Bosis

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What is a Bosis?

Intention to Leave It

  1. An object upon which Muktzeh was left intentionally from before Shabbat and one intended that it stay there as Shabbat entered (during Bein HaShemashot), the object becomes a Bosis. [1]
  2. If muktzeh was placed on an object for part of Shabbat but was going to be removed before the end of Shabbat that object is a bosis.[2] Some Ashkenazim hold that it isn't a bosis unless one intended to leave it there for all of Shabbat.[3]

Unintentional

  1. If money or any other muktzeh item was left unintentionally on a table, one may learn on the table on Shabbat if it isn’t certain that learning there will cause the money to move. [4]
  2. If one realizes that he left money in his pocket on Shabbat, one may shake out the money and then wear the clothing. However, if one already is wearing the clothing, he may continue wearing it until he reaches a place where he can shake out the money. [5]

Permission of Owner

  1. If someone places an item on someone else's non-muktzeh item it doesn't make it a bosis unless he had permission to do so.[6]

Servicing the Non-Muktzeh

  1. If muktzeh is on top of something that isn’t muktzeh and the non-muktzeh is servicing the muktzeh the non-muktzeh doesn’t become a bosis.[7]

Rules of Bosis

  1. One may not move a Bosis on Shabbat even if one needs its place or to use it for a permitted use. [8]

Applications

Freezer Door

  1. If raw meat or another muktzeh item was left on the door of one’s freezer, the door does not become a bosis. [9]
    1. You should remove all muktzeh from the freezer door before Shabbat.[10] Others disagree.[11]

Baskets and Purses

  1. A basket of fruit with a rock in it shouldn’t be moved without shaking out the rock or at least spilling out everything and returning the fruit without the rock. However, if spilling/shaking out the basket will ruin the fruit one may move the basket as a whole. [12]
  2. A purse which is made to hold money if there’s no money inside is considered a Kli Sh’Melachto LeIssur and so if there’s a key inside one may open it to take out the key. [13]

Drawers

  1. If someone leaves items in a drawer with a muktzeh item on top of a permitted item, some say that the permitted item on bottom isn't muktzeh, while some disagree.[14] Ashkenazim can be lenient in a case of need,[15] Sephardim should be strict.[16]
  2. Regarding muktzeh food on top of non-muktzeh food in a freezer drawer, some say that food isn't a bosis.[17]
  3. If you have muktzeh on the table the drawers do not become a bosis.[18]
  4. It is permitted to use a dustpan to collect the dirt after sweeping.[19]

Key Chain

  1. A key chain with muktzeh items on it is considered a bosis. If the permitted keys are more important it isn't a bosis.[20]
  2. Some say to avoid this situation by removing the muktzeh keys from the key chain beforehand.[21] Others think it isn't necessary.[22]

Bosis for Muktzeh and Non-Muktzeh

  1. If someone placed candlesticks and challah on his tablecloth the tablecloth is a bosis for both muktzeh and non-muktzeh. If one planned to put down challah before Shabbat and forgot there is a discussion whether the tablecloth is a bosis for both muktzeh and non-muktzeh or just muktzeh.[23]
  2. Something that is a bosis for something permitted and something forbidden if the permitted item is more important it isn't a bosis. If the muktzeh is more important it is a bosis.[24] If it is equal in value many poskim hold that it is a bosis.[25]

Mid-Shabbat Bosis

  1. Is it possible to create a bosis in the middle of Shabbat? According to the majority of rishonim if muktzeh is intentionally placed upon a non-muktzeh item on Shabbat the non-muktzeh item becomes a bosis such that even tilting off the muktzeh is forbidden.[26] The halacha is accordance with this opinion.[27] A minority opinion holds that a mid-Shabbat bosis isn't a bosis and the muktzeh can be tilted off.[28]
  2. If muktzeh was placed on non-muktzeh on Shabbat does it make the non-muktzeh a bosis if one had intention to remove it before the end of Shabbat? Most rishonim hold that one can tilt off the muktzeh if one had intention to remove it before the end of Shabbat.[29] Some are strict to forbid tilting a bosis created mid-Shabbat even with intention to remove the muktzeh before the end of Shabbat.[30]
  3. Some say that if one needs to move this mid-Shabbat bosis one can place upon it something non-muktzeh that is more valuable than the muktzeh item and then it'll be permitted to tilt the bosis or if tilting isn't feasible one can bring it to a place where it is.[31]

