar, Birkot Hatorah and Psukei Dizimra 5764 page 21; Ben Ish Hai, Vayeshev, Halacha 1; Kaf HaChaim 46:4
  26. S"A 46:8
  27. Yabia Omer 2:25:13
  28. Following the girsa of Rabbi Akiva Eiger and Pri Megadim
  29. Indeed, the Pri Chadash 46:8 takes for granted that a deaf person could recite HaNoten LeSechvi according to the Rama. This is also the ruling of the Derech HaChaim 6:2 and Mishna Brurah 46:25, though he also cites a dissenting opinion.
  30. This logic is drawn out from the language of the Hagahot Maimoniyot cited by the Magen Avraham.