Difference between revisions of "Lighting Chanukah Candles"

From Halachipedia
Jump to: navigation, search
(How long should the candles last?)
 
(127 intermediate revisions by 8 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[file:Chanuka.png|right|''A Chanukkiya lit on the eighth night'']]
 
[[file:Chanuka.png|right|''A Chanukkiya lit on the eighth night'']]
== Background==
 
# In the time of the second Bet Hamikdash the Greek kings made decrees against the Jews in order to make them forget Torah and Judaism. They broke in the Bet Hamikdash and defiled it until Hashem had mercy on the Jews and saved them. The salvation came through the Chashmonaim who were victorious over the Greeks and served as Cohanim Gedolim. They returned to the Bet Hamikdash and could only find one pure flask of oil which was enough to light for only one day. A miracle occurred and it lasted 8 days. On the day that they found the flask, on the 25th of Kislev, the Rabbis established a holiday, 8 days of festivity and joy, called Chanuka. <ref> Shabbat 21b, Rambam Chanuka 3:1-3</ref>
 
  
== Mitzvah of Chanuka Candles==
+
== The Brachot of Chanukah Candles==
# The mitzvah to light candles is a very special and dear mitzvah. Even a poor person should rent or sell his clothing or hire himself out in order to get enough for at least one candle for every night. The Gabbai tzedaka (local charity distributor) needs to make sure that the poor have money for at least one candle every night. <ref>Rambam Chanuka 4:12, S”A 671:1. The Mishna (Pesachim 99b) which says a poor person can take from the Tamchui (the charity fund) for 4 cups of wine on pesach, the gemara explains is because of Pirsumeh Nisa, publicizing the miracle. Maggid Mishna (Chanuka 4:12) says from here Rambam learns all the more so is there publiczing the miracle by candles of Chanuka. The Lechem Mishna ibid argues the law of publicizing the miracle by Chanuka is just equal to the 4 cups of wine. Sh”t Kanaf Ranana O”C 84 explains the Miggid Mishna that Chanuka candles are more important since it’s the only way to publicize compared to pesach where there’s an entire seder. </ref>  
+
# On the first night of [[Chanukah]], before lighting the candles one should recite three [[blessings]]. On all other nights, only the first two are said (and not [[Shehecheyanu]]). <ref> Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 676:1-2, [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/m/halacha.aspx?id=2245 Rabbi Eli Mansour] see [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfW7i8tbi0A&list=PLxgaQHCWTBqcXnB4Z96yb-wvL7LkxOnq2&index=2 Berachot for Hanukka] for the Syrian recitation of the berachot</ref> Here is the text in Hebrew and below it is the transliterated text:
#       The minimum requirement of candles is one candle per house every night. The practice is to do this mitzvah in the most beautified (Mehadrin) which means that one candle for every person in the house every night is lit. The best (Mehadrin Min HaMehadrin) way to fulfill this mitzvah is according to Sephardim, for one person per house to light one candle on the first night and to add another candle each night and according to Ashkenazim, for every person to light for themselves one candle on the first night and to add another candle each night. <ref> Shabbat 21b as understood by Sephardim and Ashkenazim. Rambam (Chanuka 4:1-2) rules that each night one adds one candle for each member of the household. [He adds that the Minhag of Spain is to only light add one candle every night per household.] So holds Rabbenu Yehonatan in name of Ran (Shabbat 21b), Piskei Riaz (Shabbat 2, Chanuka 5), Rif explained by Buir HaGra 671:4. However, Tosfot (Shabbat 21b D”H VeHaMehadrin) in name of the Ri writes that one should only have one increasing per household so that it’s recognizable what night of the Chanuka it is. So writes Mordechai (Shabbat 270) in name of the Ri, Meiri (Shabbat 21b) that such is the Minhag, Ran (ibid.) in name of Raah, Tur(671). Ritva (Shabbat 21b) brings both explanations of the Gemara. S”A 671:2 holds like Tosfot and Rama ibid. holds like Rambam. Interesting Points: The Taz 671:1 writes that here is a case where Ashkenazim follow Rambam and Sephardim follow Tosfot. Chemed Moshe 671:4 argues that the Rambam concludes so is the Minhag not like the ruling, meaning it’s an old practice even before his time. The Torat HaMoadim (Chanuka pg 18) brings the Rama in Darkei Moshe 671:1 who says the Ashkenazi practice goes even according to Tosfot since the candles are indoors and separate. Tzeddai Chem (Chanuka 9:4) argues that the Ashkenazic practice for each member of the household to light isn’t like the Rambam who says that one person lights for everyone according to the number of people. For this reason many challenge the Rama who quotes his ruling in name of the Rambam including Maamar Mordechai 671:4, Bet Halevi on Torah (Chanuka pg 69). Yet, the Sh”t Maharil 145, Sh”t Trumat Hadeshen 101, and Sh”t Mahari Mebrona 50 hold like the explanation held by the Rama and could be sources for his opinion. Also, the Alfasi Zuta (Shabbat 2 beginning) says that the Rama is following the idea of the Rambam to light according to the number of household members but in order to satisfy Tosfot’s issue of being recognizable, every person lights instead of one person lighting.</ref>
+
## ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם, אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו להדליק נר (של) חנוכה <ref> S”A 676:1 writes the first bracha without the word shel. So is the opinion of the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 108d), Pri [[Chadash]], and Gra (Maaseh Rav 231). However Ashkenazim add the word Shel based on our girsa of the Gemara, Rif and Rambam. Mishna Brurah 676:1, based on early sources quoted in Shaar Hatziyun 1. Orchos Rabbeinu 3:17 says that the practice of the Chazon Ish was to say lehadlik ner shelachanukah (one word with a patach under the lamed). Clearly, if a Sephardi said it with the word Shel he fulfills his obligation (Chazon Ovadyah pg 125). Although the Shibolei HaLeket (Siman 185) argues that the text of first bracha should be Al Mitzvat Hadlakat Ner [[Chanukah]], the Rosh (Pesachim 1:10) cites Rabbeinu Tam and Riva, who justify the text of [[LeHadlik Ner Shel Chanuka]]. S”A 676:1 rules that the text is LeHadlik. </ref>
 +
## ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם, שעשה נסים לאבותינו בימים ההם בזמן הזה
 +
## ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם, שהחינו וקימנו והגענו לזמן הזה
 +
## Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam Asher Kidishanu BeMitzvotav VeTzivanu Lehadlik Ner (Ashkenazim add: Shel) [[Chanukah]].
 +
## Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam SheAssa Nissim LeAvotenu Bayamim Hahem Bazman Hazeh. <ref> Aruch hashulchan 676:3, Orchos Rabbeinu 3:17, and Koveitz Halachos 6:3 actually recommend saying bizman hazeh as opposed to bazman hazeh. </ref>
 +
## Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam SheHechiyanu Vekiyemanu Vehiygianu Lazman Hazeh.
 +
# Many poskim say that one should say all of the [[Brachot]] before lighting the candles, while others say that after the first night one should say LeHadlik, light one candle, then say She’asa Nissim and light the rest. <Ref> The Gemara ([[Shabbat]] 23a) says that on the first night, one should say three [[Brachot]]: LeHadlik, She’asa Nissim, and [[Shehechiyanu]]. On the remaining nights, one says only two [[Brachot]], leaving out [[Shehechiyanu]]. The Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 3:4), Tur, and S”A 676:1 codify this as halacha.
 +
* The Maharil (Responsa 145) writes that one should recite all of the [[Brachot]] before lighting, in accordance with the principle of [[Over LeAsiyatan]]. The Rama 676:2, Kitzur S”A 139:12, Mishna Brurah 676:4, and Kaf HaChaim 676:21 concur with the Maharil. Rav Mordechai Willig (Hilchos [[Chanukah]] and [[Purim]] #1, 35-6) commented that the minhag is like the Rama.  
 +
* On the other hand, the Maharam (cited by Hagahot Maimoniyot 3:2), based on the Masechet Sofrim, said LeHadlik before lighting, leaving She’asa Nissim and [[Shehechiyanu]] for afterwards. Rav Soloveitchik (quoted in Nefesh HaRav p. 224 and Mesorah vol 4, p. 8) explained that the Masechet Sofrim holds that the Bracha of She’asa Nissim functions as a Birkat HaRoeh and should be made after seeing the candles lit. He notes that in order to satisfy both views, Rav Chaim’s practice was that on all nights besides the first, he would say LeHadlik, light the first candle, say She’asa Nissim, and then light the rest of the candles. On the first night, when this is impossible, he made all three [[Brachot]] before lighting. Rabbeinu Yerucham (9:1) quotes a similar idea in the name of Rabbeinu Yonah. </ref>
 +
# If one forgot to say the [[Brachot]] and remembers after he finished lighting before a half hour passed, one should recite “SheAssa Nissim” and "[[Shehecheyanu]]", on the first night, but not “Lehadlik Ner”. If one remembers before one finishes lighting the candles (on the 2nd day and on) one can make all the [[Brachot]] then and finish the lighting. <ref> Sh”t Rabbenu Avraham Ben HaRambam 83 writes that it is forbidden to say the bracha of LeHadlik Neirot [[Chanukah]] after one finished lighting [[Chanukah]] candles. Shulchan Gavoha 676:3 writes that if one remembers any time the candles are lit one may still say “SheAssa Nissim” and "[[Shehecheyanu]]", on the first night because he should be no worse that a person who isn't lighting and just saw the candles so is allowed to say these [[brachot]] ([[Birchat HaRoeh]]). Sh”t Demeshk Eliezer Y”D 47 agrees. However, see also the Sefer Pardes (Rabbenu Asher Ben Chaim pg 66) who says one can say it as long as the candles are burning. Sh”t Halachot Ketanot 1:3 and Yad Aharon (Hagahot Tur 676) say that one can make all the [[Brachot]] as long as one didn’t finish lighting all the candles of Hidur. Sh”t Rabbi Akiva Eiger (Mehudra Tanina 13) writes that if one remembers before one finishes one can make all the [[Brachot]] but if one only remembers after he finishes lighting he can’t make Lehadlik Ner just like [[Brachot]] HaRoeh(S”A 676:3). Mishna Brurah 676:4, Ben Ish Chaim Vayeshev 10, and Sh”t Chatav Sofer O”C 135 agree.Torat HaMoadim 6:9 adds that since we learn the after lighting one can still make the bracha of SheAssa Nisim from [[Brachot]] HaRoeh it only applies to the first half hour after one sees the candles as by [[Brachot]] HaRoeh. </ref>
 +
# If one forgot to say [[Shehecheyanu]] before lighting one can say it in the half hour after lighting. If one didn’t say it the first night one should say it the second night and so on. So too, if on the eighth night one forgot one can say it in the half hour after lighting. <ref> Shibolei HaLeket 186 and Orchot Chaim ([[Chanukah]] 10) quote a Teshuvat Hagoanim to which Rabbenu Yishaya says that one can say [[Shehecheyanu]] any day after the first when he remembers; BI"H, [[Chanukah]], 3 concurs . Piskei Rid ([[Shabbat]] 23a) explains it means one can only make the bracha at the time of the lighting. However, Bach 676 in name of the Maharash says not to say [[Shehecheyanu]] the second night. Nonetheless, Meiri ([[Shabbat]] 23a) and Riaz (23a), also write that one lights [[Shehecheyanu]] the first night one lights. This is also the opinion of Sh”t Maharam (Prague Edition 57), Tur 676 in name of the Rosh and S”A 676:1. </ref>
 +
# After the half hour of lighting one can’t say the [[Brachot]]. <ref> Levush 676, Pri [[Chadash]] 676:1, Sh”t Sadeh HaAretz O”C 38, Birkei Yosef 692:1, and Sh”t Igrot Moshe 1:190 hold that one can only make the [[Shehecheyanu]] at the time of the lighting. However, Yavetz in Mor Ukesiah 692, Sh”T Mahari Molcho 78, Sh”t Zera Emet 1:96, and Taharat Mayim (Shiurei Tahara 8:3) hold it can be said any time during [[Chanukah]]. Nonetheless, Mishna Brurah (676:2 and Shar Tzion 676:3), and Torat HaMoadim 6:12 say that because of a Safek [[Brachot]] one doesn’t make [[Brachot]] past the time of lighting. Taharat Mayim implies that by SheAssa Nissim one can say it anytime against the Mor Ukesiah who says that SheAssa Nissim can only be said over the candles. Sh”t Yechave Daat 2:77 says because of Safek [[Brachot]] one doesn’t say SheAssa Nissim not over candles. </ref>
 +
# If someone had his wife or anyone else light for him the first night he fulfill his obligation of saying [[Shehecheyanu]] and shouldn’t say it the next night. <ref> Bach 676 says that his wife’s lighting with [[Brachot]] doesn’t exempt him from [[Shehecheyanu]]. So says Eliyah Raba 676:5. Torat HaMoadim 6:13 explain that this is the Bach according to his opinion that one who has someone lighting for him at home makes [[Brachot]] HaRoah; however since we hold (S”A 676:3) that if one has someone lighting for home doesn’t make [[Brachot]] HaRoah here too, one fulfills [[Shehecheyanu]] with his wife’s lighting. This is also the opinion of Sharei Knesset Hagedolah 676:2, Magen Avraham 676:2, Pri Megadim A”A 676:2, Mishna Brurah 676:7, and Kaf HaChaim 676:26. Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 4:50 (4-5), 6:42(3-4) holds that even by [[Shehecheyanu]] we apply [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]]. </ref>
 +
 
