Kaddish

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5 Different Types of Kaddish

  1. Half Kaddish (Chatzi Kaddish)--this is the shortest of all of the Kaddishes ending with the words "da'amiran bialma vi'imru amen." This Kaddish is recited as a break between different parts of the service.
  2. The Mourners' Kaddish (Kadish Yatom)--this Kaddish is the same as the Half Kaddish with the additional insertions of the lines "Yehei shlama..." and "Oseh shalom..." This Kaddish is recited during the 11th month period following the passing of a parent and on the parent's Yahrzeit.
  3. The Full Kaddish (Kadish Shalem)--the same as the Mourners Kaddish with the additional line "Titkabel..." In this line we ask Hashem to accept the prayers of all of the Jewish people. This Kaddish is recited at the conclusion of Chazarat Hashatz and Slichot.
  4. The Rabbis' Kaddish (Kaddish Derabanan)--the same as the Mourners' Kaddish with the added line "Al Yisrael..."
  5. The Final Kaddish (Kaddish De'itchadeta)--similar to the Rabbis' Kaddish with the insertion "Be'alma di'itchadeta..." in place of "be'alma di'bera chirutei ve'yamlich malchutei." This Kaddish is recited at a Siyum as well as at a funeral.

Who should say Kaddish

  1. The midrashim speak how a child saying Kaddish for a parent could save the parent from a harsh judgement in heaven. Therefore, the minhag is to say Kaddish for a parent as well as get the Aliyah of Maftir and to pray as the Shaliach Tzibur especially for Arvit. [1]
  2. The Sephardic minhag is that anyone who wants may say Kaddish even if that is a number of people together. [2] For a discussion on the Ashkenazic minhag see Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz
  3. Although saying Kaddish and prayers in the merit of one's parents, the primary merit for parents is that a child follows in the just and proper way.[3]
  4. It is permissible to recite kaddish in memory of a non-Jew as long as the one who you are saying it for was a moral individual. [4]

Requirements for Kaddish

  1. One may only say Kaddish in a congregation of 10 men above the age of Bar Mitzvah.[5] The person saying Kaddish is included in the minyan, meaning that there has to be 9 people listening to Kaddish besides for the one saying Kaddish. [6]
  2. If one cannot find ten men, it is permissible to use one katan, 9 or 10 years old, who has reached the age of chinuch, for it is better than completely nullifying kaddish. [7]
  3. If there is up to four people in the minyan saying Shemona Esreh and will not be able to answer Kaddish, nonetheless, one may say Kaddish because there is a majority of the minyan who can answer.[8]
  4. If one began Kaddish with 10 men and one left, one may nonetheless finish kaddish. [9]
  5. One need not be meticulous and strict with regard to making sure that everyone is the minyan had 2 pubic hairs. [10]
  6. If there are 10 men and one of the minyan is unable to answer to kaddish, kaddish may nonetheless be recited. [11]
  7. If there are 10 men and one of the minyan is sleeping, kaddish may nonetheless be recited. Nevertheless, one should wake up the sleeper. [12]
  8. A deaf man and a mute man may be counted for a minyan, however, a deaf mute man is treated as a katan with regard to minyan. [13]

When Kaddish may be said

  1. If there's no minyan when the congregation reaches the end of Pesukei DeZimrah, they should wait for a minyan prior to saying Yishtabach because if they say Yishtabach and only get a minyan afterwards they shouldn't say Kaddish until they first say some pesukim.[14]
  2. A congregation may learn pesukim of Torah and then say kaddish yehe shelama. [15]
  3. A congregation may learn words of the Oral Torah and then say kaddish al yisrael. [16]

Answering to Kaddish

  1. It is proper to wait a little bit in between answering "amen" and "yehe sheme raba" when answering to kaddish. [17]

Proper practices of the congregation during Kaddish

  1. The congregants should listen carefully and answer the appropriate responses with kavana. [18]
  2. Anyone who answers "Amen Yehey Sheme Rabba..." with all of his strength and kavana any heavenly bad decree against him is ripped up.[19]
  3. Just like of does not walk in front of one who is praying, so too one should not walk in front of someone who is reciting kaddish. [20]
  4. If Kaddish began while one was standing, he/she should remain standing until after answering "Amen yehe sheme raba..." [21]

Sources

  1. Kitzur S"A 27:1
  2. Kaf HaChaim 132:16. The Chatam Sofer YD 2:345 records this as the Sephardic minhag as well.
  3. Kitzur S"A 27:22
  4. Sh"t Yechave Daat 6:60
  5. Kitzur S"A 15:1, Kitzur S"A of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 1
  6. Kitzur S"A 15:7
  7. Kitzur S"A of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 1
  8. Kitzur S"A 15:7, Ben Ish Chai, Perashat Vayechi, 5
  9. Kitzur S"A of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 7
  10. Kitzur S"A of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 11
  11. Kitzur S"A of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 12
  12. Kitzur S"A of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 12
  13. Kitzur S"A of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 14
  14. Kitzur S"A 15:1
  15. BI"H, Vayechi, 9
  16. BI"H, Vayechi, 8
  17. Kitzur S"A of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of answering to kaddish, seif 11
  18. Kitzur S"A 15:5
  19. Kitzur S"A 15:5
  20. Kitzur S"A of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 2; Ben Ish Chai (Vayechi, 10)
  21. Ben Ish Chai (Vayechi, 8)