A Bosis with both Muktzeh and Non-Muktzeh

  1. A vessel which has on it both a muktzeh item and a non-muktzeh item is non-muktzeh if the non-muktzeh item is more impotant than the muktzeh item, however, if the muktzeh item is more important, then the vessel is muktzeh. [32] If they are both equal some poskim hold that it isn't a bosis.[33]
  2. What is considered more important depends on the owner. [34]
  3. Generally the more valuable item is the one which is considered more important. However, many opinions hold that if an non-muktzah object is needed for that Shabbat it is considered more important. [35]

Sources

  1. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 89:1
  2. Rashba Shabbat 51a s.v. ha, Rashi
  3. Baal Hameor Shabbat 23b s.v. vha, Tosfot 51a s.v. oh, 123a s.v. paga, Tosfot Beitzah 2a s.v. ubet citing Rabbenu Tam.
    • Rashba 51a asks how the Baal Hameor could say that it isn't a bosis if one intends to remove it on Shabbat since every candle is like that since it is going to go out. The Rashba beitzah 2a s.v. ubet answers for the Baal Hameor that since one couldn't extinguish it during Ben Hashemashot it is a bosis even if one knew it wouldn't be a bosis for all of Shabbat. Alternatively, a candle is muktzeh machmat isur and not a bosis. See Shaarei Muktzeh p. 291 for explaining the Rashba.
  4. The Mishnah (Shabbat 142b) states that if one wants to move a barrel on Shabbat and a rock was left on top of the barrel from before Shabbat, he may tilt the barrel so that the rock falls off and then move the barrel. The Gemara limits this to a case in which the rock was left unintentionally; however, if the rock was left on top of the barrel intentionally, one may not move the barrel at all, as it is considered a bosis for muktzeh, serving as a support of the muktzeh item. The Mishnah explains if one isn’t able to tilt off the rock, such as if there’s a fear of it breaking other barrels nearby when it is tilting off, one may move the barrel with the rock on top until one reaches a places where one can safely remove the rock. The Rambam (Shabbat 25:17), Tur, and Shulchan Aruch O.C. 309:4 codify this as Halacha.
    • The Maharil (Shabbat n. 28) writes that one may learn on a table on which money was left because it isn’t a psik reisha that the coins will move. Olat Shabbat 309:2, Ba’eir Heiteiv 309:3, and Kaf HaChaim 309:11 codify this statement. Migdanot Eliyahu 2:69 infers that the case is where the coins didn’t make the table a bosis; otherwise, the Maharil should have been concerned with moving the table and not just the coins. Accordingly, Mishna Brurah (309:15 and Shaar HaTziyun 309:19) explains that had it been a psik reisha that one will move the coins, he would have to tilt off the money unless tilting it off would cause a loss (as in S”A 309:4). Additionally, he adds that the Maharil assumes that a psik reisha of a d’rabanan prohibition is forbidden, unlike the Trumat HaDeshen (see Magen Avraham 314:5).
  5. The Beit Yosef 309:5 writes that if one forgets money in a pocket which is sewn onto the clothing at the top of the pocket and not along its entire side, the clothing does not become a bosis, as the money isn’t on top of the primary part of the clothing. Nonetheless, adds the Beit Yosef, it is forbidden to wear the clothing because of a prohibition that one may carry it on Shabbat. Rama 310:8 agrees.
    • Magen Avraham 310:7 elaborates that regarding a pocket which is sewn only at its top to the clothing, one does not even have to shake out the money before moving it, since it was left there unintentionally and the money is not on the primary part of the clothing. If the pocket was sewn along the entire length onto the clothing, however, the money would need to be shaken out. Mishna Brurah 310:29 writes that if the money was left there intentionally, one shouldn’t put his hands in the pocket because the pocket itself certainly is a bosis. Rabbi Yisrael Bodner (Tiltulei Shabbat p. 94) writes that the common pants pockets are sewn only at the top of the pocket, whereas shirt pockets are sewn along their entire length. He notes that in either case, if one wants to wear the clothing he must shake out the money.
    • Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 20:75 writes that if one realizes that one forgot money in his pocket only after he already is wearing the clothing and would be embarrassed to remove the clothing in order to shake out the muktzeh, he may continue to wear the clothing until he reaches a place where he can shake out the muktzeh.
    • The Chayei Adam 67:10 writes that if only a few insignificant coins were left in the pocket, they are nullified to the clothing because a person wouldn’t nullify the use of his clothing because of a few coins. Mishna Brurah 310:31 agrees.
  6. Tosfot 44b s.v. yesh, Shitah LRan 44b s.v. lo yichda, Ritva 44b s.v. lo yichda. The Ritva explains that if someone places a muktzeh on top of non-muktzeh it doesn’t become a bosis because it is considered like it was forgotten there.
  7. Meiri Shabbat 123a s.v. gedolei explains that when the muktzeh isn’t servicing the muktzeh the non-muktzeh and furthermore if the muktzeh is servicing the non-muktzeh the non-muktzeh isn’t a bosis. Ran on Rif 23b s.v. vchen and Kol Bo 31 s.v. hatomen agree. Gra 311:26, Magen Avraham 311:23, and Mishna Brurah 311:29 codify this opinion. However, Tosfot Shabbat 123a s.v. paga answers these questions differently; he writes that it isn’t a bosis if you plan to remove it before Shabbat. Baal Hameor 23b s.v. vha agrees.
  8. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 89:1
  9. The Gemara (Shabbat 120b) records the opinion of Rav, who forbade opening or closing a door with an oil candle built in. Tosfot (s.v. Pote’ach) explain that when the door is moved, the oil in the candle is distanced or brought closer to the wick, thereby violating Mechabeh or Mav’ir. Tosfot ask why the Gemara didn’t forbid it because the door is bosis. Their first answer is that the door can’t become a bosis, as it is nullified to the house and not to the candle. Mordechai (Siman 400) agrees.
    • Although the Bei’ur Halacha s.v. Af notes that the Yerushalmi considers the door a bosis unless the candle was left there unintentionally, he suggests that the Yerushalmi is in disagreement with the Bavli. Mishna Brurah 277:4 and Kaf HaChaim 227:11 quote the Mordechai as halacha. Thus, Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 20:77 writes that if muktzeh is left hanging on a house or cabinet door, the door does not become a bosis. Rabbi Hershel Schachter (Halachipedia Article 5773 #22) said that the same would apply to frozen raw meat or other muktzeh items on the door of his freezer, and the door does not become a bosis.
  10. Birurei Chaim v. 5 p. 562 citing Rav Elyashiv (Shvut Yitzchak Muktzeh p. 150)
  11. Dirshu 308:9
  12. Shulchan Aruch 309:3, Mishna Brurah 309:10
  13. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 20:16
  14. Trumat Hadeshen Pesakim 193 writes that some wanted to permit something that was left haphazardly on top of something else unless it was left there to rest there securely. He disagrees with that position. Magen Avraham 309:6 accepts the lenient view. Rabbi Akiva Eiger 309:4 rejects one of the proofs of the Magen Avraham.
  15. Mishna Brurah 309:18, Shulchan Aruch Harav 309:9, Orchot Shabbat v. 2 p. 134
  16. Taz 309:1, Chazon Ovadia v. 3 p. 133
  17. Meiri 141b, Ritva 142a, Kol Bo 31 write that food isn't a bosis. Rama 311:8 cites the Kol Bo. Chazon Ovadia v. 3 p. 132 seems to support this approach. The Magen Avraham 311:23 and Gra 311:26 explain that it isn't normal for a food to service muktzeh and serve as a holder of muktzeh. However, Or Same'ach 25:15 explains that food which is usable is never a bosis since I don't intend to put it aside. Taz 311:10 disregards this entire approach.
  18. If the drawers are removable certainly they aren’t a bosis (Birkat Reuven Muktzeh p. 75) since they aren’t a unit with the table (Mishna Brurah 310:31). However, with respect to drawers that aren’t removable, Kesot Hashulchan (Badei Hashulchan 112:20) has a safek about whether you can open the drawer of a table that is a bosis to muktzeh. Machon Lshivtecha 308:8 p. 209 is lenient for the drawers. Birkat Reuven pp. 75-6 writes that he saw the Tehilah Ldovid 310:7 who is lenient and compares it to the Pri Megadim M"Z 310:1 that a tablecloth can be partially a bosis, however, the Levushei Sarad disagrees. Birkat Reuven leaves it unresolved.