 +
==Order of Lighting==
 +
[[Image:Bet Yosef lighting.png|250px|thumb| Shulchan Aruch's order of lighting|right]]
 +
# The common practice is that on the first night one lights the rightmost candle. On the second night, one lights the candle that is second to the right (i.e. the new one) followed by the candle all the way to the right. One continues to add candles to the left each night, lighting the new candle first and moving from left to right. <Ref>
 +
* The picture of Shulchan Aruch's lighting is above by the summarized halacha. The pictures for the other opinions are below or see different drawings in [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=46444&st=&pgnum=631 Sefer Natai Gavriel (Chanukah pg 637)].
 +
[[Image:Levush's lighting.png| thumb|Levush's order of lighting|250px]]
 +
[[Image:Gra's lighting.png| thumb| Gra's order of lighting |250px]]
 +
* Maharik (Responsa 183, cited by Beit Yosef 676:5 s.v. Aval) writes that on the first night, one should light the rightmost candle and on subsequent nights should add a candle to the left and light the new one first, such that one lights from left to right (the way English is written). He bases his argument on the Gemara (Sotah 15b) that a person always should turn to the right, which the Mordechai ([[Shabbat]] 2:268) applied to lighting [[chanuka]] candles. The Shulchan Aruch 676:5 codifies this as halacha. This is also the opinion of the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 108c), Nagid VeMitzvah (26:72), Maharil (quoted by the Magen Avraham 676:5), Chazon Ovadia pg. 32.
 +
* [The Trumat Hadeshen 106 agrees that if one is lighting opposite the [[Mezuzah]] then one should light from left to right with the new candle always being the leftmost candle which is within a [[Tefach]] of the door. However, if there’s no [[mezuzah]], and one is lighting on the right side of the door as one enters, then one should light right to left so that the new candle is always the rightmost candle and is within a [[Tefach]] of the door. The Sh”t Maharshal 85 agrees with the Trumat HaDeshen. However, the Bet Yosef 676:5 quotes the Trumat HaDeshen and argues that there shouldn’t be any difference whether one is lighting on the left or right of the door one should always light the new candle first and light from left to right.]
 +
* However, the Levush (676:5) and Taz (676:6) argue that the Gemara means in one’s first decision between right and left one should go right, but afterwards one may continue to follow that path even if that means going left. Therefore, they rule that on the first night, the candle is placed in the leftmost position, and on the subsequent nights the candles are put to the right of the previous candles and are lit from right to left. This is also the opinion of the Sh”t Panim Meirot 1:98 and Sh”t Semach Tzedek O”C 67.
 +
* A third approach is that of the Gr”a (Bei’ur HaGra 676:5 and Maaseh Rav 232). He writes that one always should light the candle closest to the door first, even if it is not the newest candle and even if it means lighting from right to left.
 +
* Halacha: Mishna Brurah 676:9 quotes the Bet Yosef and the Gra and concludes one can do like either one. The Pri HaChadash, Be'er Sheva (Sotah 15b), Nezirut Shimshon (Sotah 15b), Sh”t Chatam Sofer O”C 187, Chazon Ovadiah ([[Chanukah]] pg 33) argue on the Levush and hold like S”A. Kovetz Hamoadim (Moriah pg 61), Evan [[Israel]] (9 pg 129a), Sadeh HaAretz O”C 3:33, and Nehar Mitzrayim [[Chanukah]] 7, the Kitzur S”A 139:11, Kaf HaChaim 676:31, Aruch HaShulchan 676:11, Natai Gavriel ([[Chanukah]] 28:2, pg 177), and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 229) write that the halacha and minhag follow Shulchan Aruch. Rav Mordechai Willig (Hilchos [[Chanukah]] and [[Purim]] #1, 37-8) observed that the minhag is like the S”A.
 +
* Rav Hershel Schachter (Halachipedia Article 5773 #10) said that common practice is to put the candles in from right to left. He explained that the idea is to start the candles within a [[tefach]] of the doorway.</ref>
 +
# Ideally one should stand near the candles on the left side of the chanukia so that one need not pass over the candles on the right when lighting.<ref>Mishna Brurah 676:11</ref>
 +
# Some say one should say HaNeirot Halalu after lighting the first candle, while others suggest saying it after lighting all the candles.<Ref>Masechet Sofrim 20:4 says that a person should say HaNeirot Halalu and implies that it is said in middle of the lighting. Magen Avraham 676:3 says that HaNeirot should be recited after lighting the first candle, while Pri Megadim M”Z 676:5 suggests that perhaps since the Bracha applies to all of the candles, one should say HaNeirot Halalu after lighting all of the candles. Mishna Brurah 676:8 cites both opinions. </ref>
 +
# Some say that one shouldn't blow out a candle but if one needs to put them out, he should extinguish it another way.<ref>Kaf HaChaim YD 116:115</ref> Others say that there's no concern nowadays.<ref>Rivevot Efraim 8:103:6</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Number of Candles to Light==
 +
# The mitzvah of lighting [[Chanukah]] candles is a very special and dear mitzvah. Even a poor person should rent or sell his clothing or hire himself out in order to get enough money to purchase at least one candle for every night. The Gabbai [[Tzedaka]] (local [[charity]] distributor) needs to make sure that the poor have enough money to purchase at least one candle every night. <ref>The above halacha is a quote from the Rambam [[Chanukah]] 4:12 and S”A 671:1. This is based on the Mishna (Pesachim 99b) which states that a poor person may take from the [[charity]] fund in order to purchase the 4 cups of wine on [[Pesach]]. The Gemara explains that the poor can take from [[charity]] for this because it has the very significant purpose of Pirsumeh Nisa, publicizing the miracle of our leaving Egypt. The [[Maggid]] Mishna ([[Chanukah]] 4:12) comments that this is the source of the Rambam's ruling that even a poor should should rent or sell his clothing in order to be able to light [[Chanukah]] candles because concept of publicizing the miracle applies even more to [[Chanukah]] than by the 4 cups of [[Pesach]]. The Lechem Mishne ([[Chanukah]] 4:12) argues the law of publicizing the miracle by [[Chanukah]] is equal to the 4 cups of wine. The Sh”t Kanaf Ranana O”C 84 defends the Miggid Mishna saying that the [[Chanukah]] candles are the only way in which we publicize the miracle of [[Chanukah]], whereas regarding [[Pesach]] there are other actions we do to publicize the miracle besides the 4 cups of wine. </ref>
 +
#      The minimum requirement of [[Chanukah]] candles is that each household should have one candle lit every night. The next best method (Mehadrin) to fulfill this mitzvah is by lighting one candle for every person in the house every night. The best (Mehadrin Min HaMehadrin) way to fulfill this mitzvah is: according to Sephardim, for one person per house to light one candle on the first night and to add another candle each night and according to Ashkenazim, for every person to light for themselves one candle on the first night and to add another candle each night. <ref>
 +
* The Braitta on Gemara [[Shabbat]] 21b states that the minimum requirement of [[Chanukah]] candles is that each household should have one candle lit every night. The next best method (Mehadrin) to fulfill this mitzvah is by lighting one candle for every person in the house every night. The best (Mehadrin Min HaMehadrin) way to fulfill this mitzvah is to increase the number of candles light each night, one on the first night, two on the second, and so on. However, regarding the last method there is a dispute to it's precise explanation.
 +
* The Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 4:1-2) rules that each night one should add one candle per person per night, meaning that for a family of 10, the first night there would 10 candles and 20 the second night. [He adds that the Minhag of Spain is to only light add one candle per household increasing according to the number of the night.] This is also the opinion of the Rabbenu Yehonatan in name of Ran ([[Shabbat]] 21b), Piskei Riaz ([[Shabbat]] 2, [[Chanukah]] 5), and Rif explained by Buir HaGra 671:4.
 +
* However, Tosfot ([[Shabbat]] 21b s.v. VeHaMehadrin) in name of the Ri writes that one should only have one increasing per household so that it’s recognizable what night of the [[Chanukah]] it is. So writes Mordechai ([[Shabbat]] 270) in name of the Ri, Meiri ([[Shabbat]] 21b) that such is the Minhag, Ran ([[Shabbat]] 21b) in name of Raah, Tur(671). Ritva ([[Shabbat]] 21b) brings both explanations of the Gemara. S”A 671:2 holds like Tosfot and Rama 671:2 holds like Rambam.
 +
* The custom of Sephardim, as recorded in S"A 671:2 is to have one chanukia per household and increase the number of candles according to the day. This is the ruling of Chazon Ovadia pg. 19.
 +
* Interesting point: The Taz 671:1 writes that here is a case where Ashkenazim uncharacteristically follow the Rambam and Sephardim follow Tosfot. Chemed Moshe 671:4 argues that the Rambam concludes so is the Minhag not like the ruling, meaning it’s an old practice even before his time. The Torat HaMoadim ([[Chanukah]] pg 18) brings the Rama in Darkei Moshe 671:1 who says the Ashkenazi practice goes even according to Tosfot since the candles are indoors and separate. Sdei Chemed ([[Chanukah]] 9:4) argues that the Ashkenazic practice for each member of the household to light isn’t like the Rambam who says that one person lights for everyone according to the number of people. For this reason many challenge the Rama who quotes his ruling in name of the Rambam including Maamar Mordechai 671:4, Bet Halevi on Torah ([[Chanukah]] pg 69). Yet, the Sh”t Maharil 145, Sh”t Trumat Hadeshen 101, and Sh”t Mahari Mebrona 50 hold like the explanation held by the Rama and could be sources for his opinion. Also, the Alfasi Zuta ([[Shabbat]] 2 beginning) says that the Rama is following the idea of the Rambam to light according to the number of household members but in order to satisfy Tosfot’s issue of being recognizable, every person lights instead of one person lighting.</ref>
 +
# If one missed lighting one day it can’t be made up and the next night one should light the number everyone else is lighting. <ref> S”A 672:2. Siddur Rashi 316 pg 151 quotes Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda who says that there’s no make up for a missed day, otherwise those who see will think you’re violating the words of the Rabbis. So writes the Tur 672. There’s a dispute whether this means that since it can’t be made up one doesn’t light the next night or one lights like the rest of the world. The Sh”t Maaseh Geonim (55 pg 43) quoting Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda that the next night one lights like everyone else. (Thus, Rabbenu Yitzchak means not to light the amount of the night he missed with the amount of that night because that would look like he’s going against the Rabbis); So hold Mordechai 2:268 explained by Sh”t Maharil 28, Agudah ([[Shabbat]] 31), Roke’ach 226 pg 128, Shibolei Leket 186, and Pardes Hagadol 199. However, Sefer Minhagim in name of Meharar MeMerizberg writes that the next night one should light the number of candles you missed last night. [He understood Rabbenu Yitzchak quoted by the Tur that one can’t add 8 candles on the 9th night.] Darkei Moshe 672:3 holds like the Agudah and Rokeach against the Maharam.</ref>
 +
# If one lit two candles on the first night, he fulfills his obligation and doesn’t have to relight the right number of candles. <ref> Rav Shlomo Kluger (Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo O”C 380) says adding to the number doesn’t ruin the mitzvah as the Rama 263 says by [[Shabbat]] candles. However, Sh”t Ohel Moshe 69 and Sh”t Mishna Sachir O”C 199 argue that since he lit the wrong number, someone seeing this will think he didn’t light it for [[Chanukah]] candles but just for the light. Yet, the Pri [[Chadash]] 675 says one who extinguishes the candles fulfills the mitzvah since the candles are in a Chanukiya that’s only used for [[Chanukah]] it’s recognizable that he lit for [[Chanukah]]. Also, Eliya Raba 671:7 says the first night doesn’t need to illustrate the number of the nights. Sh”t Lehorot Natan 2:51, Sh”t Shraga HaMeir 4:73, 5:75(1), Sh”t Shevet Hakehati 1:202 hold like Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo. Chazon Ovadiah pg. 29 agrees and adds that one who repeats and makes a bracha is making a bracha levatala.</ref>
 +
===If One Doesn't Have Enough Candles===
 +
# If one only has enough oil for one night and not all 8, he should light for one night according to Halacha and the rest of the nights he will be exempt because it is beyond his control. He should not split it into 8 cups and light less than the halachically required amount on each night. <ref> Chazon Ovadia pg. 28, Shu"t Sde Ha'aretz OC 3:34.
 +
*  The Beit Yosef famously asks why it is that we celebrate Chanuka for 8 days, if after all they had enough oil for one day, so the miracle was only for 7 days. One of the answers he proposes is that in they split the one cup of oil into 8 parts, and it miraculously lit for the full time. Accordingly, the Neta Sorek (Chiddushei Sugyot 73b) and Divrei Tzvi 671 write that if you only have enough oil for one night, you should split it into 8 cups. However, Chazon Ovadia pg. 28 writes that most poskim disagree and argue that there is no proof from there because the Beit Hamikdash was different because they were accustomed to miracles.</ref>
 +
# If one has two cups of oil on the second night, and can light the full amount for that night, but he doesn't have anything for the future nights, he should only light one that night and save the other for the next night. <ref> Chayei Adam 154:25, Chazon Ovadia pg. 29 </ref>
 +
# If, on the eighth night, one doesn't have enough for all 8 candles, he should put enough into one candle to light for the full time, and split the rest between other cups to light 8 for a short amount of time. He should not split all the oil into 8 and be left without a candle that will light for the full amount of time.<ref>Magen Avraham 671:1, Eliya Rabba 671:1, Chazon Ovadia pg. 29 </ref>
 +
# If on the second night, one only has one candle and he lights that one and later finds another candle, he cannot say a beracha on that second candle because you cannot say a beracha just for the hiddur.<Ref> Chazon Ovadia pg. 30 , Beit Yosef 672, Birkei Yosef 671:3</ref>
 +
# If on the third night, one only has enough oil to light two candles, he should only light one and not two.<ref> Chazon Ovadia pg. 31, Mishna Brura 671:5, Kaf Hachaim 671:10, Beit Halevi (Al Hatorah, Inyani Chanuka 29b), Chayei Adam 154:25, Shu"t Ketav Sofer 135, Shu"t Shevet Sofer 26, Aruch Hashulchan 671:10, Shu"t Mishpat Kohen 95. Avi Ezri (Chanuka 4:1) disagrees and says you should light as many candles as you have, even if it doesn't correspond to the night you are up to </ref> However, if he can split the second cup into two and light one full cup and two half cups, he should do so.<ref> Chazon Ovadia pg 32</ref>
 +
 
 +
==How long should the candles last?==
 +
For background, see the [[How Long Do Chanukah Candles Have To Be Lit?]] page.
 +
# The candles only need fuel to burn for a half hour<ref>Shulchan Aruch 672:2</ref> even nowadays when people are out in the street much later.<ref>[[Shabbat]] 21b says the time of Tichle Regel is when the Tarmodeans (merchants) leave, which the Rif says is about a half hour. The Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 4:5) and Orchot Chaim ([[Chanukah]] 15) write it’s a half hour or (a little) more. The Rosh (2:3), Rabben Yerucham 9:1, Meiri, S”A 672:2, Mishna Brurah 672:1 (who is strict to satisfy all opinions to light by [[Shekiah]] and have it last a half hour past Tzet), and Torat HaMoadim 4:5 agree that the candles need enough oil to be lit for a half hour. Some say that the practice of the Griz was that since the Gemara sets the ending time for candles as when people leave the marketplace, nowadays when many people stay at the marketplace late into the night one should have to light longer than a half hour. Indeed, Avodot VeHanagot LeBet Brisk says that the Griz himself challenged that idea when he heard it from another Rabbi in Brisk, yet he lit candles that lasted for very long only as a hiddur mitzvah. Also, Yomin DeChanukah and Leket Yoshar say there’s a hiddur mitzvah to light for longer than a half hour. However, Chazon Ovadiah pg 66, Sh”t Mishna Halachot 4 pg 79, and Sh”t Or Letzion 44 argue that the measure set by Chazal (a half hour) hasn’t changed because of the practice of our time. Halachos of Chanukah by Rabbi Eider p. 20 agrees.</ref>
 +
# If one doesn’t have enough for the each Hidur candle, the Hidur candles don’t need to burn for a half hour. <ref> Magen Avraham 671:1 </ref>
 +
# A person who is in doubt if his candles will last a half hour can nonetheless light with a bracha. <ref> Smag in name of the Ri, Hagahot Maimon ([[Chanukah]] 4:2), Ravyah (843 pg 579) in name of Rabbenu Tam hold that no minimum measure is needed (the gemara’s two explanation of ‘Tichleh Regel Min HaShuk’ argue and we hold the first explanation). Similarly, Hilchot and Minhagei Maharash in name of Rimzei HaRosh (quoted by Darkei Moshe 672:1), Piskei Tosfot ([[Shabbat]] 89), Leket Yoshar pg 151, Shiltei Giborim([[Shabbat]] 9a:5), Taharat Mayim Shuirei Tahara 8:9, Sh”t Chochavei Yitzchak 1:5(3), Sh”t Bear Tzvi 31 that nowadays when we don’t light for Parsumei Nisa of the public, we don’t need a minimum measure. Thus we have a Safek Safeka(double doubt) perhaps no minimum measure is needed and perhaps even if the measure is necessary, the candle will last the minimum measure. Chazon Ovadiah ([[Chanukah]] pg 67) says if one wants to make a bracha, he can make a bracha with this Safek Sefaka. For more about Safek Safaka BeBrachot see Sh”t Yachave Daat 5:21 (the footnote), Otzrot Yosef 4:3, and Sh”t Chazon Ovadiah 48 pg 866. </ref>
  
 
==Getting benefit from the light of the candles==
 
==Getting benefit from the light of the candles==
# It’s forbidden to get benefit from the light of the candles for the first half hour, even on minimal tasks like checking the value of a coin. <Ref> Shabbat 22a brought by S”A 673:1 writes that it’s a disgrace to mitzvah to benefit from the candles. Sh”t Ginat Veradim (Began HaMelech 42) writes that the prohibition applies equally to the new candle of mitzvah and extra candles of Hidur. So rules Bear Hetiev 673:2, Sh”T Ketav Sofer O”C 133, and Simchat Yehuda (Masechet Soferim 20:6). </ref>
+
# It’s forbidden to get benefit from the light of the candles for the first half hour, even on minimal tasks like checking the value of a coin. <Ref> [[Shabbat]] 22a brought by S”A 673:1 writes that it’s a disgrace to mitzvah to benefit from the candles. Sh”t Ginat Veradim (Began HaMelech 42) writes that the prohibition applies equally to the new candle of mitzvah and extra candles of Hidur. Bear Hetiev 673:2, Sh”t Ketav Sofer O”C 133, and Simchat Yehuda (Masechet Soferim 20:6) agree. </ref>
# However a minimal task that’s for a mitzvah is permitted, but learning by the light of the candles isn’t considered a minimal task. <Ref> Biur Halacha 673:1, quoted by Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673). </ref>  
+
# However a minimal task that’s for a mitzvah is permitted, but learning by the light of the candles isn’t considered a minimal task. <Ref> Beiur Halacha 673:1, quoted by Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673). </ref>
 +
# It is permitted to walk by the light of the Chanuka candles and that isn't considered benefiting.<ref>Yalkut Yosef (Moadim Asur Lishtamesh Lorah n. 3). One proof is the Yerushalmi that the Rosh (Seder Avodat Yom Kippur, cited by Bet Yosef 621:4) quotes that the Kohen Gadol would walk in the Kodesh Kadoshim by the light of the Aron. However, the Zohar 3:16a implies that the Kohen Gadol would close his eyes.</ref>
 
# Therefore it’s the Minhag to light a Shamash so that if one does use the light of the candles it’ll be permitted because of the Shamash. <Ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673) </ref>
 
# Therefore it’s the Minhag to light a Shamash so that if one does use the light of the candles it’ll be permitted because of the Shamash. <Ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673) </ref>
 
# The Shamash should be placed slightly higher than the other candles or recognizable distant from the others. <Ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673)</ref>
 
# The Shamash should be placed slightly higher than the other candles or recognizable distant from the others. <Ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673)</ref>
# Nowadays when we have electric lights if the lights are on some say one doesn’t need a Shamash and some say it’s still part of the Minhag. <Ref> Rav Kanievsky (Sefer Yamei Hallel VeHodah 25 note 11) says that the Minhag applies even if there’s electric candles. Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach (Berchat Moshe; quoted by Halichot Yosef pg 319) says if there are electric lights one doesn’t need a Shamash. </ref>
+
# Nowadays when we have electric lights if the lights are on some say one doesn’t need a Shamash and some say it’s still part of the Minhag. <Ref> Rav Kanievsky (Sefer Yamei [[Hallel]] VeHodah 25 note 11) says that the Minhag applies even if there’s electric candles. Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach (Berchat Moshe; quoted by Halichot Yosef pg 319) says if there are electric lights one doesn’t need a Shamash. </ref>
 
 
== If done incorrectly==
 
# If one missed lighting one day it can’t be made up and the next night one should light the number everyone else is lighting. <ref> S”A 672:2. Siddur Rashi 316 pg 151 quotes Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda who says that there’s no make up for a missed day, otherwise those who see will think you’re violating the words of the Rabbis. So writes the Tur 672. There’s a dispute whether this means that since it can’t be made up one doesn’t light the next night or one lights like the rest of the world. The Sh”t Maaseh Geonim (55 pg 43) quoting Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda that the next night one lights like everyone else. (Thus, Rabbenu Yitzchak means not to light the amount of the night he missed with the amount of that night because that would look like he’s going against the Rabbis); So hold Mordechai 2:268 explained by Sh”t Maharil 28, Agudah (Shabbat 31), Roke’ach 226 pg 128, Shibolei Leket 186, and Pardes Hagadol 199. However, Sefer Minhagim in name of Meharar MeMerizberg writes that the next night one should light the number of candles you missed last night. [He understood Rabbenu Yitzchak quoted by the Tur that one can’t add 8 candles on the 9th night.] Darkei Moshe 672:3 holds like the Agudah and Rokeach against the Maharam.</ref>
 
# If one lit two candles on the first night, he fulfills his obligation and doesn’t have to relight the right number of candles. <ref> Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo O”C 380 says adding to the number doesn’t ruin the mitzvah as the Rama 263 says by Shabbat candles. However, Sh”t Ohel Moshe 69 and Sh”t Mishna Sachir O”C 199 argue since he lit the wrong number someone seeing this will think he didn’t lit it for Chanuka candles just for light. Yet, the Pri Chadash 675 says one who extinguishes the candles fulfills the mitzvah since the candles are in a Chanukiya that’s only used for Chanuka it’s recognizable that he lit for Chanuka. Also, Eliya Raba 671:7 says the first night doesn’t need to illustrate the number of the nights. Sh”t Lehorot Natan 2:51, Sh”t Shraga HaMeir 4:73, 5:75(1), Sh”t Shevet Hakehati 1:202 hold like Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo. Chazon Ovadiah (Mitzvah Hadlaka 6, pg 29) agrees and adds that one who repeats and makes a bracha is making a bracha levatala.</ref>
 
 
 
== Placement of the Chanukia/Direction of Lighting==
 
# [All left and right’s are for someone standing inside the house looking at the doorway.] The Chanukia should be placed within a tefach of the right side of the door, opposite the post with the mezuzah. The first night the candle should be placed on the right most side of the Chanukia, furthest from the door. The second night the two candles should be placed on the right most spots and be lit from left to right (the way English is written), moving your hand away from the door,  always lighting the new candle first. <ref> S”A 676:5, Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 108c), Nagid VeMitzvah (26:72), Mahari Kolon 183, Mordechai (Shabbat 2:268), Maharil (quoted by the Magan Avraham 676:5), Trumat Hadeshen 106, and Bet Yosef 676 hold that one lights from left to right so that “all your turns are to the right”. However Levush and Taz (676:6) say if there’s a mezuzah one sets the first night’s candle on the left most side, closest to the door. The second night the candles are put in the left most spots and are always lit from right to left. So hold Maaseh Rav 232, Sh”t Panim Meirot 1:98, Sh”t Semach Tzedek O”C 67. However Pri HaChadash, Bear Sheva (Sotah 15b), Nezirut Shimshon (Sotah 15b), Sh”t Chatam Sofer O”C 187, Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 33) argue on the Levush and hold like S”A. A third approach is that of the Gra who says that instead of lighting the newest candle first one must light the same candle first every night. Thus if there’s a mezuzah one set up the candles closer to the door on the left side of the Chanukia and lit from left to right. Mishna Brurah 676:5 quotes the Bet Yosef and the Gra and concludes one can do like either one. However the follow hold like S”A against the Gra: Kovetz Hamoedim (Moriah pg 61), Evan Israel (9 pg 129a), Sadeh HaAretz O”C 3:33, Nehar Mitzrayim Chanuka 7, and Kaf HaChaim 676:31.  </ref>
 
# If there’s no Mezuzah on the door, the Chanukia should be put within a tefach of the left side of the door (where the mezuzah usually goes). The first night the candle should be placed on the right most side of the Chanukia, closest from the door. The second night the two candles should be placed on the right most spots and be lit from left to right (the way English is written), moving your hand towards the door, always lighting the new candle first. <ref> S”A 671:7 rules if there’s no mezuzah the candles should be put on the left side where the mezuzah usually goes, so says Sefer HaManhig, Ravyah 843, Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:8) in name of Rabbenu Simcha, Mordechai (Shabbat 2:266) in name of Rabbenu Yakar, Or Zaruh (2:323) in name of Rabbenu Efraim, Sh”t Maharam MeRotenberg (defus prag 66), Likutim Mehilchot Amarchal 24b, Hagot Rabbenu Peretz to Smak 280, Ran (Shabbat 22a), Tur 671, and Sh”t Maharil 40 against the Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 3), Kol Bo 44, and Sefer HaMeorot (Shabbat 22a) who say even without a mezuzah it’s still put on the right. [Note to reader: the right and left used in this footnote is the reverse of the language found in the sources brought in this footnote because the sources are looking from the perspective of someone walking into the house with the mezuzah on his right, however the sources by the directions of lighting discuss it from the perspective of someone standing inside or outside (by the entrance) facing the public domain [for example: the newest candle is the one closer to the door and it’s lit first so that one’s hand is moving left to right so that “all your turns are to the right” (Bet Yosef)]. For conformity, the directions here are all set to the directions of lighting (which are more easily confused).] </ref>
 
# If there’s a courtyard in front of a house it should be put by the doorway of the courtyard and not the doorway of house. But one who lives in an upper floor without a doorway to the public, should light by a window or porch facing the public. <ref> Rashi (Shabbat 21a D”H Mibachutz) says the chanukia isn’t put in the reshut harabim but in the courtyard. The Rashba and Ran explain this to mean that it should be put at the doorway to the house and not the doorway to the courtyard. So holds the Smag (Chanuka) in name of the Ri (not the same one as tosfot, see Bach 671:5), Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:30) in name of Ri, Riaz(Shabbat 21a), and Shiltei Giborim(Shabbat 21a). However Tosfot (Shabbat 21a D”H Mitzvah) writes it should be put outside the entrance to the courtyard. So holds Piskei Rid, Rashba, Tur, and S”A 671:5. Rashi (Shabbat 21b D”H im haya dar ba’aliya) writes that one living in an upper floor only puts it by the window if he has no place to put it in the courtyard (this fits with his opinion of putting it in the courtyard not on the entrance). Similarly, the Tur says one puts it by the window only if one doesn’t have a doorway to the public. Implying that if one has a courtyard or door facing the public, that’s preferable to a window. [However Bet Yosef 671:5 comments on the Tur that only if the door to the public or a entrance of a courtyard but if the doorway to the apartment goes into the house itself, putting it by the doorway to the public or courtyard won’t be recognizable that it belongs to the apartment and so it must be put in the window. Nonetheless, Torat HaMoadim 3:2 based on Ritva (Shabbat 21b) says that the Bet Yosef’s concern doesn’t apply to the stairwell because it’s known that all the tenants have rights to the stairwell an upper floor apartment can still put a chanukia there.] </ref>
 
