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Revision as of 16:08, 1 September 2017 by MordechaiD (→Who Should Say Kaddish: more women's mekorot)
5 Different Types of Kaddish
- Half Kaddish (Chatzi Kaddish)--this is the shortest of all of the Kaddishes ending with the words "da'amiran bialma vi'imru amen." This Kaddish is recited as a break between different parts of the service.
- The Mourners' Kaddish (Kadish Yatom)--this Kaddish is the same as the Half Kaddish with the additional insertions of the lines "Yehei shlama..." and "Oseh shalom..." This Kaddish is recited during the 11th month period following the passing of a parent and on the parent's Yahrzeit.
- The Full Kaddish (Kadish Shalem)--the same as the Mourners Kaddish with the additional line "Titkabel..." In this line we ask Hashem to accept the prayers of all of the Jewish people. This Kaddish is recited at the conclusion of Chazarat Hashatz and Slichot.
- The Rabbis' Kaddish (Kaddish Derabanan)--is the same as the Mourners' Kaddish with the added line "Al Yisrael..."
- The Final Kaddish (Kaddish De'itchadeta)--is similar to the Rabbis' Kaddish with the insertion "Be'alma di'itchadeta..." in place of "be'alma di'bera chirutei ve'yamlich malchutei." This Kaddish is recited at a Siyum as well as at a funeral.
When Kaddish is Reciting during Davening
- At Shacharit, Half Kaddish is recited after Pesukei Dzimra, Tachanun, and after Aleinu. Full Kaddish with Titkabel is said after Uva Letzion.
- At Mincha, Half Kaddish is recited after Ashrei and Full Kaddish after Tachanun.
- At Arvit, Half Kaddish is recited after Birchot Kriyat Shema.
Who Should Say Kaddish
- The midrashim speak of how a child saying Kaddish for a parent, father or mother, could save the parent from a harsh judgement in heaven. The Kabbalists explain that the child saying Kaddish also elevates the level of the parent in heaven. Therefore, the minhag is to say Kaddish for a parent as well as get the Aliyah of Maftir and to pray as the Shaliach Tzibur especially for Arvit. 
- If a person’s parent passes away he should say kaddish for them even if the other parent is alive. If the mother passed away and the father doesn’t want his son to say kaddish for his mother while he’s alive, although it is best to convince him otherwise, the son should listen to his father. However, if a father passed away and the mother doesn’t want the son to say kaddish for his father while she’s alive he should try to convince her otherwise but if he can’t he doesn’t have to listen to her.
- Although we say Kaddish and prayers in the merit of our parents, the primary merit for parents is that a child follows in the just and proper way.
- It is permissible to recite Kaddish in memory of a non-Jew as long as the one who you are saying it for was a moral individual. A convert should say Kaddish for his parents.
- The Sephardic minhag is that anyone who wants may say Kaddish even if that means it will be a number of people reciting Kaddish together.  For a discussion on the Ashkenazic minhag see Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz. Many Ashkenazim have adopted the Sephardic minhag.
- As to whether a woman may say kaddish, it depends on the minhag of each place. 
- A child younger than bar mitzvah may not say Kaddish and Barchu for the congregation except for the Kaddish Yatom at the end of davening. According to Sephardim, it is proper to have an adult say it along with the child.
- A child may say kaddish after learning.
- The practice is to say Kaddish for 11 months after a parent passes away and not 12 so that people don't think that the parent was a wicked person and is judged in Gehinom for the full 12 months.  The Sephardic minhag is to stop the first week of the twelfth month and pick up until the end of the month.
Requirements for Kaddish
- One may only say Kaddish in a congregation of 10 men above the age of Bar Mitzvah. The person saying Kaddish is included in the minyan, meaning that there has to be 9 people listening to Kaddish besides for the one saying Kaddish. 
- If one cannot find ten men, it is permissible to use one katan, 9 or 10 years old and who has therefore reached the age of chinuch, for it is better than completely nullifying Kaddish. 
- One is required to have the majority of the minyan of 10 men be able to answer one's Kaddish in order to recite Kaddish. There may be up to four people in a congregation of ten, who are not able to answer one's Kaddish, due to them being engaged in reciting Shmoneh Esrei.
- If one began Kaddish with 10 men and one left, one may nonetheless finish Kaddish. 
- One need not be meticulous and strict in making sure that everyone in the minyan has 2 pubic hairs. 
- If there are 10 men and one of the minyan is unable to answer to Kaddish, Kaddish may nonetheless be recited. 
- If there are 10 men and one of them is sleeping, Kaddish may nonetheless be recited. Nevertheless, one should wake up the sleeper. 