    Sweeping

    1. Sweeping is permitted with a broom on a paved floor.<Ref>Mishna Brurah 337:12, Orchot Shabbat v. 2 p. 185, Tiltulei Shabbat p. 268, Shalmei Yehuda 9:5.
    2. Ramban in Milchamot 48b answers that it is like a geref shel reyi. Ritva 124b s.v. im agrees. Ritva says that the rabbis established it as a case of graf shel reyi.
    3. Alternatively, Ramban answers that it is tiltul min hasad for the cleaning of the house. Mishnat Hashabbat p. 261 discusses whether this is the same idea as the Taz 308:10 that using a tool is considered tiltul min hasad.
    4. Chazon Ish 47:21 explains that the dirt on the floor is nullified to the floor and so it isn’t muktzeh. (This could be used to explain the Raavad cited by Rashba 124b s.v. bha.)
    5. However, the Rashba implies it is problematic to sweep, as does Tosfot 95a s.v. vha’idna.
  19. Orchot Shabbat v. 2 p. 185, Shalmei Yehuda 9:5
  20. Rav Shlomo Zalman (cited by Dirshu 308:6; see Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata ch. 20 fnt. 311) explained that unlike a loose leaf where the empty pages in the binder are nullified by the pages with writing, keys on a key chain aren't nullified since each is significant in it of itself. Chazon Ovadia Shabbat v. 3 p. 135 agrees that keys on a key chain are a bosis for the keys and if there's permitted and muktzeh it is permitted.
  21. Meor Hashabbat 4:14 cited by Dirshu 309:8
  22. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Shulchan Shlomo 309:13) and Orchot Shabbat (ch. 19 fnt. 386) cited by Dirshu 309:8
  23. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata ch. 20 fnt. 200 quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach who is lenient if one forgot to put challot on the tablecloth that the tablecloth isn’t considered a bosis lisur rather a bosis for both. Igrot Moshe 4:73 and 3:51 disagrees since if one forgot to put on the challot it is a bosis since only muktzeh was on the bosis.
  24. Shulchan Aruch 310:8
  25. Chazon Ovadia v. 3 p. 130 cites the dispute. Mishna Brurah 310:33 is strict.
    1. Baal Hameor 66b s.v. amar explains that a bosis can't be created mid-Shabbat and you can tilt off the muktzeh. Magen Avraham 308:50 accepts this. Ritva Beitzah 21b s.v. gezerah and Shitah Mikubeset Beitzah 21b s.v. vod citing the Raah imply this as well. Chazon Ish 48:8 claims that this is indeed a minority opinion. Shaarei Muktzeh p. 274 agrees.
      1. Chazon Ish 48:9 proves that everyone agrees if it is a designated place that it creates a bosis. His proof is Beitzah 21b. Ritva Beitzah 21b s.v. gezerah supports this. See however, Shitah Mikubeset Beitzah 21b s.v. vod citing the Raah who has a similar concept.
    2. Tosfot 44b s.v. yesh holds that an item can become a bosis in the middle of Shabbat if it was put there intentionally and then even niyur is forbidden. Ritva 44b s.v. lo yichda and Shitah LRan 44b s.v. lo yichda, 45b s.v. veit agree. Tosfot Beitzah 21b s.v. knuna citing Rabbenu Tam agrees. Shaarei Muktzeh supports this approach from Tosfot 43a s.v. bodan, 44a s.v. dkulei, 51a s.v. oh, 123a s.v. hay, and Beitzah 2a s.v. vbet.
    3. The position of the Ramban, Rashba, Ran, Ritva, and Meiri are that a mid-Shabbat bosis is a bosis that even niyur is forbidden. However, if it was placed with intention to be removed before the end of Shabbat it isn't a bosis and niyur is permitted.
      1. Ramban 143a s.v. vha clarifies that if someone put something in the middle of Shabbat on top of something non-muktzeh the bottom item can't be moved unless the top was only placed there temporarily with intention to remove it through niyur or otherwise. If someone has intention to remove it it isn't a bosis, so niyur is permitted and if you need the place then you can do tiltul min hasad until you reached where you can put it down. This implies that you can create a bosis in the middle of Shabbat. The Rashba 143a s.v. ha, Ritva 143a s.v. mesalek, and Ran 143a s.v. mesalek agree. It isn't clear if you can do niyur on a mid-Shabbat bosis but there is an implication that you can't. Ritva 143a and 44b is very clear even niyur is asur.