# In an apartment building some say that the stairwell is a courtyard and one should light at the entrance to the stairwell towards the public domain <ref>Maadei Shlomo pg 110, Halichot Shlomo 14:1, Shevut Yitzchak  vol 5 pg 7 in name of Rav Elyashiv, Kol Bo Chanuka (pg 98) in name of the Griz and Rabbi Yosef Kahenmen</ref> while others say that nowadays we don’t use the stairwell like a courtyard thus light in the apartment itself. <Ref>Orchot Rabbenu (vol 3 pg 3) in name of the Chazon Ish (similar to Chazon Ish OC Eiruvin 65:52) and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 198; Rav Ovadyah in Kol Torah 5725) </ref>
 
# Nowadays one doesn’t have to light a Chanukia for a door on a side of the house for which there is no Chanukia. <ref> Shabbat 23a Rav Huna says because of suspicion if a house has two doors (to the outside) he should light by both, and Rava explains that’s only if the doors are on separate sides. So holds Rambam (Chanuka 4:10), Tur and S”A 671:8. However nowadays one doesn’t have to light because of suspicion. So holds Sefer HaTruma 228, Smak 280, Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 13) in name of Rabbi Yehuda MeKorvin, Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:30) in name of Rabbenu Simcha, Sh”t HaRashba 1:541, Ritva (Shabbat 23a), Meiri, Mordechai (Shabbat 2:266), Sefer HaMeorot (Shabbat 23a), Shibolei HaLeket 185, Ohel Moed (Chanuka 5, Rama 671, Sh”t Maharshal, Hagot Maharikash, Pri Chadash, Sh”t Bet David O”C 472, Torat HaMoadim 3:8. </ref>
 
# Nowadays many have the practice to light indoors even not when it’s dangerous to light outside. Still it should be put to the left of the door (opposite the mezuzah) within a tefach of door. However if there’s a window facing the public, one should light by the window. [Some are strict to light outside with a covering.]  <ref> Seemingly the only exemption to lighting outside is a time of danger as in Shabbat 21b. Rashi and Tosfot (D”H Ubeshat Sakanah) explain that it was outlawed by the king to light. Thus Or Zaruh 2:323 asks, now, when there isn’t danger, why don’t we light outside. However Itur 2 pg 114d, Shibolei Leket 185, and HaOhel Moed (Chanuka 5) say that once there was a Minhag not to light outside because of danger, the Minhag stayed in place. Another reason to be lenient is the Ritva (Shabbat 21b), and Rabbenu Perachya who say a prevention to light outside such as wind is also called “time of danger”. Similarly, Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1, Siddur Rav Amram Goan, Hilchot Kesuvot Min HaGoenim, Darkei Moshe 671:9, Bach 671e hold that since thieves come (which is also called “danger”), they would light inside. [Sh”t Imrei Noam 2:29, Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 6:66 quotes Megilat Taanit 1 says because of fear of scoffers the practice is to light inside.] Nonetheless Meiri (Shabbat 21b), Tosfot (Shabbat 45a D”H Makmi) in name of Ri, Rid, Riaz, Ran, Pri Chadash implies from S”A 671:5 that a “danger” is when it’s forbidden to light (and not just a fear of thievery). Still Raavad, Rashba, Sefer Trumah, and Ritva (against the Rambam) hold that if one lights inside not at the time of danger one fulfills his obligation after the fact. Others who defend the practice to light inside include: Tzafnat Pane’ach (Chanuka 3:3), Yaskil Avdi O”C 7:46, and Torat HaMoadim 3:4. Mishna Brurah 671:35 writes [Sh”t Dvar Yehoshua 1:40 says nowadays one can only light indoors and it doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah to light outside. However Yalkut Yosef (Moadim 231-2) quotes Rav Ovadyah’s response to this that it’s better to light outside but one is allowed to light inside.] </ref>
 
# Someone who lives in a yeshiva or college setting where one eats in a different building than he sleeps, some have the Minhag to light by the place he eats and some have Minhag to light where he sleeps. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 2:5. If there’s a cafeteria(place to eat) and dorms(place to sleep) in one building one can light wherever in the building there’s more Pirsume Nisa (Publicizing the miracle) such as the entrance to the cafeteria, in the cafeteria, entrance to the dorms, or in the dorms. If the cafeteria and dorm are separate building is a dispute of the Achronim sourced in the Sh”t 1:542 who says that if one eats daily at someone’s house he must join in the lighting at that house. So the Rama 677:1 rules the main place for the Chanuka candles is where he eats. So holds the Taz 677:2 and Leket Yoshar. However Sh”t Maharshal 85 says the place where one sleeps is primary. So holds Sefer Yosef Ometz Yuzfa 1071, Sh”t Rivivot Efarim in name of Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe (Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe O”C 3:70(3), Y”D 3:14(5)), and Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 7:48; Chazon Ish holds that the primary place is the place of eating but says as a stringency one should also light without a bracha by the place of sleeping. </ref>
 
# One must light in the place where the Chanukia is going to stay. Thus, one shouldn’t light indoors and then move the Chanukia outside or light it in one’s hand and then put it down. If one did so, one should extinguish the candles and relight without a bracha. Consequently, a sick person should light while in bed and then have the Chanukia moved but rather should let another household member light. <ref> Shabbat 22b Rava’s statement, so rules Rambam (Chanuka 4:9), Tur and S”A (675:1). Pri Chadash says one shouldn’t make a bracha if one needs to light again, against Hagot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 675 who says to make a bracha. Because of Safek Brachot one shouldn’t make a bracha (in addition to the idea that perhaps one fulfills the mitzvah not it’s place if it’s recognizable that it’s lit for Chanuka- Sh”t Lev Chaim 3:146), so holds Torat HaMoadim 3:9 and Sh”t Hitorerut Teshuva 2:110. [Also, a sefek sefeka isn’t sufficient to allow a bracha- see Yechava Daat 5:21] Torat HaMoadim 3:9 quotes the ruling of a sick person from Sh”t Lev Chaim 3:146. </ref>
 
===Windy place===
 
# In a place where it’s windy (which would blow out the candle) one is allowed to light inside. Some are strict to light outside with a glass covering. However one should be careful to light with the glass covering on and not that after lighting one covers it with the glass. <ref> Aruch HaShulchan 671:24 says our practice isn’t to light outside since in our areas it commonly rains, snows and there’s strong wind. Also the Rabbis didn’t impose such a burden of setting up a glass case for the Chanukia. Sh”t Shelit Yaavetz 149 writes that one should light outside with a glass covering, implying if there’s wind me’ikar hadin one doesn’t need to light outside. Torat HaMoadim Chanuka 3:3 requires with the glass covering on is because otherwise it’s like lighting a candle that can’t last a half hour which S”A 675:2 renders the lighting unfit even if more fuel is added later. So too Shiltei Giborim (Shabbat 21b), Piskei Riaz, Rivta, Rabbenu Perachya, Back 673, Magan Avraham 673:12, Taz 673e, Pri Chadash, and Eliyah Rabba 673:14 write that one can’t light in a place where the wind would blow it out. Mikrei Kodesh (Chanuka 17) writes that the Mahril Disken would light with the covering on so that at the time he lit he could leave it and it’d stay lit without closing the covering, however he defends the Minhag to light and then put on the cover. </ref>
 
# One shouldn’t light in a place where it’s windy. If one did so and it gets blown out within a half hour one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation, therefore one should relight without a Bracha. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 673:25 writes that just like one shouldn’t light without sufficient amount of oil, one shouldn’t light in a place that’s windy. If one did so and the wind blows it out one should relight it without a Bracha. </ref>
 
# If one lit in a windy area and the candles last a half hour so say that retroactively one fulfilled the mitzvah, while others say that one didn’t fulfill the mitzvah and should relight without a Bracha. <Ref> Sh”t Har Tzvi Siman 114 writes that if the wind doesn’t blow it out certainly one fulfills the obligation retroactively. Rav Shlomo Zalman in Halichot Shlomo (16:6 pg 301) agrees. However, Rav Chaim Kanievsky and Rav Nassim Karlitz quoted in Kovetz Shemuot (Chanuka pg 123) who argue that since it wasn’t light properly even if it doesn’t get blown out one doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah and one should relight without a Bracha.</ref>
 
===Glass cases===
 
# Some achronim say that one shouldn’t light with the glass case doors wide open when one lights and then close them after lighting if it’s a windy place, while most others argue that one may be lenient. <Ref>The Maharal Diskin (quoted by Mikrei Kodesh siman 17 and Moadim UZmanim vol 2 siman 142) holds that one shouldn’t light with the glass case doors open because at the time of the lighting the candles have to able to burn for a half hour and in this case at the time of lighting they were in a windy place. So held the Griz (quoted by Piskei Teshuvot 673:5). However, Rav Chaim Zonenfeld in Sh”t Shelmat Chaim Siman 261 disagrees with the Maharal Diskin. Rav Tzvi Pesach Frank in Sh”t Har Tzvi Siman 114 agrees with Rav Chaim Zonenfeld because one’s intention and completion of lighting was to close the doors. Rav Shternbach in Moadim UZmanim 2:142, Rav Shlomo Zalman in Minchat Shlomo 58:1 (and Halichot Shlomo 16:6), Rav Chaim Kanievsky in Taama DeKra Parshat Vayeshev, and Rav Ovadyah Yosef in Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 675:2) concur with the lenient position. </ref>
 
# Having two Chanukiot in one case can be an issue of lacking recognition of the day of Chanuka and so one Chanukia should be raised so that the flames are seen separately. <Ref>Or Yisrael (Dardak pg 86), Kol MeHeichal (pg 520) in name of Rav Ovadyah Auerbach, and Or Yisrael (Blinsky pg 105) </ref>
 
 
 
== Heights of placement of Chanukia==
 
# The Chanukia should be placed between 3 and 10 tefachim (between 24 and 80 centimeters) from the ground of the house. If it’s placed above 10 tefachim, one fulfilled the obligation. <ref> Shabbat 21b the statement of Ravina that it’s a mitzvah (preferable) to place it below ten; Ran (9b D”H Garsi) in name of Rabbenu Chananel and Rabbenu Yonah, Rashba (Shabbat 21b Amar Ravina), Rosh (Shabbat 2:5), Smag (Chanuka 250d), Smak (280,277), Tur and S”A 671:6 hold like Ravina even though the gemara questions him. Bet Yosef 671:6 says since the Rif and Rambam don’t mention this it means you can place it anywhere, but to fulfill everyone’s opinion one should put it below 10. Also Orchot Chaim pg 117d:3 and Kol Bo hold explicitly like Rambam and Rif that only after the fact can light under 10. [Moreover Seder Hayom and Gefen Poriah (Bava Kama 62b) that one doesn’t fulfill his obligation if less than 10.] The Bet Yosef brings the dispute of the Mordechai (Shabbat 266) who writes that since everyone lights indoors, one can light even above 10 and the Tur (671:6) who writes to place it within 10 not differentiating between indoors and outside. Tur 671:6 in name of Maharam MeRotenberg holds that one should place it above 3 tefachim. So holds Mordechai Shabbat 266, S”A 671:6. Birkat Yosef Yedid 3 pg 207, Sh”t Kinyan Torah 1:131(2) imply from Orchot Chaim that under three tefachim doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah. However most argue than if it’s lit less than 3, one still fulfills the obligation including. Yet, Pri Chadash 671, Pri Megadim A”A 671:6, Mishna Brurah 671:26, Kaf HaChaim 671:50, Torat HaMoadim 3:5, and Shaar Shlomo (51, pg 33d) who says someone on the road can even light on the ground. </ref>
 
# If it’s above 20 amot (9.6 meters) one doesn’t fulfill the obligation and should extinguish the candle and relight it in the proper height without a bracha. <ref> Shabbat 22a Rav says it can’t be above 20 amot. Tosfot (D”H Ner) says it can’t just be lowered since the mitzvah was already done incorrectly. Tur(671:6), Bach, Taz, Pri Chadash, Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tzion 671:33) says indoors it can be above 20 amot against the Rabbenu Yoel (Ravyah 843) and Rabbi Yitzchak Avuhav (quoted by the Bet Yosef). If one put it above 20 amot, Pri Chadash, Mishna Brurah 671:29 say to relight with a Bracha. Kaf Hachaim (671:53) limits the ruling of the Pri Chadash to only where one finished lighting and stopped thinking about it. However Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 35) and Torat HaMoadim 3:6 say to relight without a bracha because of the opinion of Rabbenu Yoel (Pri Megadim A”A 671:7), [and Hareri Kodesh who says that perhaps according to Meiri and Shiltot one should repeat Sh’assa Nissim]. </ref>
 
# Similarly someone who lives an upper floor apartment, should light by the door of the apartment and if they want they can light at the window even if it’s above 20 amot. Some have the custom to light by the apartment building entrance. <ref> Ritva (Shabbat 21b D”H VeIm Dar) says someone living in an upper floor should light by the window that’s above 20 amot. Pri Chadash 671:6, Pri Megadim A”A 671:8, Machsit HaShekel 671:6 say to light it by the door of the apartment. Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 36) says that one living in an apartment on the fifth floor (just an example) should light inside his house by the door and if he wants he can light by the window that’s above 20 amot as it’s Pirsume Nisa for the household members and to those on the street according Rabbenu Yoel and for others in a building across the street at the same height (similar to Kol Bo Chanuka pg 99). The custom of lighting by the apartment entrance is sourced in halacha 17. </ref>
 
# The measurements are measured to the flame of the candle. <ref> Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tzion 671:33), Chazon Ovadyah (Chanuka pg 36b) say to measure from the flame of the candle like the Pri Megadim (M”Z 671:5) [However Leket Yosher (Chanuka pg 150) writes in name of a student of the Trumat HaDeshen that just the bottom has to be within 10 tefachim.] </ref>
 
# If one is lighting in a window, preferably the candles should be within 10 Tefachim from the floor, however, the there’s no issue of lighting in the window above 10 Tefachim. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 671:27, Piskei Teshuvot 671:8 </ref>
 
<table width="700" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" bordercolor="#000000" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><tr>
 
<td><span class="style5"> 0 </span></td>
 
<td><span class="style5"> Rav Chaim Noeh </span></td>
 
<td><span class="style5"> Chazon Ish </span></td>
 
</tr><tr>
 
<td> 3 Tefachim </td>
 
<td> 24 cm </td>
 
<td> 28.8 cm </td>
 
</tr><tr>
 
<td> 10 Tefachim </td>
 
<td> 80 cm </td>
 
<td> 96 cm </td>
 
</tr><tr>
 
<td> 20 Amot </td>
 
<td> 9.6 meters </td>
 
<td> 11.52 meters </td>
 
</tr>
 
</table>
 
# Some say that regarding this law one can follow the more lenient of the two measurements. <Ref>Piskei Teshuvot 671:7 </ref>
 
  
 