- A deaf man and a mute man may be counted for a minyan, however, a deaf mute man is treated as a katan with regard to minyan. 
When Kaddish May Be Said
- If there is no minyan by the time the congregation reaches the end of Pesukei DeZimrah, one should wait for a minyan prior to saying Yishtabach. If one says Yishtabach and only gets a minyan afterwards, the congregation should not say Kaddish until it first says some pesukim.
- A congregation may learn pesukim of Torah and then say "kaddish yehe shelama". 
- A congregation may learn words of the Oral Torah and then say "kaddish al yisrael". 
If Kaddish was Recited Mistakenly
- On Friday night, if a congregation mistakenly said kaddish titkabel after shemona esrei before Vayichulu and Mein Sheva they would say Vayichulu and Mein Sheva after the kaddish and then say kaddish titkabel afterwards since the Mein Sheva is a conclusion of the tefillah and requires a kaddish titkabel afterwards.
- At Shacharit, if a congregation mistakenly said after tachanun kaddish titkabel, according to Sephardim, they should say after ashrei and uva letzion the kaddish titkabel, while according to Ashkenazim they should say full kaddish without titkabel.
- On Motzei Shabbat, if a congregation recited kaddish titkabel after Shemona Esrei and then said Uva Letzion according to Ashkenazim they should say kaddish without titkabel afterwards.
- On Chanuka, if a congregation mistakenly said kaddish titkabel after Hallel then after kriyat hatorah and uva letzion, according to Ashkenazim they should say full kaddish without titkabel and according to Sephardim kaddish titkabel.
- If a congregation forgot to say kaddish titkabel after uva letzion they should still say it after shir shel yom or aleinu.
- On Purim night there are three opinions about how to arrange the kaddishim: Some say that after shemona esrei a full kaddish with titkabel is said and after uva letzion a full kaddish without titkabel is said. Ashkenazim follow this opinion. Some say that both should be kaddish with titkabel. Lastly, some say that the first one is a half kaddish and second is kaddish with titkabel. Sephardim follow this opinion.
- It is proper to wait a little bit in between answering "amen" and "yehe sheme raba" when answering to Kaddish. 
Proper Practices of the Congregation during Kaddish
- One should face Eretz Yisrael during the recitation of Kaddish. 
- The congregants should listen carefully and answer appropriately with kavana. 
- Anyone who answers "Amen, Yehey Sheme Rabba..." with all of his strength and kavana, will have any heavenly bad decree against him nullified.
- Just like one does not walk in front of someone who is praying, so too one should not walk in front of someone who is reciting Kaddish. 
- If Kaddish began while one was standing, he/she should remain standing until after answering "Amen yehe sheme raba..." 
- The Sephardic custom is to respond "Amen yehe sheme raba..." until the word "Be'alma," and one should not answer "Amen" after the Chazzan says "Berich hu" unless one has completed the full response. 
- Levush 55:1 explains that since Shemona Esrei is a separate mitzvah it deserves a Kaddish after Tachanun. Aleinu includes pesukim and deserves a Kaddish afterwards. Additionally, Kaddish with Titkabel is always recited after Shemona Esrei. Mishna Brurah 55:2 and 132:10 cites this levush.
- Levush 55:1 explains that there is Kaddish after Ashrei since it is a mitzvah to be said and Titkabel after Shemona Esrei. Mishna Brurah 55:2 writes that the kaddish after ashrei is like any kaddish after pesukim.
- Levush 55:1
- Kol Bo (cited by Bet Yosef 376) cites a midrash where Rebbe went a person who was stuck outside the next world until his son would say Kaddish or read the Haftorah for his merit. The Gra 376:6 cites other sources which cite the midrash.
- Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 1 p. 349) citing the Arizal (Shaar Hakavanot Drush Hakaddish 15b)
- Rama YD 376:4, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 27:1
- Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 1 p. 338)
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 27:22
- Sh"t Yechave Daat 6:60, Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 1 p. 358)
- Kaf HaChaim 132:16, Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 1 p. 334). The Chatam Sofer YD 2:345 records this as the Sephardic minhag as well.
- Chazon Ovadia citing Tzitz Eliezer 9:15:2 and Gesher Hachaim p. 333.