      2. Ritva 154b s.v. vha writes that an item isn't a bosis in the middle of Shabbat if the muktzeh was placed on top with intention to be removed and then niyur is permitted.
      3. Ramban 154b s.v. vokimna writes that it is an issue of bitul kli mhechano when a person leaves muktzeh on it on Shabbat even though it is possible to remove it with niyur because you left it with intention to do niyur. Rashba 154b s.v. ha and Ritva s.v. vyesh agree. Ran 154b s.v. bshilfi clearly states that a mid-Shabbat bosis is forbidden in niyur unless the muktzeh was placed with intention of removing it.
      4. Meiri 143a s.v. gariynim and 154b s.v. kvar argues with the Baal Hameor that you can create a bosis in the middle of Shabbat. It isn't clear if he only forbids tiltul min hasad or also niyur. If you didn't leave it there until the end of Shabbat it won't be a bosis.
  26. See Chazon Ish 48:8 and Orchot Shabbat v. 2 pp. 138-9. Magen Avraham 308:50 and 266:14 accepts the Baal Hameor while the Bet Yosef 265:3 does not. Chazon Ish 48:8 writes that the Baal Hameor was rejected. Mishna Brurah 310:26 implies like the Baal Hameor.
  27. Biur Halacha 310:7 s.v. mitah cites the Baal Hameor and says that he would allow tilting the muktzeh off the mid-Shabbat bosis. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 20 fnt. 195 infers that the Biur Halacha thinks that even the Baal Hameor wouldn't allow tiltul min hasad. Shaarei Muktzeh p. 276 supports this approach in the Baal Hameor.
  28. Certainly the Baal Hameor is lenient since a mid-Shabbat bosis is completely permitted. However, even Ramban 154b, Ran 154b, Ritva 154, Rashba 154b, and Meiri 154b agree that one can tilt it off since one didn't plan to leave it until the end of Shabbat.
  29. However, Tosfot 44b s.v. yesh implies that a mid-Shabbat bosis is a bosis even if one had intention to remove it later that Shabbat. Tosfot Beitzah 2a s.v. vbet implies the same if not for Rabbenu Tam's opinion. Rabbi Akiva Eiger 44b is bothered how they explain Gemara 154b. He suggests an answer. Bet Yosef 265:3 similarly holds that a mid-Shabbat bosis is a bosis even if one has intention to remove it later that Shabbat. Maamar Mordechai 265:2 answers Rabbi Akiva Eiger's question for the Bet Yosef. Yalkut Yosef Shabbat v. 1 p. 366 and Netivot Hahalacha 265:1 codify the Bet Yosef and Maamer Mordechai.
  30. Taz 310:8, Mishna Brurah 310:37
  31. The Shulchan Aruch 310:8 writes that an object which has on it both a mutkzah item and a non-Muktzeh item is permissible to move if the non-Muktzeh item is more important (חשוב).
  32. Chazon Ovadia v. 3 p. 131 writes that the Chaye Adam 67:8 holds it is forbidden if both are of equal importance against the Aruch Hashulchan 310:15 who is lenient. He sides with those who are lenient because of the Ran Shabbat 47a and Hagahot Maimoniyot 26:7 who imply it is permitted.
  33. Mishna Brurah 310:33 writes that it only depends on the intent of the owner and not the general convention of most people.
  34. Halachos of Muktzah (by Rabbi Bodner, pg 309, answers of Rav Moshe Feinstein #31, to see it inside click here) writes that if a siddur and money are on a vessel the siddur is considered more important, and so too if one has glasses which one needs immediately and a lot of money, the glasses are more important unless one has other glasses in which case the money is more important. Lastly if a loaf of challah and money are on a vessel the challah is more important since you’re going to need it on Shabbat. This is also the opinion of the Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 20:61 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman that anything which is needed for that Shabbat such as challah or something else of value. [See also Chaye Adam (Shabbat 66:4) and Magen Avraham 279:5 who seem to hold of this.]