== Who’s Obligated?==
 
== Who’s Obligated?==
# Women are obligated in Chanuka candles since they too were part of the miracle of Chanuka. Thus a man who is away traveling he should have his wife light at home for him to fulfill his obligation. Even if he will come that night later than tzet hakochavim (the night to light Chanuka candles), he should still have his wife light. Ashkenazim who have the Minhag that everyone in the household lights and they are able to light where they are should light without a bracha. <ref> S”A 565:5 says that women are obligated in Chanuka candles based on Shabbat 23a, Rambam (Chanuka 4:9), and Tur 565. Piskei Maharam Riketani (154) holds women can fulfill a man’s obligation on his behalf. So holds Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1, Rokeach Chanuka 226:3, Ritva and Meiri (Shabbat 23a, Megilah 4a), Maharil (Chanuka pg 407). Levush (675), Bach (675), Taz(675:4), Magan Avraham 675:4, Olot Shabbat 675:1, Pri Chadash 675:4, Eliyah Raba 675:6, Sh”t Shar Efraim 42, Shulchan Gavoha 675:6, Mor Ukesia 675:6, machzik Bracha 675:4, Mishna Brurah 675:9. Sh”t Yechava Daat 3:51 writes that since some rishonim and achronim hold one can only light at tzet hakochavim one should let his wife light at the right time and fulfill his obligation according to all opinions. The Yechava Daat holds like the Chaye Adam 154:33. Kaf Hachiam 676:25. Chaye Adam adds that Ashkenazim can light without a bracha. Interesting point: S”A 689:2 says a women can read the megillah to fulfill for a man his obligation of megillah, and some hold otherwise. [Bahag (quoted by Tosfot Megilah 4a, Erchin 3a) and Morchedai 4a in name of Ravyah (Megilah 569,843) hold women can’t fulfill the obligation of a man, but Rashi Erchin 3a, Or Zaruh 2:324, Rambam(Megilah 1), Rif (quoted by Sefer Eshkol 2:30) hold a women can fulfill  obligation of a man]. However Smag (brought by Magan Avraham 589:5), Itur (Megilah 113d), Eshkol 2 pg 30 differentiate between Megilah which is like Torah reading but by Chanuka women can fulfill the man’s obligation according to everyone. Also Torat Moadim Chanuka pg 40 says the Behag only held a women can fulfill megilah for a man since a women’s obligation is derebanan and a man’s is from divrei kabalah (Ketuvim). Similarly, Sh”t Maharash Halevi O”C 24 says Chanuka isn’t an obligation on each person but on the household and so a women can fulfill it for a man. Thus even those who say by Megilah a woman can’t fulfill a man’s obligation agree by Chanuka. </ref>
+
# Women are obligated in [[Chanukah]] candles since they too were part of the miracle of [[Chanukah]].<ref>The Gemara [[Shabbat]] (23a) says that women are obligated in lighting [[chanuka]] candles because they too were part of the miracle of [[chanuka]]. Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 4:9), Tur 665, and S”A 665:5 codify this as halacha. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 139:16 and Chazon Ovadia pg. 25 concur </ref> Thus, a man who is away should have his wife light at home for him to fulfill his obligation. Even if he will come that night, but later than [[Tzet HaKochavim]], he should still have his wife light. Ashkenazim who have the Minhag that everyone in the household lights, and they are able to light where they are, should light without a bracha. <ref>
# A deaf and mute, insane, or child not bar/bat-mitzvah isn’t obligated to light and so can’t fulfill the obligation of someone who is obligated. However a deaf who can speak is obligated and can fulfill the obligation of others. <ref> Shabbat 23a says a deaf, insane person, and child isn’t obligated. So holds Rambam (Chanuka 4:9), Tur and S”A 675:3. The Mishna Trumot 1:2 defines deaf in Talmud as deaf and mute, but someone just deaf is obligated like anyone else. So quotes Pri Megadim M”Z 670:5, Mishna Brurah 675:12, and Torat HaMoadim 2:19. There’s a dispute whether a child who is at the age of Chinuch can fulfill the obligation of an adult. Bet Yosef 675e quotes the Ran (Shabbat 23a) in name of the Itur (Chanuka pg 116a) that a child can fulfill the obligation of an adult. So writes the Shibolei HaLeket 185, Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 12). However Meiri writes that he disagrees with the Rabbis of Provincia who say a child at age of chinuch can fulfill the obligation of an adult. [Seemingly, this is the opinion of Tosfot (Megilah 19b concerning megilah) that a double derabanan (child only obligated on a chinuch level and it’s only a derabanan mitzvah) can’t fulfill the mitzvah of one obligated on level of rabanan (adult for a mitzvah derabanan). The Tur 689 writes that so is the opinion of the Bahag and Rosh. However Bet Yosef 53 in name of Sh”t HaRashba 1:239, and Raavad disagree with Tosfot.] S”A 675:3 says a child isn’t obligated to light but some permit “a child at age of chinuch to fulfill the obligation of others” Yet, it’s a dispute in the Achronim whether S”A meant it as “Setam and then Yesh Omerim” (anonymous and then a disagreeing opinion) in which case we hold like the anonymous opinion or that it’s not a dispute but the “some say” was just explaining the first line. Magan Avraham 689:4 (as understood by Pri Megadim A”A 689:4), Sh”t Zivchei Tzedek 3:41 say that S”A meant the “some say” is just explanatory. However, Yaavetz in Mor U’Kesia 689 understands S”A that we hold like the anonymous opinion. So holds Sh”t Kol Gadol 100, Chelko Shel Yedid pg 58b, Sh”t Olat Shmuel 105e, Pri Chadash 675:3, Ben Ish Chai Veyeshev 19, Mishna Brurah 675:13, and Torat HaMoadim 2:19. </ref>
+
* Piskei Maharam Riketani (154) holds women can fulfill a man’s obligation on his behalf. This is also the opinion of Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1, Rokeach [[Chanukah]] 226:3, Ritva and Meiri ([[Shabbat]] 23a, Megilah 4a), Baal Hamaor Megilla 19b in the name of the Itur, Maharil ([[Chanukah]] pg 407). Levush (675), Bach (675), Taz(675:4), Magen Avraham 675:4, Olot [[Shabbat]] 675:1, Pri [[Chadash]] 675:4, Eliyah Raba 675:6, Sh”t Shar Efraim 42, Shulchan Gavoha 675:6, Mor Ukesia 675:6, Machzik Bracha 675:4, Mishna Brurah 675:9, Chazon Ovadia pg. 25.
# A blind person is obligated in lighting. If he’s married, his wife should light for him, if he lives alone he should light. <ref> Sh”t Maharshal 76, Magan Avraham 675:4, Eliyah Raba 675:7 write that a blind is obligated and preferably should fulfill it through joining with other house members or his wife, otherwise they can light own their own. </ref>
+
* Sh”t Yechave Daat 3:51 writes that since some rishonim and achronim hold one can only light at [[Tzet HaKochavim]], one should let his wife light at the right time and fulfill his obligation according to all opinions. The Yechave Daat holds like the Chaye Adam 154:33, Kaf Hachaim 676:25. Chaye Adam adds that Ashkenazim can light without a bracha.  
# Even though a child, who is the age of chinuch but not bar/bat mitzvah, can’t fulfill the obligation of others, the one making the bracha can light the first candle and then let the child light the other candles. However a child who isn’t at the age of chinuch, shouldn’t light any of the candles except for the Shamash. <ref> Levush 671, Yaavetz in Mor U’Kesia 671, and Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 18 hold the making the bracha should light all the candles. However Sh”t Maharshal 85, Magan Avraham 671:11, Mishna Brurah 671:49, Ruach Chaim 671:3, and Torat HaMoadim 2:20 (he writes that his father Rav Ovadyah Yosef would hold his hands while lighting in order to satisfy all opinions). </ref>
+
* Interesting point: S”A 689:2 says a women can read the [[megillah]] for a man to fulfill his obligation of [[megillah]], and some hold otherwise. [Bahag (quoted by Tosfot Megilah 4a, Erchin 3a) and Morchedai 4a in name of Ravyah (Megilah 569,843) hold women can’t fulfill the obligation of a man, but Rashi Erchin 3a, Or Zaruh 2:324, Rambam (Megilah 1), Rif (quoted by Sefer Eshkol 2:30) hold a woman can fulfill the obligation of a man]. However Smag (brought by Magen Avraham 589:5), Itur (Megilah 113d), Eshkol 2 pg 30 differentiate between Megilah which is like Torah reading, but by [[Chanukah]] women can fulfill the man’s obligation according to everyone. Also Torat Moadim [[Chanukah]] pg. 40 says the Behag only held a women can fulfill megilah for a man since a woman’s obligation is derebanan and a man’s is from divrei kabalah (Ketuvim). Similarly, Sh”t Maharash Halevi O”C 24 says [[Chanukah]] isn’t an obligation on each person but on the household and so a women can fulfill it for a man. Thus even those who say by Megilah a woman can’t fulfill a man’s obligation, agree by [[Chanukah]] that she can. </ref>
# A mourner in the first 7 days can light and make Brachot [however he shouldn’t light in shul on the first night because of the Shechianu, even in the 30 days of mourning or 12 months for a parent.] <ref> Sh”t Maharam Mintz 43, Sefer Mnhagim of Rav Yitzchak Tirna (Yom Kippur 155), Taz 671:8 write that a mourner shouldn’t light in shul the first night because of Shechiyanu. The Nodea Benyehuda Tanina O”C 141 writes that at home one can light even the first night with shechiyanu. So holds Machzik Bracha 671:10, Birkei Yosef Y”D 205:14m,Bet HaRoeh pg 59, Chatom Sofer on S”A 671, Chaye Adam 154:17, Sh”t Binyan Olan O”C 35, Sh”t Olat Shmuel 106, Sh”t Machane Chaim Y”D 2:61, Sh”t Rav Poalim O”C 4:36, Siddur Bet Ovad pf 160b:2, Kemach Solet 137d, Shulchan Lechem HaPanim 676e, Mishna Brurah 671:44, and Kaf HaChaim 671:73. </ref>
+
# A deaf and mute, insane, or child not bar/bat-mitzvah isn’t obligated to light and so can’t fulfill the obligation of someone who is obligated. However a deaf who can speak is obligated and can fulfill the obligation of others. <ref> [[Shabbat]] 23a says a deaf, insane person, and a child aren’t obligated. This is also the opinion of Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 4:9), Tur and S”A 675:3. The Mishna Trumot 1:2 defines deaf in Talmud as deaf and mute, but someone just deaf is obligated like anyone else. So quotes Pri Megadim M”Z 670:5, Mishna Brurah 675:12, and Torat HaMoadim 2:19. There’s a dispute whether a child who is at the age of [[Chinuch]] can fulfill the obligation of an adult. Bet Yosef 675e quotes the Ran ([[Shabbat]] 23a) in name of the Itur ([[Chanukah]] pg 116a) that a child can fulfill the obligation of an adult. So writes the Shibolei HaLeket 185, Orchot Chaim ([[Chanukah]] 12). However Meiri writes that he disagrees with the Rabbis of Provincia who say a child at age of [[chinuch]] can fulfill the obligation of an adult. [Seemingly, this is the opinion of Tosfot (Megilah 19b concerning megilah) that a double derabanan (child only obligated on a [[chinuch]] level and it’s only a derabanan mitzvah) can’t fulfill the mitzvah of one obligated on level of rabanan (adult for a mitzvah derabanan). The Tur 689 writes that so is the opinion of the Bahag and Rosh. However Bet Yosef 53 in name of Sh”t HaRashba 1:239, and Raavad disagree with Tosfot.] S”A 675:3 says a child isn’t obligated to light but some permit “a child at age of [[chinuch]] to fulfill the obligation of others” Yet, it’s a dispute in the Achronim whether S”A meant it as “Setam and then Yesh Omerim” (anonymous and then a disagreeing opinion) in which case we hold like the anonymous opinion or that it’s not a dispute but the “some say” was just explaining the first line. Magen Avraham 689:4 (as understood by Pri Megadim A”A 689:4), Sh”t Zivchei Tzedek 3:41 say that S”A meant the “some say” is just explanatory. However, Yaavetz in Mor U’Kesia 689 understands S”A that we hold like the anonymous opinion. This is also the opinion of Sh”t Kol Gadol 100, Chelko Shel Yedid pg 58b, Sh”t Olat Shmuel 105e, Pri [[Chadash]] 675:3, Ben Ish Chai Veyeshev 19, Mishna Brurah 675:13, and Torat HaMoadim 2:19. </ref>
# A mourner on the first day is exempt as he is exempt from all mitzvoth and so he should have a household member who isn’t a mourner light with a bracha, if that’s not possible, he should have another person light without a bracha. <ref> Eliyah Raba 670:19 writes one should have someone else light and answer amen. However, Erech HaShulchan 670:3 writes one should light without a bracha. Kaf Hachaim 670:20 explains that this is only a dispute if the first-day mourner is alone, otherwise his wife or a household member can fulfill for him his obligation. Pri Megadim M”Z 670:5 agrees with Eliyah Raba but argues that one can’t answer amen as in S”A Y”D 341 where we follow the anonymous opinion that a first-day mourner doesn’t answer amen. Torat HaMoadim 2:24 agrees with Erech HaShulchan. </ref>
+
# A blind person is obligated in lighting. If he’s married, his wife should light for him, if he lives alone he should light. <ref> Sh”t Maharshal 76, Magen Avraham 675:4, Eliyah Raba 675:7 write that a blind is obligated and preferably should fulfill it through joining with other house members or his wife, otherwise they can light own their own. </ref>
# A convert can make all the Brachot and say “She’assa Nissim Le’avotenu” but if he wants can change it to say “She’assa Nissim LeYisrael”. <ref> Sh”t Rambam (Pasya edition 158, Kisei Nirdamim Mehuderet Fredman 42, Mehuderet Belav 293) writes that a convert can say all of the Brachot like every Jew because he converted he becomes a descendant of Avraham and part of the Jewish people for all their history, however if he wants to change the brachot that relate to the Jewish history such as Yetsiat Mitzrayim, and Chanuka. So quotes Sh”t Rashba 7:54, Hagot Mordechai Megilah 1:786, Sh”t Ridvaz 5:520; Torat HaMoadim 2:25 says this is also the opinion of S”A based on S”A O”C 53:19, 199:9. </ref>
+
# A child, even if he is the age of [[chinuch]] but not bar/bat mitzvah, may not fulfill the obligation of others. However, the one making the bracha can light the first candle and then let the child light the other candles. However a child who isn’t at the age of [[chinuch]], shouldn’t light any of the candles except for the Shamash. <ref> Levush 671, Yaavetz in Mor U’Kesia 671, and Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 18 hold the making the bracha should light all the candles. However, Sh”t Maharshal 85, Magen Avraham 671:11, Mishna Brurah 671:49, Ruach Chaim 671:3, and Torat HaMoadim 2:20 (he writes that his father Rav Ovadyah Yosef would hold his hands while lighting in order to satisfy all opinions). </ref>
==Who should rely on the household’s lighting?==
+
# A mourner in the first 7 days can light and make [[Brachot]] [however he shouldn’t light in shul on the first night because of the Shechianu, even in the 30 days of [[mourning]] or 12 months for a parent.] <ref> Sh”t Maharam Mintz 43, Sefer Mnhagim of Rav Yitzchak Tirna ([[Yom Kippur]] 155), Taz 671:8 write that a mourner shouldn’t light in shul the first night because of [[Shehecheyanu]]. The Nodea Benyehuda Tanina O”C 141 writes that at home one can light even the first night with [[shechiyanu]]. This is also the opinion of Machzik Bracha 671:10, Birkei Yosef Y”D 205:14m,Bet HaRoeh pg 59, Chatom Sofer on S”A 671, Chaye Adam 154:17, Sh”t Binyan Olan O”C 35, Sh”t Olat Shmuel 106, Sh”t Machane Chaim Y”D 2:61, Sh”t Rav Poalim O”C 4:36, Siddur Bet Ovad pf 160b:2, Kemach Solet 137d, Shulchan Lechem HaPanim 676e, Mishna Brurah 671:44, and Kaf HaChaim 671:73. </ref>
# A married woman should rely on her husband’s lighting. Unmarried girls who in still live at in their father’s home can rely on their father’s lighting even according to the Ashkenazic custom. If they want to light, Ashkenazim can light with a Bracha. <ref> A married women is exempt by her husband because “Ishto Kegufo Dami”(a husband and wife are like one person). So writes the Maharshal 88, Knesset Hagedolah 671, Mateh Moshe 982, Eliya Raba 671:3, Machasit Hashekel 675:4. Mishna Brurah 675:9 quotes this in name of Sh”t Olot Shmeul 105 and says if women want they can light with a Bracha like any mitzvah for which one’s exempt according to the Ashkenazi Minhag. Mishmeret Shalom 48 says since a married woman doesn’t light and relies on her husband, her daughters also don’t light as derech eretz. Similarly, Chiddushei Chatom Sofer (Shabbat 21b D”H Vehamehadrin) writes since the practice used to be to light outside it wasn’t Derech Eretz for women to light if her husband is already lighting and since then the Minhag hasn’t changed. Ashel Avraham Mebustatesh 675:3 says according to kabbalah women don’t light (unless they have to). However it seems as the minhag is that Ashkenzic unmarried girls also light.</ref>
+
# A mourner on the first day is exempt as he is exempt from all mitzvoth and so he should have a household member who isn’t a mourner light with a bracha, if that’s not possible, he should have another person light without a bracha. <ref> Eliyah Raba 670:19 writes one should have someone else light and answer [[amen]]. However, Erech HaShulchan 670:3 writes one should light without a bracha. Kaf Hachaim 670:20 explains that this is only a dispute if the first-day mourner is alone, otherwise his wife or a household member can fulfill for him his obligation. Pri Megadim M”Z 670:5 agrees with Eliyah Raba but argues that one can’t answer [[amen]] as in S”A Y”D 341 where we follow the anonymous opinion that a first-day mourner doesn’t answer [[amen]]. Torat HaMoadim 2:24 agrees with Erech HaShulchan. </ref>
# According to Sephardim, members of the household that are dependant on their parents fulfill their obligation with the one lighting of the household even if they aren’t home such as children in yeshiva or in the army that don’t sleep at home don’t light where they sleep. However, Ashkenazi Minhag is for single children to light themselves even at home and certainly when not sleeping at home. <ref> S”A and Tur 677:1, based on Shabbat 23a, and Rambam (Chanuka 4:11) rule that a dependant is exempt with his household’s lighting. However, Rambam, Tur, and S”A add that if he has his own household, he should light so people don’t suspect him of not observing Chanuka. However Sh”t Rashba 1:541, Orchot Chaim Chanuka 13, Smak 280, Sefer Trumah 228, Hagot Maimon Chanuka 4:30, Ritva (Shabbat 23a), Mordechai (Shabbat 2:226), Ohel Moed (Chanuka) Shibolei HaLeket 185 say that there’s no suspicion of not lighting by a extra doorway nowadays when we light indoors. Sefer HaTrumah (229 Introduction) says clearly students that learn outside their home don’t light if they have someone lighting for them at home. So write Magan Avraham 677:1, Sh”t Yechava Daat 6:43, and Chazon Ovadyah (Chanuka pg 144-151). Meiri Shabbat 23a and Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 14) say an older and married child should light for themselves. </ref>
+
# A convert can make all the [[Brachot]] and say “She’assa Nissim Le’avotenu” but if he wants can change it to say “She’assa Nissim LeYisrael”. <ref> Sh”t Rambam (Pasya edition 158, Kisei Nirdamim Mehuderet Fredman 42, Mehuderet Belav 293) writes that a convert can say all of the [[Brachot]] like every Jew because he converted he becomes a descendant of Avraham and part of the Jewish people for all their history, however if he wants to change the [[brachot]] that relate to the Jewish history such as Yetsiat Mitzrayim, and [[Chanukah]]. The Sh”t Rashba 7:54, Hagahot Mordechai Megilah 1:786, and Sh”t Ridvaz 5:520 agree. Torat HaMoadim 2:25 finds support for this opinion in the ruling of Shulchan Aruch (See S”A 53:19 and Shulchan Aruch 199:9). </ref>
# A married man traveling should have his wife light for him at home and not make the Bracha of Sh’asa Nisim nor Sh’chianu even when he returns home. <ref> S”A 676:3. There’s a dispute in the Rishonim whether one makes a bracha for seeing Chanuka candles if he is fulfilling his obligation with that which they light for him at home. Rashba (Shabbat 23a), Sefer HaHashlamah (Shabbat 23a) in name of Rabbi Asher MeLunil, Smag(Chanuka 250d), Ran(10b D”H Amar Rav Chiya), Tur 676:3, Magid Mishna (Chanuka 3:4) in name of Itur (2 pg 117c), Rosh (Shabbat 8) imply that one doesn’t make a bracha if one is fulfilling his obligation through his household. However Rambam (Chanuka 3:4), Magid Mishna in name of some Geonim, Ravyah 3:843, Riaz (Shabbat 23a), Meiri, Sefer HaMeorot (Shabbat 23a), Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 9) hold that one can make a Bracha even if one is fulfilling his obligation with his house’s lighting. S”A rules 676:3 that one doesn’t make Bracha HaRoeh if is fulfilling his obligation at home. Against the S”A the following rule that one should make the Brachot HaRoeh: Sh”t Maharshal 85, Bach 676:3 (in name of Rif, Rambam, Smak, Rosh, and Aguda), Eliyah Raba Pri Chadash, Biur HaGra, Chaye Adam 154:33. However Shirei Knesset HaGedola 677:3, Taz 676:4, Magan Avraham 676:1, Shulchan Gavoha 676:5, Birkei Yosef 676:3, Mishna Brurah 676:6, and Torat HaMoadim 2:15 rule that one doesn’t make a bracha because of Safek Bracha. </ref>
 