- The Pitchei Teshuva 376:3 cites the Chavot Yair 222 as holding that theoretically women could say kaddish but it isn't the practice and shouldn't be encouraged. Rav Hershel Schachter (B'ikvei Hatzon p. 24 no. 5) quotes Rav Soloveitchik as saying that it depends on the minhag and would be okay in places where it is common, though he adds it may only be said in a place where there is a minyan of men. Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 1 p. 356) holds that a woman may not say it in shul but only at home after a minyan of men finishes learning. See Rav Yosef Eliyahu Henkin in Teshuvot Ivra Siman 6, Rav Moshe Feinstein in Iggerot Moshe, Vol. 8, O.C. 5:12b, Rav Yitzchak Yaakov Weiss in Minchat Yitzchak 4:30, 7), and Rav Yehuda Henkin's brief overview of the history of the subject. Additionally, see Rabbi Reuven Fink's article "The Recital of Kaddish by Women" in the RJJ's Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society (XXXI, Spring 1996)
- Mishna Brurah 55:4, Mishna Brurah 132:10
- Kaf Hachaim 55:19 holds that a child should only say it if an adult says it along with him. Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 1 p. 354) holds that the child can say it alone but it is proper to have an adult say it along with him.
- Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 1 p. 354)
- Rama 376:4. See Shiurei Bracha 376:8 who writes that based on the Arizal one should say Kaddish for 12 months but of what people will think it is sufficient to stop a week early and just say it for 11 months and 3 weeks.
- Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 1 p. 336)
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Mordechai Eliyahu 15:1
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:7
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 1
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:7, Ben Ish Chai, Perashat Vayechi, 5
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 7
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 11
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 12
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 12
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 14
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:1
- BI"H, Vayechi, 9
- BI"H, Vayechi, 8
- Igrot Moshe 4:70:13. Rav Yitzchak Mazuz writes that this depends on the dispute in Mishna Brurah 693:1.
- Rav Shlomo Mazuz in Simchat Cohen OC 28, Yalkut Yosef (Tefillah v. 2 132:8). Yalkut Yosef explains that it makes sense to say titkabel again after uva letzion since the uva letzion includes kedusha and several tefillot. This is connected to the opinion of the Eliyah Rabba 693:5.
- Bet Shlomo (responsa 52), Chelek Levi 48, Rivevot Efraim 6:65, Yesodei Yeshurun (v. 1 p. 240). Bet Shlomo and all the others also connect this with the dispute regarding Purim night and says that the Ashkenazic minhag is like the Magen Avraham.
- Rivevot Efraim 2:125:8 writes that since they already said kaddish titkabel on the shemona esrei they should just recite a full kaddish without titkabel after uva letzion. He compares it to the machloket between the Eliyah Rabba and Magen Avraham 693:1. Since the Ashekanzic minhag is like the Magen Avraham they should said kaddish without titkabel. However, Mishneh Halachot 6:16 writes that in this case only a half kaddish should be recited since titkabel is specifically for shemona esrei. His proof is the Levush 55:1 who writes that kaddish titkabel was instituted specifically to be said after shemona esrei. His only limitation of the Levush is selichot where we say titkabel at the end even though there was no shemona esrei. See Bet Shlomo 52 who disregards the idea of only saying half kaddish and is in favor of saying full kaddish because ashrei and uva letzion is no worse than shir shel yom. Rav Yitzchak Mazuz writes that this depends on the dispute in Mishna Brurah 693:1.
- Otzar Halachot (Moadim v. 2 p. 58) based on Bet Shlomo 2:52
- Otzar Halachot (v. 1 p. 75) quoting Ishei Yisrael 26:11
- On Purim night the Magen Avraham (Introduction to 693) writes that they should say kaddish titkabel after shemona esrei and then full kaddish without titkabel (yehey shlamah) after the megillah and uva letzion. Eliya Rabba 693:5 argues that they should say kaddish titkabel after shemona esrei and again after the megillah and uva letzion because the uva letzion includes several tefillot. Mishna Brurah 693:1 quotes both opinions. The Bet Shlomo 52 and Piskei Teshuvot 693:1 write that the Ashkenazic minhag is like the Magen Avraham.
- The Levush 693:1 holds that the kaddish after shemona esrei should be an incomplete kaddish and the kaddish after the megillah and uva letzion should be a complete one. This fits with the Levush 55:1 who writes that in Shacharit kaddish titkabel is really recited for shemona esrei but it is delayed to be said after uva letzion so that it includes the tefillot in uva letzion. Kaf Hachaim 693:1 quotes others who follow the Levush regarding Purim night. Yalkut Yosef 693:4 writes that the Sephardic minhag follows the Levush.
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of answering to kaddish, seif 11
- Machzor Vitri Siman 278
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:5
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 15:5
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 2; Ben Ish Chai (Vayechi, 10)
- Ben Ish Chai (Vayechi, 8)
- Ben Ish Chai, Vayehi, 2; Rav Pealim, chelek 2, 13