Kaddish

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5 Different Types of Kaddish

  1. Half Kaddish (Chatzi Kaddish)--this is the shortest of all of the Kaddishes ending with the words "da'amiran bialma vi'imru amen." This Kaddish is recited as a break between different parts of the service.
  2. The Mourners' Kaddish (Kadish Yatom)--this Kaddish is the same as the Half Kaddish with the additional insertions of the lines "Yehei shlama..." and "Oseh shalom..." This Kaddish is recited during the 11th month period following the passing of a parent and on the parent's Yahrzeit.
  3. The Full Kaddish (Kadish Shalem)--the same as the Mourners Kaddish with the additional line "Titkabel..." In this line we ask Hashem to accept the prayers of all of the Jewish people. This Kaddish is recited at the conclusion of Chazarat Hashatz and Slichot.
  4. The Rabbis' Kaddish (Kaddish Derabanan)--is the same as the Mourners' Kaddish with the added line "Al Yisrael..."
  5. The Final Kaddish (Kaddish De'itchadeta)--is similar to the Rabbis' Kaddish with the insertion "Be'alma di'itchadeta..." in place of "be'alma di'bera chirutei ve'yamlich malchutei." This Kaddish is recited at a Siyum as well as at a funeral.

Who Should Say Kaddish

  1. The midrashim[1] speak of how a child saying Kaddish for a parent, father or mother, could save the parent from a harsh judgement in heaven. Therefore, the minhag is to say Kaddish for a parent as well as get the Aliyah of Maftir and to pray as the Shaliach Tzibur especially for Arvit. [2]
  2. The Sephardic minhag is that anyone who wants may say Kaddish even if that means it will be a number of people reciting Kaddish together. [3] For a discussion on the Ashkenazic minhag see Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz
  3. Although we say Kaddish and prayers in the merit of our parents, the primary merit for parents is that a child follows in the just and proper way.[4]
  4. It is permissible to recite Kaddish in memory of a non-Jew as long as the one who you are saying it for was a moral individual. [5]
  5. As to whether a woman may say kaddish, it depends on the minhag of each place. [6]
  6. The practice is to say Kaddish for 11 months after a parent passes away and not 12 so that people don't think that the parent was a wicked person and is judged in Gehinom for the full 12 months. [7]

Requirements for Kaddish

  1. One may only say Kaddish in a congregation of 10 men above the age of Bar Mitzvah.[8] The person saying Kaddish is included in the minyan, meaning that there has to be 9 people listening to Kaddish besides for the one saying Kaddish. [9]
  2. If one cannot find ten men, it is permissible to use one katan, 9 or 10 years old and who has therefore reached the age of chinuch, for it is better than completely nullifying Kaddish. [10]
  3. One is required to have the majority of the minyan of 10 men be able to answer one's Kaddish in order to recite Kaddish. There may be up to four people in a congregation of ten, who are not able to answer one's Kaddish, due to them being engaged in reciting Shmoneh Esrei.[11]
  4. If one began Kaddish with 10 men and one left, one may nonetheless finish Kaddish. [12]
  5. One need not be meticulous and strict in making sure that everyone in the minyan has 2 pubic hairs. [13]
  6. If there are 10 men and one of the minyan is unable to answer to Kaddish, Kaddish may nonetheless be recited. [14]
  7. If there are 10 men and one of them is sleeping, Kaddish may nonetheless be recited. Nevertheless, one should wake up the sleeper. [15]
  8. A deaf man and a mute man may be counted for a minyan, however, a deaf mute man is treated as a katan with regard to minyan. [16]

When Kaddish May Be Said

  1. If there is no minyan by the time the congregation reaches the end of Pesukei DeZimrah, one should wait for a minyan prior to saying Yishtabach. If one says Yishtabach and only gets a minyan afterwards, the congregation should not say Kaddish until it first says some pesukim.[17]
  2. A congregation may learn pesukim of Torah and then say "kaddish yehe shelama". [18]
  3. A congregation may learn words of the Oral Torah and then say "kaddish al yisrael". [19]

If Kaddish was Recited Mistakenly

  1. If a congregation mistakenly said kaddish titkabel after shemona esrei on Friday night before Vayichulu and Mein Sheva they would say Vayichulu and Mein Sheva after the kaddish and then say kaddish titkabel afterwards since the Mein Sheva is a conclusion of the tefillah and requires a kaddish titkabel afterwards.[20]
  2. If a congregation mistakenly said after tachanun kaddish titkabel they should say after ashrei and uva letzion the kaddish titkabel.[21]
  3. If a congregation on Motzei Shabbat recited kaddish titkabel after Shemona Esrei and then said Uva Letzion they should only say half kaddish afterwards.[22]
  4. If a congregation forgot to say kaddish titkabel after uva letzion they should still say it after shir shel yom or aleinu.[23]
  5. On Purim night there are three opinions about how to arrange the kaddishim: Some say that after shemona esrei a full kaddish with titkabel is said and after uva letzion a full kaddish without titkabel is said. Ashkenazim follow this opinion. Some say that both should be kaddish with titkabel. Lastly, some say that the first one is a half kaddish and second is kaddish with titkabel. Sephardim follow this opinion.[24]