  
== Should a guest light candles?==
+
==Who fulfills his/her obligation with the household’s lighting?==
# A guest at a friend’s house, who doesn’t have anyone lighting for them at home, must chip in (a prutah’s worth) with the owner of the house for the Chanuka candles so that the owner will give him a portion of the candles, either with a kinyan or as a gift, [and the owner will add some oil for the guest] and will fulfill the obligation of the guest. According to Ashkenzim, if he has his own doorway (to outside) he should light by himself, and even if he doesn’t have his own doorway it’s preferable to light by himself. <ref> S”A 677:1 says that a guest fulfills his obligation with a portion of the oil, based on Shabbat 23a, Rambam Chanuka 4:11, Tur 677. S”A 677:1 based on Rif 23a rules because of suspicion one should light in a second doorway. However Rama says that nowadays we don’t have this suspicion because we light indoors. So agrees many achronim including Sh”t Maharshal 85, see Sh”t Yechava Daat 6:43. Thus a guest shouldn’t need to light for himself. However Sh”t Mahariv (Likutim 31), (quoted by Magan Avraham 677:3, Mishna Brurah 677:7) says since there’s no suspicion everyone lights indoors and even the guest. Kaf Hachaim adds that the Sh”t HaRashba 1:542 one needs a portion of the oil and the wicks. Yad Aharon 677, Sh”t Ginat Veradim (Gan HaMelech 40), Pri Megadim (A”A 677:1), Mishna Brurah 677:3 rule that any amount is sufficient against Eliyah Rabba(677:1,2) who says that one must chip in the amount of oil to burn for a half hour. Sh”t HaRashba 1:542, Magan Avraham 677:1, Pri Chadash 677:1, Eliyah Raba 677:2, Derech HaChaim 677:2, Mishna Brurah 677:3 say that the owner can give him the portion even as a gift. Agudah (Shabbat 2:32), Bach 677, Magan Avraham 677:1, say that the owner should add some oil because of the guest. Pri Megadim and Derech Hachaim rule it’s enough the owner add a little bit against the Eliyah Raba who says the owner should add the amount the guest gave and Machasit HaShekel who says the owner should add an half hour’s worth. </ref>
+
# The Ashkenazic minhag is that each individual lights for oneself, however, the Sephardic minhag is that one person lights for the whole household. <ref> Shulchan Aruch and Rama 671:2. For the background see [[#Number of candles to light]]. </ref> According to the Sephardic minhag who fulfills his/her obligation with the lighting of the household?
# A household member who is a guest in a friend’s house but have someone lighting for them at home, according to Sephardim may light but without a bracha, even if they have in mind not to fulfill their mitzvah with their house’s lighting. According to Ashkenazim, one should light by oneself and have what to rely on if they want make such as bracha. <ref> There’s a dispute whether one can have in mind not to fulfill his obligation with his house’s lighting. Sh”t Trumat HaDeshen 101, Sh”t Sh”t Maharil 145, Agur 1036, Rama 677 hold one can have intent not to be exempt and since there’s a doubt whether his house will light with him in mind he can make a bracha for himself. So agree the Levush (677:1), Olat Shabbat 677:1, Taz 677:1, Magan Avraham 677:9, Eliyah Rabba 677:4, Sh”t Tevuot Shemesh O”C 7. However Bet Yosef 677 says one can’t rely on the Trumat HaDeshen to make an unnecessary Bracha. So hold Sh”t Maharshal 85, Pri Chadash 677:1, Mateh Moshe 983, Sh”t Zera Emet 1:97, Chaye Adam 154:33, Mishna Brurah 677:16 say that it’s better one doesn’t make a bracha. That applies for Ashkenazim. However for Sephardim who always rely on the house’s lighting can’t have in mind not to fulfill your obligation. Knesset Hagedolah understands Bet Yosef as it’s not forbidden as Bracha Levatala but just an issue of Bracha Sh’eina Tzaricha; however the Birkei Yosef 677, Maamer Mordechai 677:5 argue that shouldn’t make such a bracha; so hold Sh”t Sadeh Eretz O”C 42, Sh”t Chesed LeAvraham Alkelai O”C 24, Sh”t Zivchei Tzedek 2:37, Sh”t Yechava Daat 6:43 (who says that he personally asked Rav Ezra Attiah this question), and Torat HaMoadim 2:6. </ref>
+
# Household members who are “dependant on the household” fulfill their obligation with the lighting of the household. <ref> Shulchan Aruch 671:2 writes that the Sephardic minhag is that one person lights for the entire house. Mishna Brurah 671:8 writes that the household members who fulfill their obligation with the household lighting includes older children and servants if they "dependent on the table of the household regularly" (סומך על שלוחנו). Torat HaMoadim 2:4 uses the same expression. Hopefully, this term will be clarified as we continue. </ref>
# A Sephardic household member who is exempt with the house’s lighting even if he is in Israel and his household is in America where they will only light many hours later. If one wants to light one can light at Tzet in Israel with a bracha. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 231), Torat HaMoadim 2:7, and Sh”t Mishna Halachot 6:119 explain that according to many that hold the obligation is only on the household, he fulfill his obligation, but the Bach who holds there’s an obligation on each individual, may also hold that one should light in his timezone, but concludes that he fulfill his obligation with his household even according to the Bach. However Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 7:46 says because of the doubt one should have in mind not to fulfill his obligation with his house’s lighting. However because of the dispute between posikim about whether that will enable one to make a bracha (see previous footnote), one shouldn’t have in mind not to fulfill his obligation with his house’s lighting. Chazon Ovadyah pg 150 and Pri HaAretz 1:9 pg 6d say if one wants, one can light with a bracha at Tzet in Israel because his family didn’t light for him in America yet. </ref>
+
===Woman===
# A guest can intend not to join with the owner’s lighting and light for himself with a bracha. However if he is totally dependant on the house owner such as where one doesn’t pay for expenses or he only pays for some expenses but not for every need, according to Sephardim, he may not have intention to not to fulfill his obligation with the owner’s lighting, but he is allowed to light by himself without a bracha, but according to Ashkenazim he may intend not to be part of the owner’s lighting and light by himself with a bracha. <ref> Rabbenu Chananel (Shabbat 23b), Tur 677, Meiri (Shabbat 23a), Itur (2 Chanuka pg 116c), Ran (Pesachim 6b) imply that one is allowed to intend not to be part of the owner’s lighting and light by oneself. However Darkei Moshe 677:2 quotes the Mahari (Yalkutim 31), Sh”t Maharil (145e), Mishna Brurah 677:3 who say it’s preferable for a guest to light for himself. However for Sephardim since some hold that he is included in the household members who are exempt with the owner’s lighting, one shouldn’t light independently because of Safek Brachot. So holds Torat Moadim 2:12. </ref>
+
# A married woman should rely on her husband’s lighting. Unmarried girls who in still live at in their father’s home can rely on their father’s lighting even according to the Ashkenazic custom. If they want to light, Ashkenazim can light with a Bracha. <ref> A married women is exempt by her husband because “Ishto Kegufo Dami”(a husband and wife are like one person). So writes the Maharshal 88, Knesset Hagedolah 671, Mateh Moshe 982, Eliya Raba 671:3, Machasit Hashekel 675:4. Mishna Brurah 675:9 quotes this in name of Sh”t Olot Shmeul 105 and says if women want they can light with a Bracha like any mitzvah for which one’s exempt according to the Ashkenazi Minhag. Mishmeret Shalom 48 says since a married woman doesn’t light and relies on her husband, her daughters also don’t light as derech eretz. Similarly, Chiddushei Chatom Sofer ([[Shabbat]] 21b D”H Vehamehadrin) writes since the practice used to be to light outside it wasn’t Derech Eretz for women to light if her husband is already lighting and since then the Minhag hasn’t changed. Ashel Avraham Mebustatesh 675:3 says according to kabbalah women don’t light (unless they have to). However it seems as the minhag is that Ashkenzic unmarried girls also light. Rav Moshe Feinstein is quoted in sefer Moadei Yeshurun 1:4 says if a woman wants to light and recite the beracha, she should light before her husband does. </ref>  
# An older child who is independent of his parents or a son-in-law who come for Chanuka, according to Ashkenazim, should light for himself, but according to Sephardim should rely on the owner of the house and not by himself. <ref> See previous footnote. </ref>
+
===Single Children===
# A Sephardic household member who is independent from his parents in that he doesn’t live at home, (or if he has no parents), should light on his own. However if he’s living in Yeshiva or college with other Jews he should intend to fulfill his obligation with the Yeshiva’s lighting or join with some friends and have them lighting for him. Thus they shouldn’t make a bracha on their own lighting. <ref> Since he isn’t exempt from his house’s lighting he must light on his own. However, Sh”t Ginat Veradim says the rule that a guest must chip in for the Chanuka candle expenses to fulfill his obligation (S”A 677:1) only applies to a guest who pays for all his expenses like food and board, but a student in Yeshiva or College who can rely on them for all his needs and doesn’t account for every expense, doesn’t need to chip in for the Chanuka candles since they definitely allow him a portion of the candles. So holds Yad Aharon, Shulchan Gavoha, Kiseh Eliayahu, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 263:9, Kaf Hachaim 677:3, Sh”t Yechava Daat 6:43, and Torat HaMoadim 2:8 (who says he personally asked his father, Rav Ovadyah Yosef). On the other hand, Pri Megadim A”A 677:3 and Mishna Brurah 677:4 disagree with the Ginat Veradim and hold any guest needs to chip in for the Chanuka candles. See Sh”t Bet David O”C 472, Sh”t Chesed LeAlafim Alkelai O”C 24, Sh”t Zivchai Tzedek 2:27, Sh”t Rav Poalim 2:50, Sh”t Mishnat Halachot 7:87. </ref>
+
# According to Sephardim, members of the household that are dependent on their parents fulfill their obligation with the one lighting of the household even if they aren’t home such as children in yeshiva or in the army that don’t sleep at home don’t light where they sleep.<ref>See next footnote</ref>
# A guest who is relying on the home owner and the home owner asks him to light, he can light for everyone with a bracha. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 2:13 quoting his father, Rav Ovadiah, based on the fact that one can appoint a Shaliach to light for him and all the more so if the Shaliah is a household member. So holds Rav Elyashiv (Kuntres Halichot VeHanhagot, quoted in Halichot Yosef pg 244), Sefer Chanuka of Rav Kenievsky 13:14b.  </ref>
+
# However, Ashkenazi Minhag is for single children to light themselves even at home and certainly when not sleeping at home. <ref>
# A guest of a motel or hotel which is just for guests and not a home owner, needs to light for himself (unless theirs is someone lighting for him at home). <ref> Torat HaMoadim 2:14 says a hotel guest doesn’t have the laws of a guest at his friend’s house because he’s not living with the owner of the house and he’s renting his own room. So holds the Chovat Hadar 39. Implied from Piskei Riaz (Shabbat 23a), Piskei Rid (Shabbat 23a), and Shebolei HaLeket 185 that there’s an obligation on a renter even if it’s a just a room in a house. </ref>
+
* Rav Sheshet (Gemara [[Shabbat]] 23a) stated that a guest is obligated to light [[Chanukah]] candles. Rabbi Zeiri commented that his wife lit [[Chanukah]] candles for him at home, he fulfilled his mitzvah. This is codified by Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 4:11), Tur and Shulchan Aruch 677:1 that someone who has someone else lighting for him at home doesn't have to light [[Chanukah]] candles.  
# Two people who live in a one apartment if they eat together and pay for the food together, they should light one set of candles (in which they both have a potion) and switch off with who should do the Bracha. If they pay for their own food separately even if they are family members they should light separately. <ref> Sefer Pardes Gadol 199e, Sh”t Maaseh Geonim 44, and Shiboeli HaLeket 185 bring a dispute between Rabbenu David who hold that two people living in one house should light separately and Rabbotenu who said that they can light together. Torat Hamoadim 2:17 explains that this dispute concerns two people who have separate funds for food because otherwise it’s untenable why Rabbenu David requires separate lighting, however if they didn’t separate the cost of food everyone agrees that they can light together. Magid Mishna (Chanuka 4:4), Pri Chadash 677:1, Sh”t Shaarei Yehoshua O”C 7:4 agree with Rabbenu David. However, Sefer HaTrumah 229, Eliyahu Zuta 671:6 in name of Tosfot, Levush 677:3, Pri Megamdim A”A  678:3, and Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 17 agree with Rabbotenu. Mishna Brurah in Biur Halacha (677:1 D”H Imo) quotes this dispute and doesn’t rule on it. Torat HaMoadim 2:17 advises that since everyone agrees that one can light separately and it’s dispute whether one can light together one should light separately to satisfy all opinions. </ref>
+
* While the Rambam, Tur, and S”A state that if one has his own room that leads to the outside one would have to light so people don’t suspect him of not observing [[Chanukah]], many Rishonim including the Sh”t Rashba 1:541, Orchot Chaim [[Chanukah]] 13, Smak 280, Sefer Trumah 228, Hagahot Maimon [[Chanukah]] 4:30, Ritva ([[Shabbat]] 23a), Mordechai ([[Shabbat]] 2:226), Ohel Moed ([[Chanukah]]), and Shibolei HaLeket 185 say that there’s no suspicion of not lighting by a extra doorway nowadays when we light indoors.  
# Someone who doesn’t have a house and isn’t a dependant of someone’s house, can’t light candles. If he eats at someone’s house, he can light without a bracha or join in the lighting of the owner (by paying for a portion of the candles). However he can make the Brachot HaRoeh for seeing the candles (She’assa Nisim and Shechianu on the first night). <ref> Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe Y”D 3:14(5) based on Rashi (23a D”H HaRoeh) and Torat HaMoadim 2:18 based on Tosfot (Sukkah 46a D”H HaRoeh) rule that someone who doesn’t have a house doesn’t light and can only make Brachot HaRoah. [It seems, Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 15:29 holds one should light even if he doesn’t have a house.] Bach 677 D”H “U’Mah Shekatav HaRosh” implies if not for suspicion one can light in the place he ate. However Taz 677:2 argues that one can not light in the place he ate. Thus one can only light without a Bracha (Safek Brachot Lehakel). </ref>
+
* Sefer HaTrumah (229 Introduction) says clearly students that learn outside their home don’t light if they have someone lighting for them at home. Magen Avraham (Introduction to 677) quotes the Maharshal who says that a yeshiva student who is dependent on the owner of the house is considered like a family member and doesn't have to light. Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Sh”t Yechave Daat 6:43, Chazon Ovadyah [[Chanukah]] pg 144-151) writes clearly that a family member who is dependent on his parents fulfills his obligation with the lighting of his parents at home. Meiri [[Shabbat]] 23a and Orchot Chaim ([[Chanukah]] 14) say an older and married child should light for themselves.  
# If one is eating at someone’s house (even if it’s one’s parents) on Friday night Chanuka, and is going to sleep at home that night, should light at home after Plag HaMincha. <Ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 672:11) </ref>
+
* Similarly, Rav Mordechai Willig (Am Mordechai Moadim p. 104-5) writes that a man fulfills his primary obligation with his wife’s lighting at home even if he is a guest somewhere else. Similarly, a student can fulfill his primary obligation with his parent’s lighting at home. However, according to the minhag of the Rama, Ashkenazim still may light with a bracha even if someone is lighting for them at home.  
# A guest on Chanuka according to Ashkenazim should light one’s own Chanukia. However there’s a dispute as to how long of a stay at someone’s house allows one to light there: some say one must be there for all 8 days, while some say that it’s enough to be there for 1 day. <Ref> Biur Halacha quotes the Pri Chadash who gives the example of a guest who stays in a home for all 8 days of chanuka. Rav Elyashiv (Shevut Yitzchak Chanuka pg 110) holds that one needs to be there 8 days in order to have some connection to that house in order to light there. [See Rav Shachter at yu.edu who also holds this.] Rav Wosner (Piksei Shemuot pg 136), Rav Shternbuch (Sh”t Teshuvot VeHanhagot 1:391), and Rav Shlomo Zalman (Halichot Shlomo 14:18, 19) hold that one only needs to be there for one day in order to light there. </ref>
+
* However, Rav Hershel Schachter (B’ikvei HaTzon p. 123-4) writes that a man does not fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his wife in another city unless he actually goes home later that night. Similarly, he stated in a shiur ([http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/784742/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Where_to_light_Neiros_Chanukah_in_the_dorm-_A_full_discussion|YUTorah.org, “Where to light Neiros Chanukah in the dorm,” min 24)] that a yeshiva student does not fulfill his obligation with his father’s lighting in another city unless he is at home that night.</ref>
# Another option is to join with the owner of the house by giving a coin in order to acquire a portion in the candles. Some say one needs to mnake a קנין in order to acquire a partion of the candles, while others disagree. <Ref>Shaar HaTzion 677:9, Piskei Teshuvot 677, Peninei Halacha pg 18 </ref>The guest should hear the Brachot. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 677:4 </ref>
 
# Otherwise, one can appoint a שליח to light for oneself at home. <Ref> Shevut Yitchak pg 110, Mishna Brurah 677:14 </ref>
 
  
== Brachot HaRoah (Seeing)==
+
'''A wedding on [[Chanukah]]'''
# Someone traveling all night in a car, train, plane, or boat and has no one lighting for him at home should preferably light there without a Bracha and make Brachot HaRoeh. <ref> Rashi 23a D”H HaRoah says one only makes Brachot Haroah when on a boat. So quotes in name of Rashi, Machsor Vitri pg 201, Itur (Chanuka 2 pg 117c), Smag (Chanuka), Smak (280), Ravyah 3:843, Or Zaruah 2:325, Tosfot Rid(Shabbat 23a), and Rosh (Shabbat 2:8). So rules Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe in Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe Y”D 3:14(5). However Sh”t Maharsham 5:144 writes only in an unroofed boat one can’t light but in a train one should light. So rules Rav Tzvi Peasch Frank in Mikra’eh Kodesh (Chanuka 18e), Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Kol Sinai Kislev 5725), Aruch HaShulchan 677:5, Sh”t Mishna Halachot 7:86, and Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 15:29 (he says one should light even if he’s in an unroofed boat); Torat Hamoadim 2:18 says since there’s a safek for Rashi’s opinion one shouldn’t make the Bracha but can make Brachot HaRoeh. </ref>
+
# If the wedding takes place at night then the groom fulfills his obligation with the lighting in his father's house which took place before the wedding. <ref>Rav Elyashiv (cited by Bet Chatanim 15:4, Yemeh [[Chanukah]] pg 156) rules that if the wedding takes place during the night, then the groom fulfills his obligation with the lighting at his father’s house. Rav Vosner (cited by Imrei Shefer [[Chanukah]] pg 172) and Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo 14:14, pg 275) agree. Yalkut Yosef 672:11 agrees that if the wedding takes place during the night then the groom fulfill his obligation with the lighting at his father’s house and adds that if he wants to be strict he may light again without a Bracha after the wedding at his new house.</ref>
 +
# If the wedding takes place during the day before sunset, the groom fulfills doesn't fulfill his obligation with the lighting in his father's house but rather he must light at his new house. Some say he should light after the wedding, some say he should appoint a messenger to light there, and some say he should leave the wedding between the Chuppah and meal to light at his new house. A minority opinion is that one may light at the wedding hall.<Ref>If the wedding takes place during the day before sunset, then there’s a dispute what the groom should do.  
 +
* (1) Rav Elyashiv (cited by Bet Chatanim 15:4, Yemeh [[Chanukah]] pg 156, Neimat HaChaim pg 244) rules that the groom should light in his new home after the wedding.
 +
* (2) Chacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (cited by Bet Chatanim 15:4, Yemeh [[Chanukah]] pg 156) rules that if it’s difficult to leave the wedding the groom should appoint a messenger to light for him.
 +
* (3) Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (cited by HaNesuin KeHilchatam 15:60, Yemeh [[Chanukah]] pg 156, Halichot Shlomo (pg 275, note 47)) rules that if the wedding takes place during the day then the groom must light at his new home and should leave the wedding after the chuppah before the meal, go to their new home, have a small meal, light [[chanuka]] candles, and return to the wedding.
 +
* (4) Piskei Teshuvot 677:5 (pg 499) rules that if it’s difficult to leave the wedding the groom may light at the wedding hall because they’re renting the place. ([http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=2248 Rabbi Mansour] applies this Piskei Teshuvot even if the wedding takes place during the night but the parents didn’t have a chance to light beforehand. Additionally, Rabbi Mansour seems to say that Yalkut Yosef also agrees with this leniency but was unable to find any proof to this from the words of the Yalkut Yosef.) </ref>
 +
# For Ashkenazim there are different minhagim whether single girls light at their parents home.<ref>Halachos of Chanukah by Rabbi Eider p. 10 writes that someone don't have the single daughters light chanuka candles themselves since a wife doesn't light and it isn't proper for the daughter to light but not the wife. However, others have the minhag that the daughters light. He quotes that this was the practice of Rav Moshe Feinstein.</ref>
  
