Kedusha

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Requirements for Kedusha

  1. Ten free men above the age of Bar Mitzvah should be present in order for one to say kedusha. [1]
  2. If one cannot find ten men, it is permissible to use one katan, 9 or 10 years old, who has reached the age of chinuch, for it is better than completely nullifying kedusha. [2]
  3. If one began Kedusha with 10 men and one left, one may nonetheless finish kaddish. [3]
  4. If there are 10 men and one of the minyan is unable to answer to kedusha, kedusha may nonetheless be recited. [4]
  5. A deaf man and a mute man may be counted for a minyan, however, a deaf mute man is treated as a katan with regard to minyan. [5]
  6. If there are 10 men and one of the minyan is sleeping, kaddish may nonetheless be recited. Nevertheless, one should wake up the sleeper. [6]
  7. One need not be meticulous and strict with regard to making sure that everyone is the minyan had 2 pubic hairs. [7]

The Proper Procedure for Kedusha

  1. When the Hazzan reaches Kedusha during the Chazarat HaShatz, the congregation should take three steps forward, thereby returning to the place where they prayed their silent Shmoneh Esrei. They should place their feet together side by side. [8] The reason we keep our feet together is to mimic the angels who only have one foot[9] as kedusha is our opportunity to praise Hashem in the way that the angels do in heaven.[10]
  2. When the congregation reaches "VeKara Zeh El Zeh VeAmar" some people have the practice to turn to the right and then to the left.[11]
  3. The halacha is that the Shaliach Tzibbur should quietly listen to the Shaliach Tzibbur introduce the kedusha and wait to respond with Kadosh Kadosh. However, the minhag is that the Chazzan and the congregation recite the Kedusha in unison.[12] Nevertheless, it is the Moroccan custom for the congregation to recite the entire kedusha aloud with the hazzan. [13]
  4. The Shaliach Tzibbur should make sure that he is louder than the congregation when reciting "Kadosh Kadosh Kadosh etc.", "Baruch Kavod etc.", and "Yimloch etc." so that those who are in the silent Shemona Esrei can fulfill their obligation. Otherwise he can repeat it after the congregation finishes saying it so that people can hear him. By hearing the congregation's responses someone in their silent Shemona Esrei does not fulfill their obligation since the congregation doesn't intend to exempt his obligation.[14] If the Shaliach Tzibbur doesn't know this halacha and says it quietly, someone still in Shemona Esrei should stop to listen to Kedusha.[15]In advance he should ask someone standing next to him to say it aloud so he could hear him and have him in mind.[16]
  5. At the words "kadosh, kadosh, kadosh" the congregation should lift their heels and body slightly. Some have the custom to lift their heels and body higher at the second "kadosh" than at the first and higher at the third. [17]
  6. At the name of Hashem in the phrase "Baruch Kevod Hashem Mimekomo" of Kedusha the congregation should lift their heels and body slightly. [18]
  7. Similarly, at the name of Hashem in the phrase "Yimloch Hashem Leolam Elokayich Tzion Ledor Vador Halleluka" of Kedusha the congregation should lift their heels and body slightly. [19]
  8. The members of the congregation should stand with their feet together until after they answer "Amen" to the Hazzan's blessing of "HaKel HaKadosh." [20]
  9. It is forbidden for the members of the congregation to talk during kedusha. [21]
  10. When saying "Kadosh Kadosh Kadosh" if someone isn't sure if how many times he said Kadosh he can say it another time.[22]

If one is saying the Shmoneh Esrei during Kedusha

  1. If one is saying the Shmoneh Esrei and the shaliach tzibur begins kedusha one should not say kedusha. [23]

Answering Kedusha Multiple Times

  1. If a person hears Kedusha even if he already heard it previously he should still answer with them.[24]
  2. If he's in his silent Shemona Esrei and hears Kedusha when he finishes the bracha of Mechayey Hameytim he should answer Kedusha with them even if he already heard and answered Kedusha.[25]