Answering Kaddish

  1. It is proper to wait a little bit in between answering "amen" and "yehe sheme raba" when answering to Kaddish. [25]

Proper Practices of the Congregation during Kaddish

  1. One should face Eretz Yisrael during the recitation of Kaddish. [26]
  2. The congregants should listen carefully and answer appropriately with kavana. [27]
  3. Anyone who answers "Amen, Yehey Sheme Rabba..." with all of his strength and kavana, will have any heavenly bad decree against him nullified.[28]
  4. Just like one does not walk in front of someone who is praying, so too one should not walk in front of someone who is reciting Kaddish. [29]
  5. If Kaddish began while one was standing, he/she should remain standing until after answering "Amen yehe sheme raba..." [30]
  6. The Sephardic custom is to respond "Amen yehe sheme raba..." until the word "Be'alma," and one should not answer "Amen" after the Chazzan says "Berich hu" unless one has completed the full response. [31]

Sources

  1. Kol Bo (cited by Bet Yosef 376) cites a midrash where Rebbe went a person who was stuck outside the next world until his son would say Kaddish or read the Haftorah for his merit. The Gra 376:6 cites other sources which cite the midrash.
  2. Rama 376:4, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 27:1
  3. Kaf HaChaim 132:16. The Chatam Sofer YD 2:345 records this as the Sephardic minhag as well.
  4. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 27:22
  5. Sh"t Yechave Daat 6:60
  6. The Pitchei Teshuva 376:3 cites the Chavot Yair 222 as holding that theoretically women could say kaddish but it isn't the practice and shouldn't be encouraged. Rav Heshel Schachter (B'ikvei Hatzon p. 24 no. 5) quotes Rav Soloveitchik as saying that it depends on the minhag and would be okay in places where it is common, though he adds it may only be said in a place where there is a minyan of men.
  7. Rama 376:4. See Shiurei Bracha 376:8 who writes that based on the Arizal one should say Kaddish for 12 months but of what people will think it is sufficient to stop a week early and just say it for 11 months and 3 weeks.
  8. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Mordechai Eliyahu 15:1
  9. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:7
  10. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 1
  11. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:7, Ben Ish Chai, Perashat Vayechi, 5
  12. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 7
  13. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 11
  14. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 12
  15. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 12
  16. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 14
  17. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:1
  18. BI"H, Vayechi, 9
  19. BI"H, Vayechi, 8
  20. Igrot Moshe 4:70:13. Rav Yitzchak Mazuz writes that this depends on the dispute in Mishna Brurah 693:1.
  21. Rav Shlomo Mazuz in Simchat Cohen OC 28, Yalkut Yosef (Tefillah v. 2 132:8). Yalkut Yosef explains that it makes sense to say titkabel again after uva letzion since the uva letzion includes kedusha and several tefillot. This is connected to the opinion of the Eliyah Rabba 693:5.
  22. Mishneh Halachot 6:16 writes that in this case only a half kaddish should be recited since titkabel is specifically for shemona esrei. His proof is the Levush 55:1 who writes that kaddish titkabel was instituted specifically to be said after shemona esrei. His only limitation of the Levush is selichot where we say titkabel at the end even though there was no shemona esrei. Rav Yitzchak Mazuz writes that this depends on the dispute in Mishna Brurah 693:1.
  23. Otzar Halachot p. 75 quoting Ishei Yisrael 26:11
    • On Purim night the Magen Avraham (Introduction to 693) writes that they should say kaddish titkabel after shemona esrei and then full kaddish without titkabel (yehey shlamah) after the megillah and uva letzion. Eliya Rabba 693:5 argues that they should say kaddish titkabel after shemona esrei and again after the megillah and uva letzion because the uva letzion includes several tefillot. Mishna Brurah 693:1 quotes both opinions. The Piskei Teshuvot 693:1 writes that the Ashkenazic minhag is like the Magen Avraham.
    • The Levush 693:1 holds that the kaddish after shemona esrei should be an incomplete kaddish and the kaddish after the megillah and uva letzion should be a complete one. This fits with the Levush 55:1 who writes that in Shacharit kaddish titkabel is really recited for shemona esrei but it is delayed to be said after uva letzion so that it includes the tefillot in uva letzion. Kaf Hachaim 693:1 quotes others who follow the Levush regarding Purim night. Yalkut Yosef 693:4 writes that the Sephardic minhag follows the Levush.
  24. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of answering to kaddish, seif 11
  25. Machzor Vitri Siman 278
  26. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:5
  27. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:5
  28. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 2; Ben Ish Chai (Vayechi, 10)
  29. Ben Ish Chai (Vayechi, 8)
  30. Ben Ish Chai, Vayehi, 2; Rav Pealim, chelek 2, 13