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What is a Hargasha
- Chazal learn from the pasuk דם יהיה זובה בבשרה that in order for a woman to become a Niddah on a Biblical level she needs to feel the onset of her flow. That feeling is called a hargasha. There are three major types of feelings (hargashot) that would indicate that her period began and would render her a Niddah.
- Many explain that if a woman felt that her uterus opened that is a hargasha.
- Others explain that if a woman felt some liquid flow from the uterus into the inner part of her vagina that is a hargasha.
- Others explain that if a woman felt a certain shock sensation that caused her to shake that is a hargasha.
- Even if she saw blood and didn't have a hargasha she is a Niddah rabbinically.
- Nowadays most women do not feel any of these conditions. Nonetheless, the poskim assume that women who experience their period are a Niddah on a Biblical level.
- Either way the rules of ketamim do not apply to a bedika cloth or any blood that is certainly from the uterus.
Feelings that are Confused with a Hargasha
- There are certain phenomenon that can cause a sensation similar to a hargasha. Therefore, if a woman was involved in any one of these activities and then saw blood that could have been emitted from her body it could be that she is a Niddah Biblically and that blood is not considered a ketem.
- If a woman urinated
- If a had tashmish
- If a woman did a bedika
- If a woman was involved in one of those activities and states that she is certain that she didn't have a hargasha according to some opinions she is credible. However, many poskim are strict and say even in such a case there is a concern that the hargasha was masked and the blood is judged as though it came out with a hargasha.
- Any blood found on a bedika cloth even if she says that she didn't have a hargasha is treated as though it is possibly Biblical and the leniencies of ketem do no apply.
- Vayikra 15:19
- Gemara Niddah 57b, Rambam Isurei Biyah 9:1, Shulchan Aruch YD 190:1, Taharat Habayit v. 1 p. 6
- Pitchei Teshuva YD 184:1
- Trumat Hadeshen, Shulchan Aruch YD 183:1, Pitchei Teshuva 183:1
- Pitchei Teshuva YD 183:1 citing the Nodeh Beyehuda YD 55 and Chavot Daat 190:1 who hold that a feeling of a liquid flow is a hargasha, while the Chatom Sofer 145, 153, 167, 171 argues. Taharat Habayit v. 1 p. 14 agrees with the Chatom Sofer that essentially this isn't a hargasha.
- Rambam Isurei Biyah 5:17, Pitchei Teshuva 183:1
- Shulchan Aruch 190:1
- Gemara Niddah 57b, Sidrei Tahara 183:1
- See Sidrei Tahara 183:1
- Taharat Habayit v. 1 p. 17