Sources

  1. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 1
  2. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 1
  3. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 7
  4. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 12
  5. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 14
  6. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 12
  7. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 12, laws of kaddish, seif 11
  8. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 95:4, 123:2, and 125:2; Ben Ish Hai, Teruma, 4; Kaf Hachaim 125:3
  9. Yechezkel 1:7
  10. Mishna Brurah 95:8
  11. HalachaYomit.co.il records that Rav Ovadia Yosef's practice at the end of his life was to turn to the right and then to the left during "VeKara Zeh El Zeh VeAmar".
  12. Shulchan Aruch 125:1, Mishan Brurah 125:2, Yalkut Yosef 125:2. Shulchan Aruch 125:1 advises that only the Shaliach Tzibbur recite kedusha aloud since he is in fact their agent. However, Mishna Brurah 125:2 records the minhag is that the congregation says it aloud together with the Shaliach Tzibbur. He concludes that the Shaliach Tzibbur should make sure to finish before the congregation answers Baruch Shem or Yimloch. Ben Ish Hai Teruma n. 4 and Kaf Hachaim 125:2 cite the Arizal as holding that the congregation should say the word "Nakdishach" aloud and then the rest silently.
  13. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, Volume 1, Page 115
  14. Igrot Moshe O.C. 3:4 writes that one needs to hear the pesukim of kedusha from the Shaliach Tzibbur and hearing it together with everyone else is insufficient because you can't hear two voices at once. Therefore the Shaliach Tzibbur should saying the pesukim after everyone finished. If the Shaliach Tzibbur doesn't do that, then the individuals should in advance he should ask someone in the congregation who is standing nearby to have him in mind while saying kedusha. Piskei Teshuvot 125:2 writes that the minhag is that the Shaliach Tzibbur says it after the congregation. Similarly, Yalkut Yosef 125:3 writes explicitly that it is critical that the Shaliach Tzibbur say the pesukim that he is exempting the congregation still in Shemona Esrei so that everyone can hear him. Either he should say it louder than everyone else or after they finish. Yabia Omer OC 6:16:2 supports this approach and permits starting after the congregation finished.
    • Biur Halacha 125:1 s.v. elah isn't sure if the Shaliach Tzibbur is aloud to recite the pesukim after the congregation finished since he is saying it without a minyan. However, perhaps it is permitted since he is doing so in order to fulfill the obligation of those still in the silent Shemona Esrei. He says everyone would agree if he starts before the congregation finished that it is considered that he said it with a minyan.
  15. Levushei Mordechai OC 1:17:1 writes that the minhag is that the Shaliach Tzibbur says these pesukim together with everyone else and no one can hear him. He bemoans this fact and advises fixing the practice if possible. Otherwise he says that someone in their silent Shemona Esrei listen to the others of the congregation. Even though they do not have him in mind he can rely on the opinions that mitzvot don't need kavana. It is considered an extenuating circumstance and perhaps hirhur is sufficient. Rav Debilisky based on Meiri Brachot 13b s.v. vrabbi yehuda cited by Dirshu 125:2 shows that one can fulfill one's obligation by listening to the congregation even if one can't hear the Shaliach Tzibbur.
  16. Igrot Moshe 3:4
  17. Ben Ish Hai, Teruma, 6; Kaf Hachaim 125:10
  18. Ben Ish Hai, Teruma, 4; Kaf Hachaim 125:11
  19. Ben Ish Hai, Teruma, 4; Kaf Hachaim 125:11
  20. Eliya Rabba 95:7, Ben Ish Hai Teruma n. 5, Shevet Halevi 3:15:6, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, Volume 1, Page 115. Shevet Halevi explains that the reason to keep one's feet together until after Amen of Hael Hakadosh is because the entire bracha and amen has the status of kedusha itself. This is reflected by Magen Avraham 66:6. Dirshu 125:9 cites Rav Chaim Kanievsky in Sheilat Rav p. 196 that the minhag isn't to stand with one's feet together until the end of the bracha.
  21. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, Volume 1, Page 115
  22. Rav Chaim Kanievsky cited by Sheilat Rav p. 226 quoted in Dirshu 125:8
  23. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, Volume 1, Page 98
  24. Rashba 1:249 writes that there's no prohibition to answer Kedusha twice a day just as we say Kedusha multiple in davening every day. Rama O.C. 125:2 quotes this.
  25. Yabia Omer OC 6:20 explains that there's no issue of saying kedusha several times as the Rashba 1:249 explains. Furthermore, it is a mitzvah of Kiddush Hashem to answer kedusha each time one answers kedusha. Lastly, after the second bracha of Shemona Esrei it isn't an interruption as the Rif Brachot 21b writes.