== Earliest Time to Light ==
+
===Traveler===
# The time to light is immediately after Tzet HaCochavim (15 minutes (in Israel) after sun completely sets). Some Ashkenazim have the Minhag to light right after sunset. <ref> Shabbat 21b the Braita says to light from the setting of the sun until people leave the market. Rashba (21b D”H Ha DeAmrinan), Meiri, Ran, and Rama (Darkei Moshe 672:4) in name of Maharil and Sefer Minhagim (of Rabbi Tirna pg 144) say to light right after sunset. However, Rabbenu Tam (Sefer HaYashar 221), Tosfot (Menachot 20b D”H Nifsal) in name of R”T, Sefer HaManhig, Hagot Mordechai (Shabbat 455), Ritva 21b, Sh”t Trumat HaDeshen 102 in name of Mordechai, Sedah LeDerech 4:7(2), Bach 672 in name of Rosh 2:3, Tur and S”A 672:1 say to light at the end of the sun setting, for most rishonim that means Tzet HaChochavim, but for R”T it means before Ben HaShimashot. [Seemingly, Bet Yosef who quotes Rambam and then says that the Tur used the word “the end of the sunset” because the beginning of the sunset is still mostly day, holds that the Rambam and Tur don’t argue. However Yad Aharon 672 and Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha 672:1) explain Rambam as meaning sunset. ] Most achronim hold like S”A to light at Tzet HaChochavim including Bach 672, Shaarei Knesset HaGedolah 672:1, Magan Avraham 672:1, Eliyah Raba 672:1, Maamer Mordechai 672:1, Chaye Adam 154:18, Derech HaChaim 672:2, Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 7, Sehulchan lechem Hapanim 672, Kaf Hachaim 672:2. Thus, one should light at tzet hachochavim which is 13.5 minutes after sunset. [13.5 minutes is the opinion of the Geonim and is Minhag Eretz Yisrael and not like the tzet hachochavim of R”T 72 minutes after sunset because Chanuka is only derabanan and one can rely on the Minhag Eretz Yisrael for derabanan mitzvoth (Sh”t Yabea Omer 2:21). Additionally keeping the time of R”T will lead one to light after the latest time for which one doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah according to many posikim(Sefer Chanuka of Rav Kanievsky pg 13 note 8).] However Pri Chadash 672, Buir HaGra O”C 261 Y”D 266:17, Maseh Rav 235, Mishna Brurah 672:1, and Sh”t Az Nidabru 7:70 say to light after sunset. Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe O”C 4:101 and Rav Chaim Kanifsky in Yemeh Hallel VeHodah 12:8, say to light 10 minutes after sunset and have it last for a half hour before tzet hachovim and a half hour after tzet hachoavim. Torat HaMoadim 4:1 rules to light 15 minutes after shekiah [15 minutes is based on the geonim’s tzet hachochavim (3/4 mil) with the Rav Amram Goan’s lengh of a mil being 18 minutes, the fact that in the winter the shaot Zmaniot are shorter, and we add on a few minutes to be strict for Rabbi Yose’s opinion of Ben Hashemashot which only happens after Rabbi Yehuda’s finishes.] </ref>
+
# A married man traveling should have his wife light for him at home and not make the Bracha of Sh’asa Nisim nor Sh’chianu even when he returns home. <ref> S”A 676:3. There’s a dispute in the Rishonim whether one makes a bracha for seeing [[Chanukah]] candles if someone is lighting for him at home and he is thereby fulfilling his obligation with the lighting. The Rashba ([[Shabbat]] 23a), Sefer HaHashlamah ([[Shabbat]] 23a) in name of Rabbi Asher MeLunil, Smag ([[Chanukah]] 250d), Ran (10b s.v. Amar Rav Chiya), Tur 676:3, Magid Mishna ([[Chanukah]] 3:4) in name of Itur (2 pg 117c), and Rosh ([[Shabbat]] 8) hold that one doesn’t make a bracha if someone is lighting for him at home and he is thereby fulfilling his obligation. However, the Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 3:4), Magid Mishna in name of some Geonim, Ravyah 3:843, Riaz ([[Shabbat]] 23a), Meiri, Sefer HaMeorot ([[Shabbat]] 23a), and Orchot Chaim ([[Chanukah]] 9) hold that one can make a Bracha even if someone is lighting for him at home. S”A rules 676:3 that one doesn’t make Bracha HaRoeh if is fulfilling his obligation at home. Pri [[Chadash]] 676:3, however, argues that the halacha should follow those Rishonim who say that one should make the [[Brachot]] HaRoeh if one is personally not going to light that night even if someone is lighting for him at home. Sh”t Maharshal 85, Bach 676:3 (in name of Rif, Rambam, Smak, Rosh, and Aguda), Eliyah Raba, Biur HaGra, and Chaye Adam 154:33 agree. However, Shirei Knesset HaGedola 677:3, Taz 676:4, Magen Avraham 676:1, Shulchan Gavoha 676:5, Birkei Yosef 676:3, Mishna Brurah 676:6, and Torat HaMoadim 2:15 rule that one doesn’t make a bracha because of Safek Bracha. </ref>
# One can’t light earlier than Tzet Hachochavim (or Shekiah according to those who light at Shekiah) except on Friday night Chanuka. But if one is unable to light at night at all and will miss the mitzvah totally, one should light after Plag HaMincha without a bracha. But it’s preferable to have someone light for you at the proper time than light early oneself. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 4:2 rules because many rishonim and achronim (brought below) hold that one doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah even after the fact if lit during the day, one should only light it if one thinks he’s going to miss the mitzvah entirely. Behag (Chanuka pg 25d), and Rambam (Chanuka 4:5) hold if one lights earlier one doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah. However on Shabbat 21b, Rashba, Ran, Ritva, Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 15) hold lighting too early fulfills the mitzvah after the fact. S”A 672:1 writes one can’t light earlier than Tzet and there’s an opinion that if one’s preoccupied he can light from plag hamincha. Seemingly this is a case of Stam-anonymous opinion and then Yesh Omrim- individual opinion for which we would hold like the anonymous opinion. So holds Kiseh Rachamim 63a, Siddur Bet Ovad 159b, Moed Kol Chai 27:26, Tefilah Ledavid, Pri Megadim M”Z 673:9. However some achronim hold still in Shat HaDachak one can light after Plag because the two opinions in S”A aren’t arguing but discuss the general case and then the case of someone preoccupied. So holds Levush, Bach, Sefer Yeraim 274, Shaarei Kneset HaGedolah 672:1, Pri Chadash, Chaye Adam 154:18, Pri Megadim A”A 672:1 and Mishna Brurah 672:3. Because of the dispute one certainly can not make a bracha on the early lighting. </ref>
+
# If there's two guys in a room together and they're not fulfilling their obligation with their parents, according to Ashkenazim each should light on their own. According to Sephardim, it is better for them to join together and switch off days who should light.<ref>
# If someone lit earlier than Shekiah after Plag Hamincha, should relight at the proper time of the mitzvah without a bracha. If one lit before Plag Hamincha should relight at the proper time with a bracha. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 4:3. Since some hold it doesn’t work to light after Plag HaMincha (Rambam and Bahag) one should light again. However one should relight without a bracha in deference to the opinions (Rashba, Ran, Ritva, Orchot Chaim) that one fulfills his mitzvah then. However if one lit before Plag Hamincha one should relight with a bracha because no one holds that one fulfill the mitzvah at that time. </ref>
+
The Pri Chadash 677:1 quotes the Maggid Mishna Chanuka 4 that if there's two adults in a house together and are financially independent they each need to light separately and they can't join together. The Birkei Yosef 671:4 quotes some who say that but adds that the Shibolei Haleket says that they can join together. The Pri Megadim EA 677:8 cites the Levush who says that they can join but Pri Chadash who says they can't. Biur Halacha 677:1 s.v. imo cites the dispute. Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev no. 17 writes that it is better for them to join together. Kaf Hachaim 671:12 agrees. Or Letzion 4:47:1 p. 281 writes that it is better to join together but if they want they can light separately with brachot like the Ben Ish Chai.  
# A boy, who regularly lights at Shkiah, who is becoming Bar Mitzvah a night of Chanuka, can light at Shkiah as usual. Some say to light at Tzet HaChochavim even if usually lights at Shkiah. <ref> Sefer Chanuka of Rav Kenievsky 13:16, Sh”t Teshuvot Vehanhagot 2:337 against Rav Vosner in Kovetz Mebet Levi kislev 5757 says not to light until Tzet. Mikrei Kodesh (Chanuka 11:3) leaves it as a question. </ref>
+
* However, Rav Ovadia in Chazon Ovadia p. 151 rules that a person who doesn't know if his wife is lighting for him and he's a guest in a house and has his own room he can light on his own with a bracha. It is clear then that if no one is lighting for him he can light himself if he has his own room. Yalkut Yosef Chanuka p. 476 agrees and explains that there's only a concern that automatically he fulfills his obligation with someone else's lighting if he's staying in the same room but he has his own room then it is possible for him to fulfill his own obligation. However, this wouldn't apply if he didn't have his own room.</ref>
  
== Latest Time to Light==
+
===A Yeshiva Student===
# One shouldn’t delay lighting right after Tzet Hachavim, but if one didn’t light he can light with a bracha until Olot HaShachar. If one is lighting late at night and no one is up, it’s proper to wake some of family up for Pirsume Nisa. If he can’t, he should make a bracha. <ref> In Shabbat 21b the gemara’s first explanation of ‘Tichleh Regel Min HaShuk’(once people leave the market) is ‘if one didn’t light one can still light’. Rambam (Chanuka 4:5) understands this as one who didn’t light at Tzet, can still light until ‘Tichleh Regel’; Rashba (Shabbat 21b) understands this as one who didn’t light by ‘Tichleh Regel’ can still light all night. Magid Mishna, Bahag(Chanuka pg 25d), Sh”t HaGoanim Sharei Teshuva 233, Riaz, Rid, Shiltei Giborim, Smak 280, Mordechai (Shabbat 2:265), Ran, Sefer HaTrumah 228, Tosfot (Shabbat 21b D”H Deiy Lo Adlik, Rosh (Shabbat 2:3), Tur 672, Pri Chadash, Maamer Mordechai  672:4, Sh”t Sadeh Aretz O”C 35 D”H VaAni, hold like the Rambam that after ‘Tichle Regel there’s no mitzvah. Meiri, Ritva, and Orchot Chaim(Chanuka 15) say to light after then without a bracha. However Ravyah 3:843, Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:2), Machsor Vitri (236 pg 199), Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1, Siddur Rashi 316 pg 151, Teshuvat Rashi 52, Pardes HaGadol 199, Sh”t Maseh HaGoanim 52 pg 43, Tosfot (Shabbat 21b D”H Deiy Lo Adlik) in name of the Ri, Sefer Trumah 228 in name of Ri, Shibolei HaLeket 185 in name of Sefer Hatrumah, Ohel Moed (Chanuka 4), Teshuvat Ravyah 972, Rosh 2:3, Smak, Rabbene Yerucham 9:1,Meiri, Smag, Orchot Chaim in name of some Geonim and Sefer Hatrumah, and Ran bring the opinion of the Ri and Rashba. Rabben Peretz (on Smak 280) says to light while household members are awake. Ritva says nowadays when we light inside we can light after ‘Tichle Regel’ against the Tur who says this time applies even nowadays. [Darkei Moshe and Bach write that the Tur also agrees to the Tosfot but just was writing according to the Minhag of his place.] Rama 672:2 rules nowadays one doesn’t need light by Tichleh Regel but one should be careful to light by then. S”A 672:2 rules one should light by Tichleh Regel but if one wasn’t able to light should light until Olot HaShachar. Magan Avraham says that S”A seems to say one can make a bracha but says from Bet Yosef (who asks on the Tur why he says that Rambam would hold not to light after Tichle Regel since one could just light out of Safek even according to Rambam) implies that there’s a clear Safek whether to make a bracha and one doesn’t make a bracha in Safek. Thus Magan Avraham rules that one should only make a bracha if there’s someone else up in the house. So holds Eliyah Raba, 672:3, Chaye Adam 154:19, Derech Hachaim 672:2, Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 7, Aruch HaShulchan 672:7, Mishna Brurah 672:11, and Kaf Hachaim 672:26. Magan Avraham also quotes Maharshal who says to make a bracha only up to Chatzot. The Gra (Maaseh Rav 236) agrees with the Maharshal. Some hold that one can make the bracha all night like the simple reading of S”A (based on a Sefak Sefeka or other explanations) including Erech Hashulchan 672:4, Chemed Moshe 672:3, Moed Kol Chai 27:27, and Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe O”C 4:105. Mishna Brurah (Shaare Tzion 672:17), Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai 5725, and Torat HaMoadim 4:4, rule that one shouldn’t make a bracha but shouldn’t stop someone who wants to make the bracha as he has what to rely on. Yet Rav Ovadyah in Chazon Ovadyah pg 67 (Chanuka pg 64; published 5767) writes it in this language: if one comes home late and everyone is sleeping if one can wake up one or two house members, ‘Mah Tov’(that’s correct), if one can’t wake anyone up then one can still make a bracha. It seems that Rav Ovadyah Yosef retracted from his ruling in 5725. [The same language that it’s Tov to have people up for the lighting is found in Beyomin DeChanuka 242 and Shalmei Moed pg 218 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach] </ref>
+
# There is a dispute whether a Yeshiva student who eats and sleeps at the Yeshiva but is financially supported by his parents is considered dependent on the table of the household or not. Most Sephardic authorities rule that he is considered dependent and fulfills his obligation with the lighting of his household, however, many Ashkenazic authorities rule that he is considered independent and doesn’t fulfill his obligation. <Ref>
# Someone who came home right before Olot HaShachar can light with a bracha even though it won’t be lit for 30 minutes during the night. Some say one should light without a bracha if there’s not 30 minutes for the candle to be light at night. <ref> Sh”t Shevet Halevi 8:156 writes that one can light with a bracha even if there’s not 30 minutes for the candles to burn before Olot Hashachar. He proves this from the simple language of S”A, Magan Avraham and Mishna Brurah (and all other poskim) that one can light all night until Olot HaShachar. So writes Sh”t Rivovot Efraim 5:582 in name of Sh”t Shem MeShimon 3 pg 120. Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 67) seems to agree because he quotes the Shevet HaLevi and no one who argues. Yalkut Yosef Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 672:2. However, Rav Elyashiv in Sefer Chanuka 13:13 and Torat HaYoledet 54:7 say not to light with a bracha unless there’s 30 minutes before Olot HaShachar. </ref>
+
* Rav Ovadyah Yosef in Sh”t Yachave Daat 6:43 rules that a Sephardic Yeshiva student fulfills his obligation with the lighting of his parents. He also quotes Rav Ezra Attiyah who ruled this way. Chacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (Kovetz Zichron Yehuda, Sefer Zikaron, vol 1, pg 104-8), Rav Shlomo Zalman (Halichot Shlomo 14:12), Aderet Tiferet 2:31, Yaskil Avdi (vol 7, pg 316), Yitzchak Yiranen 5:48, and Banim Chavivim (Siman 16) agree. See also Rav Mazuz in Or Torah (Kislev 5745).
# One should wait for his wife because of Shalom Bayit even if that means missing lighting precisely at the time for lighting. <ref> Emet LeYacov 677 in the footnote, Kovetz MeBet Levi kislev 5757. </ref>
+
* Torat HaMoadim (2:4 pg 45) explains that since the Yeshiva students return home during break and are still connected to their parent’s home they are considered dependant on their parent’s house. Torat HaMoadim (2:4 pg 48) continues that even if they don’t fulfill their obligation with the lighting at home they fulfill their obligation with the lighting of the Yeshiva. He explains that certainly the administration of the Yeshiva gives a portion of the oil and wicks to the students. He adds that the lighting of the Yeshiva isn’t similar to the lighting in a Shul where some say that one can’t fulfill one’s obligation because the students are in the Beit Midrash all the time and so it’s considered their house.
# One who didn’t light at night (before Olot HaShachar) can’t light during the day, but if one wants, one can light without a bracha. <ref> S”A 672:2. Siddur Rashi 116 pg 151 (quoting Teshuvat Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda) says if one didn’t light during the night one can’t light during the day. So quotes Sh”t Maaseh Goenim 55 pg 43, Teshuvat Rashi 52, Machsor Vitri 237 pg 201, Sh”t Maharam MeRotenberg 634, Pardes HaGadol 199, Tur 672, Shibolei HaLeket 185, and Roke’ach 226. Ravyah 3:843 in name of Rabbenu Tam says one can light in the day if one didn’t light at night. Sh”t Hitorerut Teshuva 1:119 writes that since we light nowadays indoors one should light as long as the candle gives off light (before Netz, when the sun’s light overwhelms the candles light). However, Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (kislev 5725) and Torat HaMoadim 4:5 argue that even though one should light to satisfy all opinions one isn’t allowed to make a bracha. </ref>
+
* However, Shevut Yitzchak (vol 5, pg 113-4) quotes Rav Elyashiv as saying that a Sephardic Yeshiva student doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation with the lighting of one’s parents. The Shevut Yitzchak explains that a married man fulfills his obligation with his wife’s lighting at home because that’s his primary house, however, a Yeshiva student doesn’t live at home and so his parents can’t fulfill his obligation. Peninei [[Chanukah]] (pg 81-2) quotes Rav Elyashiva as saying that this is true even if the parents pay for tuition at the Yeshiva. Sh”t Az Nidbaru 3:53, Shulchan Yosef (vol 2, pg 139-140), Yemeh [[Chanukah]] (pg 155) quoting Rav Nissim Karlitz agree. See Teshuvot VeHanhagot 3:215(17) who seems to agree. Listen to shiur by [http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/751512/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Chanukah Rav Hershel Schachter] (min 14-16) who seems to hold that a person in the Israeli army does not fulfill his obligation with the lighting in his home.  
# Soldiers in the army who can’t light at night for security reasons and want to light while it’s still day and extinguish it before it gets dark can light without a bracha. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 210) </ref>
+
* Background: Sh”t Ginat Veradim says the rule that a guest must chip in for the [[Chanukah]] candle expenses to fulfill his obligation (S”A 677:1) only applies to a guest who pays for all his expenses like food and board, but a student in Yeshiva or College who can rely on them for all his needs and doesn’t account for every expense, doesn’t need to chip in for the [[Chanukah]] candles since they definitely allow him a portion of the candles. This is also the opinion of Yad Aharon, Shulchan Gavoha, Kiseh Eliayahu, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 263:9, Kaf Hachaim 677:3, Sh”t Yechave Daat 6:43, and Torat HaMoadim 2:8 (who says he personally asked his father, Rav Ovadyah Yosef). On the other hand, Pri Megadim A”A 677:3 and Mishna Brurah 677:4 disagree with the Ginat Veradim and hold any guest needs to chip in for the [[Chanukah]] candles. See Sh”t Bet David O”C 472, Sh”t Chesed LeAlafim Alkelai O”C 24, Sh”t Zivchai Tzedek 2:27, Sh”t Rav Poalim 2:50, Sh”t Mishnat Halachot 7:87. </ref>
== Lighting before or after Mariv==
+
# A Sephardic Yeshiva whose parents live outside [[Israel]] in a different time zone some say that he may light with a Bracha at Yeshiva, while others say that he can fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his parents. <Ref>
# One who came home late and has to pray Mariv and light candles should pray first. <ref> Chazon Ovadyah (Chanuka pg 71) and Mishna Brurah (explained in Biur Halacha) 672:1 brings two proofs :1)Tosfot (Shabbat 23b D”H Hadar) says Tadir VeShEno Tadir, Tadir Kodem (the more common mitzvah comes first) overrides the mitzvah of Pirsume Nisa (publicizing the miracle. So holds Meiri (Shabbat 23b) in name of Gedolei Dorot, Ran (Shabbat 23b), Ramban (Shabbat 22b), Rosh (Shabbat 2:13), Rashba (Shabbat 22b), Teshuvat Rashba 1:1070, Rabbenu Yerucham pg 61d.). 2)Kriyat Shema is Deoritta and lighting candles is Derabanan and Peni Yehoshua Brachot 51b, Nodeh BeYehuda Kama O”C 39,41e, and Sh”t Rama MePano 14 hold Deorittas precede a Derabanan. Even though the Shagat Aryeh argues that Deorittas don’t have any precedence over Derabanan’s, most of the achronim agree with the Peni Yehoshua including: Sh”t Imrei Esh O”C 53, Mispeh Eitan (Brachot 51b), Chatom Sofer (Pesachim 102b), and Sh”t Shev Yacov O”C 22. However Magan Avraham 672:5 rules one should light before praying Mariv. Because of Tadir and Shema is Deoritta, Sh”t Shevut Yacov 2:40, Sh”t Shev Yacov 22 quoted by Sh”t Orach LeChaim O”C 1, implied from Sh”t Lechem Seirim 21, Shoel UMeishiv (Riviah 2:219) and Chaim VeChesed Mosefia pg 90d:11 in name of Mahari MeTaril disagree with the Magan Avraham. Chidushei Maharsa 8b says that everyone agrees that if it’s close to Chatzot one should pray before lighting because preferably one should pray before Chatzot. [Bear Hetev 672:2 quotes Magan Avraham and then says so holds Knesset Hagedolah. However Shaarei Teshuva 672:1 says that the Bear Hetev made a mistake about the Knesset Hagedolah as appears from Sh”t Shevut Yacov. Sh”t Shevut Yacov quotes the Shaarei Knesset Hagedolah (Hagot Hatur 672:1) who writes that he retracted from his opinion that one should light before praying. </ref>
+
* Chacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (Kovetz Zichron Yehuda, Sefer Zikaron, vol 1, pg 106-7) rules that a Yeshiva student whose parents live outside [[Israel]] in a different time zone should light with a Bracha at the Yeshiva. This is also printed in Or Letzion v. 4 p. 281. Chazon Ovadyah Chanuka pg 150 (5767) and Pri HaAretz 1:9 pg 6d agree. Yalkut Yosef 677:5 (5773) agrees. See Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 7:46 who agrees.  
# Sephardim have the Minhag to pray Mariv at Shkiah and to light individually at Tzet. So too, if the minyan prays at Tzet they should pray and then light individually unless there’s a concern that they won’t be able to light before ‘Tichle Regel’, in which case each individual should light before praying. One should set up the chanukia and candles before Tzet so that after Mariv one can light right away. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 4:8 and Kaf Hachaim 672:5 say that because of Tadir we pray and then light. Chida in Machzik Bracha 672:3, Sh”t Mahari Halevi 1:182, says if there’s a concern of missing ‘Tichle Regel’ one could light first. One should set it up beforehand as per Mishna Brurah 672:1 and Kaf Hachaim 672:6. </ref>
+
* Rav Shlomo Zalman (Halichot Shlomo, chapter 14, note 22) says that a Sephardic Yeshiva whose parents live outside [[Israel]] in a different time zone can fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his parents. Torat HaMoadim 2:7 and Sh”t Mishna Halachot 6:119 agree. Mayan Omer (5768) v. 3 p. 343 quotes Rav Ovadia as saying to light without a bracha.</ref>
# Ashkenzim who have the Minhag to pray at Tzet, should light at Shkiah before praying Mariv at Tzet. If Tzet came and one didn’t light he should first pray and then light. However some have the Minhag to always light after praying Mariv. One should set up the chanukia and candles before Tzet so that after Mariv one can light right away. <ref> Mishna Brurah 672:1 in name of Mor Ukesiah and the Minhag of the Gra to light before they prayed at Tzet, if one didn’t light until Tzet one prays first because of Tadir and that Shema is Deoritta. He also records the practice of some who would always light after Mariv. So writes Torat HaMoadim 4:8. One should set it up beforehand as per Mishna Brurah 672:1 and Kaf Hachaim 672:6. </ref>
+
# Some poskim held that every yeshiva bachor fulfills his obligation with the lighting of the yeshiva even if his parents aren't lighting for him.<ref>Yachava Daat 6:43 writes that a yeshiva bachor can be yotzei with the rabbanim of the yeshiva's lighting since it is like one big family. His reasoning is that the rabbanim of the yeshiva are giving as a gift to the talmidim the oil to be yotzei their obligation. Also, since the talmidim make the bet midrash their home they can be yotzei with that lighting in the bet midrash. Yalkut Yosef Chanuka p. 483 agrees. However, Or Letzion 4 p. 282 writes that the yeshiva isn't judged as one large family. You can't see the rosh yeshiva as the head of the house since he doesn't eat with them and he's not sponsoring the yeshiva's budget. </ref>
# If one has an established minyan for Mariv very late, one can light earlier at Tzet. <ref> Yeshuot Yacov 681:1, Sh”t Az Nidabru 9:47, Sh”t Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:338, Mitzvah Ner Ish Ubeto 6 footnote 4, and Rav Elyashiv quoted in Halichot Yosef ph 239 say that the reason of Tadir (and that Shema is Deoritta) only applies if the two mitzvoth (mariv and candles) are both available at the same time, but if one’s mariv minyan isn’t until later, one can light earlier at the appropriate time. </ref>
 
  
== Minimum Measurements==
+
== Birkat HaRoeh==
# The candles only need fuel to burn for a half hour. <ref> Shabbat 21b says the time of Tichle Regel is when the Tarmodeans (merchants) leave, which the Rif says is about a half hour. Rambam (Chanuka 4:5) and Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 15) writes it’s a half hour or (a little) more. The accepted opinion is a half hour. So writes Rosh (2:3, Rabben Yerucham 9:1, Meiri, S”A 672:2, Mishna Brurah 672:1 (who is strict to satisfy all opinions to light by Shekiah and have it last a half hour past Tzet), and Torat HaMoadim 4:5. Some say in name of the Griz that since the Gemara sets the ending time for candles as when people leave the marketplace, nowadays when many people stay at the marketplace late into the night one should have to light longer than a half hour. However, Chazon Ovadiah pg 66, Sh”t Mishna Halachot 4 pg 79, and Sh”t Or Letzion 44 argue that the measure set by Chazal (a half hour) hasn’t changed because of the practice of our time. However, Avodot VeHanagot LeBet Brisk says that the Griz himself challenged that idea when he heard it from another Rabbi in Brisk, yet he lit candles that lasted for very long only as a hiddur mitzvah. Also Yomin DeChanuka and Leket Yoshar say there’s a hiddur mitzvah to light for longer than a half hour.  </ref> If one doesn’t have enough for the each Hidur candle, the Hidur candles don’t need to burn for a half hour. <ref> Magan Avraham 671:1 </ref>
+
# Someone traveling all night in a car, train, plane, or boat and has no one lighting for him at home should preferably light there without a Bracha and make [[Brachot]] HaRoeh. <ref> Rashi 23a s.v. HaRoah says one only makes [[Brachot]] Haroah when on a boat. So quotes in name of Rashi, Machsor Vitri pg 201, Itur ([[Chanukah]] 2 pg 117c), Smag ([[Chanukah]]), Smak (280), Ravyah 3:843, Or Zaruah 2:325, Tosfot Rid ([[Shabbat]] 23a), and Rosh ([[Shabbat]] 2:8). This is also the opinion of Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe Y”D 3:14(5). However Sh”t Maharsham 5:144 writes only in an unroofed boat one can’t light but in a train one should light. This is also the opinion of Rav Tzvi [[Pesach]] Frank in Mikra’eh Kodesh ([[Chanukah]] 18e), Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Kol Sinai Kislev 5725), Aruch HaShulchan 677:5, Sh”t Mishna Halachot 7:86, and Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 15:29 (he says one should light even if he’s in an unroofed boat); Torat Hamoadim 2:18 says since there’s a safek for Rashi’s opinion one shouldn’t make the Bracha but can make [[Brachot]] HaRoeh. </ref>
# A person who is in doubt if his candles will last a half hour can nonetheless light with a bracha. <ref> Smag in name of the Ri, Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:2), Ravyah (843 pg 579) in name of Rabbenu Tam hold that no minimum measure is needed (the gemara’s two explanation of ‘Tichleh Regel Min HaShuk’ argue and we hold the first explanation). Similarly, Hilchot and Minhagei Maharash in name of Rimzei HaRosh (quoted by Darkei Moshe 672:1), Piskei Tosfot (Shabbat 89), Leket Yoshar pg 151, Shiltei Giborim(Shabbat 9a:5), Taharat Mayim Shuirei Tahara 8:9, Sh”t Chochavei Yitzchak 1:5(3), Sh”t Bear Tzvi 31 that nowadays when we don’t light for Parsumei Nisa of the public, we don’t need a minimum measure. Thus we have a Safek Safeka(double doubt) perhaps no minimum measure is needed and perhaps even if the measure is nessecary, the candle will last the minimum measure. Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 67) says if one wants to make a bracha, he can make a bracha with this Safek Sefaka. For more about Safek Safaka BeBrachot see Sh”t Yachave Daat 5:21 (the footnote), Otzrot Yosef 4:3, and Sh”t Chazon Ovadiah 48 pg 866. </ref>
 
  
== Doing an activity before lighting candles==
+
==Performing Labors while the Candles are Burning==
===Eating===
+
# There is a longstanding practice that women not to do any work while the candles are lit, to remind them that it is prohibited to benefit from the light of Chanuka candles.<ref> Tur and S"A 670:1, Aruch Hashulchan 670:8, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 190, Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 12 <br />
# When the time to light comes, before one lights, one can’t eat a meal (with a Kebetza of bread) before lighting, but a snack, fruit, or drink are allowed. Some are strict not to eat a half hour before the time to light. <ref> Sh”t Maharshal 85, Yosef Ometz Yuzfa 1066, magan Avraham 672:5, Eliyah Raba and Pri Chadash write that one can’t eat before one lights. Machasit HaShekel and Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tzion 672:14) say one should be strict not to eat a half hour before. Maharshal quotes Bach 672 who says that even Rabbenu Yonah who says concerning Bedikat Chametz that one doesn’t have to stop a meal that began when it was permitted would agree by lighting Chanuka candles that are a passing mitzvah, one should stop a meal when the time to light arrives. So Ben Ish Chai (Vayeshev 7) and Sh”t Seridei Esh 2:43 hold that one should interrupt the meal against Sh”t Bet Efraim O”C 63 pg 110:2 who permits continuing. Chazon Ovadiah pg 68 writes that a snack not a Kebetsah just like eating before megilah (Sh”t Yabea Omer O”C 9:67). </ref> For this law, cake has the same law as bread. <ref> Ashel Avraham 431 quoted by Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 672:3) </ref>
+
This practice is brought down by Tur and S”A (670:1), Aruch Hashulchan 670:8. Mor Ukesiah 670 explains that the practice is to show that it’s forbidden to use the light of the candles. The Taz 670:2 says that the custom is similar to their custom of abstaining from melacha on [[Rosh Chodesh]]. The basis for the custom on [[Rosh Chodesh]] is that the women did not participate in the sin of the Golden Calf so they were rewarded with the [[Rosh Chodesh]]. Similarly, since the miracle of [[Chanukah]] was brought about through the heroic actions of Yehudis, it is a worthy custom for women to commemorate this by abstaining from melacha. Chayei Adam [[Chanukah]] 154:3 also mentions the story of Yehudit as the basis for this custom. </ref> However, this only applies to strenuous labor such as sewing or weaving but not cooking or baking.<ref> Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 12, Shu"t Shraga Hameir 6:87:2, Shu"t Kinyan Torah 7:52, Beer Moshe (brought in Nitei Gavriel pg. 218), Rav Yaakov Kamenetsky (Emes Liyaakov footnote to Siman 671, [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/m/halacha.aspx?id=3001 Rabbi Eli Mansour] </ref>  
===Learning===
+
# This only applies for the half hour that the Chanuka candles have to burn halachically.<ref>Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 12, [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/m/halacha.aspx?id=3001 Rabbi Eli Mansour], Eliyah Raba 670:2, Kaf HaChaim 670:8, and Mishna Brurah 670:4 say that it’s only forbidden during the half hour of lighting which is a mitzvah against the Magen Avraham 670:2 in name of the Magelei Tzedek who says that it applies as long as the candles are lit. </ref>
# Once the time comes to light one can’t learn Torah. <ref> Sh”t Marharshal 85, Bach 672 D”H Upasak, Bear Heteiv 672:10, Knesset Hagedolah (Hagot HaTur), Taz (672:1, Magan Avraham 672:5, Chaye Adam 154:20, and Emek Bracha 71 write that learning is also forbidden when the time for lighting comes against the Erech HaShulchan 672:2. Chazon Ovadiah pg 68, and Sh”t Elef HaMagen 15 write one shouldn’t be strict to stop a half hour early because of Bitul Torah as the Achronim say by Bitul Chametz (Mishna Brurah 431:7). Halichot Yosef pg 254 says this is implied from the Maharshal, Bach, and Chaye Adam but not the Machasit HaShekel. However Doleh UMashkeh of Rav Kenievsky, and Kuntres Piskei Shmuot pg 86 say not to learn even a half hour before the time. </ref>
+
# Although some women have the practice to not perform labor at all on Chanuka, this practice is incorrect because this is excessive idelness.<ref> Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 13, Yalkut Yosef Kitzur S"A 670:3, Mishna Berura 670:5 </ref>
# Some allow one to Hilchot Chanuka because one won’t forget to light. <ref> Orchot Rabbenu Chanuka 3:51 brings proof from S”A 275:7 that one can learn Bameh Madlikin by the light of the fire, but is unsure whether one needs to appoint a person to remind you to light. Similarly, Sh”t Mekadesh Yisrael (Chanuka 23) who brings a proof from Pesachim 11a that someone involved in Bedika won’t eat the Chametz. </ref>
+
# Men can do melacha as usual on Chanuka.<ref> Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 14, Mateh Moshe 974, Pri Chadash 670, Bach 670, Taz 670:2 </ref>
# A regular shiur of Torah learning between Mincha and Maariv or after Maariv should continue on Chanuka even if it continues an hour after Tzet. When they finish they should announce that they should light candles. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 4:7, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 211), Mekor Chaim 672, Pekudat Elazar 672 pg 62d, Ner Mitzvah pg 28, Chazon Ovadyah (Chanuka pg 73), and Machzik Bracha 672 hold one should delay lighting for Torah of the many against Noheg KeSoan Yosef (Chanuka 5 pg 185). Since one can light with a bracha even after ‘Tichle Regel’ (S”A 672:2) even though it sounds like it’s Bedieved, because of Bitul Torah of a congregation it’s Lechatchila to light later. The issue of not learning when the time comes for lighting is only so that one doesn’t forget to light but a congregation won’t forget and will remind each other. Chazon Ovadyah brings proof from Meiri and Sefer Meorot on Shabbat 21b who write that the Yeshivot in France would continue learning and only light when they finished learning half-way into the night. [Similar idea by Bedikat Chametz that permits it after the time comes is found in Sh”t Maharanach 2:79, Knesset Hagedolah 431, Olat Shabbat 431:2, Shulchan Gavoha 431:6, and Shulchan Aruch HaRav 431. Even though Kesef Mishna says in name of Rambam that a shiur shouldn’t take place after the time for Bedika, Chatam Sofer (Pesachim 431:6) says Kesef Mishna was referring to learning at home but if it was a shiur in shul it’s permitted.] </ref>
+
# The type of melacha that is forbidden while the candles are lit are the types of melacha that are forbidden on [[Chol Hamoed]].<ref>Halachos of Chanukah by Rabbi Eider p. 4 quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein says that the laws of working follow those of Chol Hamoed when cooking is permitted. See Rivevot Efraim 1:436 who quotes several opinions regarding whether it is permitted to cook during the first half hour while the candles are lit.</ref>
# The practice in Israel is that the Avrechim (Semicha students) and Kollel members leave their studies early to pray Mincha, Arvit and then light with their family. <ref> Chazon Ovadyah pg 75 testifies to this practice. So writes Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach in Halichot Shlomo pg 296 and it’s written about him that he would get angry at Avrechim who continued learning and have their wives light at the appropriate time. </ref> However some hold that it’s preferable to appoint one’s wife to light at the proper time so as not to take away from the regular learning. If that’s not possible one should light after he finishes his regular schedule of learning. Nonetheless if the Avrechim plan on returning to learn at candle lighting then one can interrupt to light at the proper time. <ref> Some hold (Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 672:8), Rav Hershel Schachter in YU) based on the Meiri and Sefer Meorot on Shabbat 21b who write that the Yeshivot in France would continue learning and only light when they finished learning half-way into the night. Thus since S”A 671:1 says that lechatchila one should light at Tzet and bedieved one can light all night, because of the issue of Bitul Torah of Rabim one shouldn’t interrupt learning to light at the proper time. Nonethless, Chazon Ovadyah defends the practice (to interrupt to light with their family) because the Avrechim are concerned with Bitul Torah and will learn also at home, and can tell their family about Chanuka when they light. </ref>
 
  
===Sleeping===
+
==Related Pages==
# Similarly, one may not go to sleep a half hour before the time of candle lighting unless one appoints someone to wake oneself. <Ref>Piskei Shemuot pg 99 </ref>
+
* [[Chanukah]]
===Other activities===
+
* [[Placement of the Chanukah Candles]]
# One make not begin a significant activity which take time, however just writing a note is permissible. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 672:10, Piskei Shemuot pg 97 </ref>
+
* [[Earliest and Latest time to light Chanukah Candles]]
===If one began===
+
* [[Lighting Chanukah Candles on Friday afternoon]]
# Even if one began before the time to light candles, one should stop whatever one’s doing when the time to light comes. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 672:10</ref>
+
* [[Lighting in Shul|Lighting Chanukah Candles in Shul]]
===Those who aren't lighting===
+
* [[Doing an activity before lighting Chanukah Candles]]
# Some say that if a man is coming home late (an hour or more) after the time for lighting and is careful to light when he gets home, his wife and children are permitted to eat. <ref> Chazon Ovadiah pg 68, (quotes Sh”t Nachlat Tzvi Y”D 262 concerning Brit Milah) allows the children and wife to eat.</ref> However, others disagree and hold that someone who isn’t lighting and will fulfill the mitzvah with someone else should also refrain from eating, working, or learning as above unless there’s a need in which case one can be lenient. <Ref>Piskei Teshuvot 672:7. However Sh”t Besel HaChochma 4:58, Halichot Shlomo, and Rav Kanievsky (quoted by Halichot Yosef pg 260) say if it’s the Minhag for women not to eat a meal before the lighting. In response, Chazon Ovadiah rules that if there’s not a known Minhag, then one doesn’t have to wait. Similarly, Rav Yacov Kamenetsky in Emet LeYacov 676 says according to the Ashkenaz Minhag, if the children want to eat they can light for themselves. </ref>
+
* [[Leftover oil and wicks]]
 +
* [[Having a kosher Chanukia]]
 +
* [[Kosher oil, wicks, and candles for Chanukah Candles]]
 +
* [[A poor person lighting Chanukah Candles]]
 +
* [[Where Does a Guest Light Chanuka Candles?]]
  
== Lighting Chanuka Candles in Shul==
+
==Links==
# The congregation should light candles between Mincha and Mariv even at Shkiah because the congregation would leave right after Mariv and there wouldn’t be Pirsume Nisa for the candles. <ref> Rashba (Shabbat 21b) says that if one wants he can light at Shkiah because there’s also Pirsume Nisa then. Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 15), Ritva and Ran on Shabbat 21b. Bach 672 says in Shul the Shaliach Tzibbur can light at Shkiah. Sh”t Shev Yacov 22 pg 28a says it’s established to light between Mincha and Mariv (and so says Avudraham 54d) and the reason is that if they light after Mariv the whole congregation would leave. Sh”t Zivchai Tzedek (O”C 2:29,3:112 pg 213) writes that that was the Minhag of Bagdad based on the Yesh Omerim of S”A 672:2. So rules Chazon Ovadyah pg 69 and records that such is the Minhag Yerushalayim. Sh”t Shraga HaMeir 7:44 says that if the congregation forgot to light in between Mincha and Mariv they should light before Alenu so there’s a minyan still there. See also Yeraim 102e. </ref>
+
* [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/56810 Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Chanukah (Hebrew 5773)]
 +
==Sources==
 +
<references/>
  
== The oils that are Kosher==
+
[[Category:Chanukah]]
# All oils are kosher for lighting candles and it’s preferable to light with olive oil because that was the oil used in the Bet HaMikdash and with it the miracle occurred. If one doesn’t have oil, one can use wax. Some specifically use wax candles because it burns brightly. [Propane is judged like wax candles.] <ref> Shabbat 21b brings a dispute whether the not kosher wicks and fuels of Shabbat candles are Kosher or not for Chanuka candles. Rambam (Chanuka 4:6), Tur, and S”A 673:1 rule that they are Kosher for Chanuka. Tosfot (Shabbat 23a), Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 7), Roke’ach 226, Kol Bo 44, Manhig, Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:5), Meiri (Shabbat 21a,23a), and Mordechai 268 in name of Maharam hold that all oils are Kosher for Chanuka and olive oil is the best. Rama 673:1 rules based on the practice of the Maharil that olive oil is the best. There’s 4 opinions about using wax candles: 1) Sefer Minhagim of Rav Yitzchak Tirna 144, Darkei Moshe 673:1 in name of Rabbi Avraham of Prag, Levush 673:2 and Mateh Moshe 990 writes the wax is equal to olive oil. 2)Chaye Adam 154:8 and Pri Megadim A”A 676:5 seem to equate wax with other oils. 3) Meiri 21a, Mahari MeBruna 39, Maharshal 85, Sh”t Chacham Tzvi 45, Mishna Brurah 673:4 say any oil is preferable to wax. 4) Mor Ukesiah 673 and Ner Mitzvah of the Maharal disqualify wax altogether. Concerning propane see Torat HaMoadim 5:1 </ref>
+
[[Category:Holidays]]
# If one can’t afford to get olive oil for all of them one should get olive oil for the one of mitzvah and light the rest with other oil. If that’s not affordable, one should light the one of mitzvah with olive oil and the rest with wax. If that’s not affordable one should light all them with wax. It’s preferable to light every night with the number of that night with wax candles than to light one every night with olive oil. <ref> Sh”t Shevut Yacov 2:31, Bear Hetev 673:1, Moed Kol Chai 27:55 allow one to light one candle of olive oil and the rest of other oils. Sh”t Shaar Efraim 39, Eliyah Raba 673:2, Yad Aharon (Hagot bet Yosef), and Yeshuot Yacov 673:2 say not to light with one candle olive oil and the rest wax. However this implies that one can light with one candle of olive oil and the rest other oils (so says the Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tzion 673:1, Kol Sinai (kislev 5725)). However Bear Hetev, Shaarei Teshuva (673:1), Siddur Bet Ovad 27, and Moed Kol Chai understand the Shaar Efraim that even that’s forbidden. Birkei Yosef 673:2, Mateh Yehuda (Shevet Yehuda 35d) and Pri Megadim A”A 676e rule leniently allowing oil with wax. Thus Torat HaMoadim 5:2 rules to use oil with wax only if oil with oil is not possible. Chaye Adam 154:24, Sh”t Binyan Olam O”C 34, Mishna Brurah 671:7, and Torat HaMoadim 5:2 rule that it’s better to light according to the number of the night than to use olive oil. </ref>
 
# Someone involved in sticking wax candles to the Chanukia and then finds oil, should switch to use oil. If one started the bracha on the wax candles one can’t switch to oil. <ref> Sh”t Shevut Yacov 1:37 says once one sticks the wax candles to the Chanukia one began the mitzvah and shouldn’t change to oil. Sh”t Chacham Tzvi 45 argues that that isn’t called starting the mitzvah. Sh”t Shevut Yacov defends himself in teshuva 2:30 and agrees even though one started the mitzvah one doesn’t have to change to oil but can if he wants to be strict. Most of the Achronim hold like the Chacham Tzvi including:Sh”t Shaar Yosef 8, Birkei Yosef 673:3, Sh”t Yad Eliyahu Melublin 42, Sh”t Tiferet Yosef O”C 36, Sh”t Nachalat Binyamin O”C 132, Sh”t Shelat Shalom (Kama 113), and Kol Sinai (Kislev 5725). Shaarei Teshuva 673:1 and Aruch HaShulchan 673:6 say that once one begins the bracha one can’t change to oil at all. </ref>
 
# One can’t use an electric light (because it lacks oil and wick) or a gas flame (because it lacks a wick) for Chanuka candles. If one has nothing else one should turn it on without a bracha (whether one can get benefit from it, see later on).If one later gets a candle he should light with a bracha. <ref> Rav Ovadyah Yosef in Sh”t Yacheve Daat 4:38, Yabea Omer O”C 2:17(12),3:35, 10:54(19), Chazon Ovadyah (Chanuka pg 93), Sh”t Bet Yitzchak Y”D 120, doesn’t allow electric or gas lights. Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach in Halichot Shlomo (Moadim 283), and Rav Elyashiv in Kovetz Teshuvot 3:103 say if there’s nothing else available if the lights are set up so it’s recognizable that it’s Chanuka candles one can light (and seemingly make a bracha). Gas: Pitchei Sharim (Shabbat 21a) and Sh”t Yad HaLevi O”C 116 forbid the use of gas bulbs. Sh”t Yam Hagadol 32 allows gas but not electric lights.[Atret Zekenim 673 quotes Maharal of Prague who forbids even wax because the miracle happened with oil.] Electric: Ashel Avrham Nemark (Shabbat 22a), Sh”t Mayim Chaim Mashash 279, Or Chadash 5665 pg 36, Sh”t Ohel Yitzchak Posek in name of Rabbi Yachanon Fershel, and Sh”t Kochavei Yitzchak 5-8 allow electric lights. However, Sh”t Levushei Mordechai Winkler (Talita O”C 59, Mehudra Batra 19), Sh”t Har Tzvi O”C 2:114, Sh”t Bear Moshe 6:59, Sh”t Ohel Yitzchak Posek 3, Sh”t Darkei Shalom Leiter 63(5), Pedukat Elazar 23, Sh”t Eliyahu Kalsakin 63, Sh”t Dvar Eliyahu 63, Sh”t Mishpatei Uziel O”C 1:7(2), Sh”t Mahargash 2:107, Kaf HaChaim 673:19, Sh”t Mishnat Sachir 2:203, Even Yisrael 9 pg 127b, Sh”t Yashkil Avdi O”C 2:9(8), 3:17,Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 1:20(12), and Sh”t Shevet Hakehati 3:199 forbid the use of electric lights. </ref>
 
# Oils that spoiled that are inedible are unfit, unless it’s inedible because it’s bitter and it’s not spoiled is fit just like wax which is fit even though it’s inedible. <ref> S”A 154:12 if a mouse is found in the oil and it makes it spoiled it can’t be used to light in the Shul. Knesset Hagedolah extends this halacha to all candles of mitzvah. Pri Megadim A”A 154:19, M”Z 154:10, Erech Hashulchan Y”D 104:10, Mishna Brurah 673:3 say this law explicitly by Chanuka. By lighting in a shul, Magan Avraham 154:15, Olot Tamid 154:15, Ben Ish Chai (Vayeshev 12) say that spoiling that makes it inedible is unfit but if it’s just bitter it’s fit. </ref>
 
# All wicks and oils are kosher for Chanuka candles even the wicks and oils that are unfit for Shabbat candles such as wicks of cotton, hair or silk, and oils of castor oil or pitch (See Hilchot Shabbat Candles), which the wicks don’t draw well from the oil. <ref> Shabbat 21a brings a dispute in the Amoraim. We hold that these wicks and oils are permitted for Chanuka. It’s only a potential issue on Friday afternoon and even then it’s permitted since we are not afraid that on Shabbat you’ll fix the wick (to draw better) because the Chanuka candles are forbidden to benefit from their light and if they go out one donesn’t have to relight them. Rambam (Chanuka 4:6), Tur and S”A 673:1. </ref>
 
# On Friday afternoon if one puts in the exact measure required, enough oil for a half hour after Tzet, he can use the unfit wicks and oils (wicks and oils unfit for Shabbat candles). However if he puts in a lot of oil to last longer than the half hour after Tzet, he may not use the unfit wicks and oils (wicks and oils unfit for Shabbat candles).The Shamash on Friday afternoon can’t be lit with the unfit wicks and oils. <ref> Meiri(Shabbat 21b), Sh”t Rashba 1:170, Bet Yosef 673, Rama 673:1 say this difference by Friday afternoon. S”A 672:2 rules that if the oil lasts longer than the required half hour it’s permitted for benfit. Thus there’s an issue that one will fix the wick
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 

Latest revision as of 09:31, 20 September 2019

A Chanukkiya lit on the eighth night

The Brachot of Chanukah Candles

  1. On the first night of Chanukah, before lighting the candles one should recite three blessings. On all other nights, only the first two are said (and not Shehecheyanu). [1] Here is the text in Hebrew and below it is the transliterated text:
    1. ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם, אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו להדליק נר (של) חנוכה [2]
    2. ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם, שעשה נסים לאבותינו בימים ההם בזמן הזה
    3. ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם, שהחינו וקימנו והגענו לזמן הזה
    4. Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam Asher Kidishanu BeMitzvotav VeTzivanu Lehadlik Ner (Ashkenazim add: Shel) Chanukah.
    5. Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam SheAssa Nissim LeAvotenu Bayamim Hahem Bazman Hazeh. [3]
    6. Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam SheHechiyanu Vekiyemanu Vehiygianu Lazman Hazeh.
  2. Many poskim say that one should say all of the Brachot before lighting the candles, while others say that after the first night one should say LeHadlik, light one candle, then say She’asa Nissim and light the rest. [4]
  3. If one forgot to say the Brachot and remembers after he finished lighting before a half hour passed, one should recite “SheAssa Nissim” and "Shehecheyanu", on the first night, but not “Lehadlik Ner”. If one remembers before one finishes lighting the candles (on the 2nd day and on) one can make all the Brachot then and finish the lighting. [5]
  4. If one forgot to say Shehecheyanu before lighting one can say it in the half hour after lighting. If one didn’t say it the first night one should say it the second night and so on. So too, if on the eighth night one forgot one can say it in the half hour after lighting. [6]
  5. After the half hour of lighting one can’t say the Brachot. [7]
  6. If someone had his wife or anyone else light for him the first night he fulfill his obligation of saying Shehecheyanu and shouldn’t say it the next night. [8]

Order of Lighting

Shulchan Aruch's order of lighting
  1. The common practice is that on the first night one lights the rightmost candle. On the second night, one lights the candle that is second to the right (i.e. the new one) followed by the candle all the way to the right. One continues to add candles to the left each night, lighting the new candle first and moving from left to right. [9]
  2. Ideally one should stand near the candles on the left side of the chanukia so that one need not pass over the candles on the right when lighting.[10]
  3. Some say one should say HaNeirot Halalu after lighting the first candle, while others suggest saying it after lighting all the candles.[11]
  4. Some say that one shouldn't blow out a candle but if one needs to put them out, he should extinguish it another way.[12] Others say that there's no concern nowadays.[13]

Number of Candles to Light

  1. The mitzvah of lighting Chanukah candles is a very special and dear mitzvah. Even a poor person should rent or sell his clothing or hire himself out in order to get enough money to purchase at least one candle for every night. The Gabbai Tzedaka (local charity distributor) needs to make sure that the poor have enough money to purchase at least one candle every night. [14]
  2. The minimum requirement of Chanukah candles is that each household should have one candle lit every night. The next best method (Mehadrin) to fulfill this mitzvah is by lighting one candle for every person in the house every night. The best (Mehadrin Min HaMehadrin) way to fulfill this mitzvah is: according to Sephardim, for one person per house to light one candle on the first night and to add another candle each night and according to Ashkenazim, for every person to light for themselves one candle on the first night and to add another candle each night. [15]
  3. If one missed lighting one day it can’t be made up and the next night one should light the number everyone else is lighting. [16]
  4. If one lit two candles on the first night, he fulfills his obligation and doesn’t have to relight the right number of candles. [17]

If One Doesn't Have Enough Candles

  1. If one only has enough oil for one night and not all 8, he should light for one night according to Halacha and the rest of the nights he will be exempt because it is beyond his control. He should not split it into 8 cups and light less than the halachically required amount on each night. [18]
  2. If one has two cups of oil on the second night, and can light the full amount for that night, but he doesn't have anything for the future nights, he should only light one that night and save the other for the next night. [19]
  3. If, on the eighth night, one doesn't have enough for all 8 candles, he should put enough into one candle to light for the full time, and split the rest between other cups to light 8 for a short amount of time. He should not split all the oil into 8 and be left without a candle that will light for the full amount of time.[20]
  4. If on the second night, one only has one candle and he lights that one and later finds another candle, he cannot say a beracha on that second candle because you cannot say a beracha just for the hiddur.[21]
  5. If on the third night, one only has enough oil to light two candles, he should only light one and not two.[22] However, if he can split the second cup into two and light one full cup and two half cups, he should do so.[23]

How long should the candles last?

For background, see the How Long Do Chanukah Candles Have To Be Lit? page.

  1. The candles only need fuel to burn for a half hour[24] even nowadays when people are out in the street much later.[25]
  2. If one doesn’t have enough for the each Hidur candle, the Hidur candles don’t need to burn for a half hour. [26]
  3. A person who is in doubt if his candles will last a half hour can nonetheless light with a bracha. [27]

Getting benefit from the light of the candles

  1. It’s forbidden to get benefit from the light of the candles for the first half hour, even on minimal tasks like checking the value of a coin. [28]
  2. However a minimal task that’s for a mitzvah is permitted, but learning by the light of the candles isn’t considered a minimal task. [29]
  3. It is permitted to walk by the light of the Chanuka candles and that isn't considered benefiting.[30]
  4. Therefore it’s the Minhag to light a Shamash so that if one does use the light of the candles it’ll be permitted because of the Shamash. [31]
  5. The Shamash should be placed slightly higher than the other candles or recognizable distant from the others. [32]
  6. Nowadays when we have electric lights if the lights are on some say one doesn’t need a Shamash and some say it’s still part of the Minhag. [33]

Who’s Obligated?

  1. Women are obligated in Chanukah candles since they too were part of the miracle of Chanukah.[34] Thus, a man who is away should have his wife light at home for him to fulfill his obligation. Even if he will come that night, but later than Tzet HaKochavim, he should still have his wife light. Ashkenazim who have the Minhag that everyone in the household lights, and they are able to light where they are, should light without a bracha. [35]
  2. A deaf and mute, insane, or child not bar/bat-mitzvah isn’t obligated to light and so can’t fulfill the obligation of someone who is obligated. However a deaf who can speak is obligated and can fulfill the obligation of others. [36]
  3. A blind person is obligated in lighting. If he’s married, his wife should light for him, if he lives alone he should light. [37]
  4. A child, even if he is the age of chinuch but not bar/bat mitzvah, may not fulfill the obligation of others. However, the one making the bracha can light the first candle and then let the child light the other candles. However a child who isn’t at the age of chinuch, shouldn’t light any of the candles except for the Shamash. [38]
  5. A mourner in the first 7 days can light and make Brachot [however he shouldn’t light in shul on the first night because of the Shechianu, even in the 30 days of mourning or 12 months for a parent.] [39]
  6. A mourner on the first day is exempt as he is exempt from all mitzvoth and so he should have a household member who isn’t a mourner light with a bracha, if that’s not possible, he should have another person light without a bracha. [40]
  7. A convert can make all the Brachot and say “She’assa Nissim Le’avotenu” but if he wants can change it to say “She’assa Nissim LeYisrael”. [41]

Who fulfills his/her obligation with the household’s lighting?

  1. The Ashkenazic minhag is that each individual lights for oneself, however, the Sephardic minhag is that one person lights for the whole household. [42] According to the Sephardic minhag who fulfills his/her obligation with the lighting of the household?
  2. Household members who are “dependant on the household” fulfill their obligation with the lighting of the household. [43]

Woman

  1. A married woman should rely on her husband’s lighting. Unmarried girls who in still live at in their father’s home can rely on their father’s lighting even according to the Ashkenazic custom. If they want to light, Ashkenazim can light with a Bracha. [44]

Single Children

  1. According to Sephardim, members of the household that are dependent on their parents fulfill their obligation with the one lighting of the household even if they aren’t home such as children in yeshiva or in the army that don’t sleep at home don’t light where they sleep.[45]
  2. However, Ashkenazi Minhag is for single children to light themselves even at home and certainly when not sleeping at home. [46]

A wedding on Chanukah

  1. If the wedding takes place at night then the groom fulfills his obligation with the lighting in his father's house which took place before the wedding. [47]
  2. If the wedding takes place during the day before sunset, the groom fulfills doesn't fulfill his obligation with the lighting in his father's house but rather he must light at his new house. Some say he should light after the wedding, some say he should appoint a messenger to light there, and some say he should leave the wedding between the Chuppah and meal to light at his new house. A minority opinion is that one may light at the wedding hall.[48]
  3. For Ashkenazim there are different minhagim whether single girls light at their parents home.[49]

Traveler

  1. A married man traveling should have his wife light for him at home and not make the Bracha of Sh’asa Nisim nor Sh’chianu even when he returns home. [50]
  2. If there's two guys in a room together and they're not fulfilling their obligation with their parents, according to Ashkenazim each should light on their own. According to Sephardim, it is better for them to join together and switch off days who should light.[51]

A Yeshiva Student

  1. There is a dispute whether a Yeshiva student who eats and sleeps at the Yeshiva but is financially supported by his parents is considered dependent on the table of the household or not. Most Sephardic authorities rule that he is considered dependent and fulfills his obligation with the lighting of his household, however, many Ashkenazic authorities rule that he is considered independent and doesn’t fulfill his obligation. [52]
  2. A Sephardic Yeshiva whose parents live outside Israel in a different time zone some say that he may light with a Bracha at Yeshiva, while others say that he can fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his parents. [53]
  3. Some poskim held that every yeshiva bachor fulfills his obligation with the lighting of the yeshiva even if his parents aren't lighting for him.[54]

Birkat HaRoeh

  1. Someone traveling all night in a car, train, plane, or boat and has no one lighting for him at home should preferably light there without a Bracha and make Brachot HaRoeh. [55]

Performing Labors while the Candles are Burning

  1. There is a longstanding practice that women not to do any work while the candles are lit, to remind them that it is prohibited to benefit from the light of Chanuka candles.[56] However, this only applies to strenuous labor such as sewing or weaving but not cooking or baking.[57]
  2. This only applies for the half hour that the Chanuka candles have to burn halachically.[58]
  3. Although some women have the practice to not perform labor at all on Chanuka, this practice is incorrect because this is excessive idelness.[59]
  4. Men can do melacha as usual on Chanuka.[60]
  5. The type of melacha that is forbidden while the candles are lit are the types of melacha that are forbidden on Chol Hamoed.[61]

Related Pages

Links

Sources

  1. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 676:1-2, Rabbi Eli Mansour see Berachot for Hanukka for the Syrian recitation of the berachot
  2. S”A 676:1 writes the first bracha without the word shel. So is the opinion of the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 108d), Pri Chadash, and Gra (Maaseh Rav 231). However Ashkenazim add the word Shel based on our girsa of the Gemara, Rif and Rambam. Mishna Brurah 676:1, based on early sources quoted in Shaar Hatziyun 1. Orchos Rabbeinu 3:17 says that the practice of the Chazon Ish was to say lehadlik ner shelachanukah (one word with a patach under the lamed). Clearly, if a Sephardi said it with the word Shel he fulfills his obligation (Chazon Ovadyah pg 125). Although the Shibolei HaLeket (Siman 185) argues that the text of first bracha should be Al Mitzvat Hadlakat Ner Chanukah, the Rosh (Pesachim 1:10) cites Rabbeinu Tam and Riva, who justify the text of LeHadlik Ner Shel Chanuka. S”A 676:1 rules that the text is LeHadlik.
  3. Aruch hashulchan 676:3, Orchos Rabbeinu 3:17, and Koveitz Halachos 6:3 actually recommend saying bizman hazeh as opposed to bazman hazeh.
  4. The Gemara (Shabbat 23a) says that on the first night, one should say three Brachot: LeHadlik, She’asa Nissim, and Shehechiyanu. On the remaining nights, one says only two Brachot, leaving out Shehechiyanu. The Rambam (Chanukah 3:4), Tur, and S”A 676:1 codify this as halacha.
    • The Maharil (Responsa 145) writes that one should recite all of the Brachot before lighting, in accordance with the principle of Over LeAsiyatan. The Rama 676:2, Kitzur S”A 139:12, Mishna Brurah 676:4, and Kaf HaChaim 676:21 concur with the Maharil. Rav Mordechai Willig (Hilchos Chanukah and Purim #1, 35-6) commented that the minhag is like the Rama.
    • On the other hand, the Maharam (cited by Hagahot Maimoniyot 3:2), based on the Masechet Sofrim, said LeHadlik before lighting, leaving She’asa Nissim and Shehechiyanu for afterwards. Rav Soloveitchik (quoted in Nefesh HaRav p. 224 and Mesorah vol 4, p. 8) explained that the Masechet Sofrim holds that the Bracha of She’asa Nissim functions as a Birkat HaRoeh and should be made after seeing the candles lit. He notes that in order to satisfy both views, Rav Chaim’s practice was that on all nights besides the first, he would say LeHadlik, light the first candle, say She’asa Nissim, and then light the rest of the candles. On the first night, when this is impossible, he made all three Brachot before lighting. Rabbeinu Yerucham (9:1) quotes a similar idea in the name of Rabbeinu Yonah.
  5. Sh”t Rabbenu Avraham Ben HaRambam 83 writes that it is forbidden to say the bracha of LeHadlik Neirot Chanukah after one finished lighting Chanukah candles. Shulchan Gavoha 676:3 writes that if one remembers any time the candles are lit one may still say “SheAssa Nissim” and "Shehecheyanu", on the first night because he should be no worse that a person who isn't lighting and just saw the candles so is allowed to say these brachot (Birchat HaRoeh). Sh”t Demeshk Eliezer Y”D 47 agrees. However, see also the Sefer Pardes (Rabbenu Asher Ben Chaim pg 66) who says one can say it as long as the candles are burning. Sh”t Halachot Ketanot 1:3 and Yad Aharon (Hagahot Tur 676) say that one can make all the Brachot as long as one didn’t finish lighting all the candles of Hidur. Sh”t Rabbi Akiva Eiger (Mehudra Tanina 13) writes that if one remembers before one finishes one can make all the Brachot but if one only remembers after he finishes lighting he can’t make Lehadlik Ner just like Brachot HaRoeh(S”A 676:3). Mishna Brurah 676:4, Ben Ish Chaim Vayeshev 10, and Sh”t Chatav Sofer O”C 135 agree.Torat HaMoadim 6:9 adds that since we learn the after lighting one can still make the bracha of SheAssa Nisim from Brachot HaRoeh it only applies to the first half hour after one sees the candles as by Brachot HaRoeh.
  6. Shibolei HaLeket 186 and Orchot Chaim (Chanukah 10) quote a Teshuvat Hagoanim to which Rabbenu Yishaya says that one can say Shehecheyanu any day after the first when he remembers; BI"H, Chanukah, 3 concurs . Piskei Rid (Shabbat 23a) explains it means one can only make the bracha at the time of the lighting. However, Bach 676 in name of the Maharash says not to say Shehecheyanu the second night. Nonetheless, Meiri (Shabbat 23a) and Riaz (23a), also write that one lights Shehecheyanu the first night one lights. This is also the opinion of Sh”t Maharam (Prague Edition 57), Tur 676 in name of the Rosh and S”A 676:1.
  7. Levush 676, Pri Chadash 676:1, Sh”t Sadeh HaAretz O”C 38, Birkei Yosef 692:1, and Sh”t Igrot Moshe 1:190 hold that one can only make the Shehecheyanu at the time of the lighting. However, Yavetz in Mor Ukesiah 692, Sh”T Mahari Molcho 78, Sh”t Zera Emet 1:96, and Taharat Mayim (Shiurei Tahara 8:3) hold it can be said any time during Chanukah. Nonetheless, Mishna Brurah (676:2 and Shar Tzion 676:3), and Torat HaMoadim 6:12 say that because of a Safek Brachot one doesn’t make Brachot past the time of lighting. Taharat Mayim implies that by SheAssa Nissim one can say it anytime against the Mor Ukesiah who says that SheAssa Nissim can only be said over the candles. Sh”t Yechave Daat 2:77 says because of Safek Brachot one doesn’t say SheAssa Nissim not over candles.
  8. Bach 676 says that his wife’s lighting with Brachot doesn’t exempt him from Shehecheyanu. So says Eliyah Raba 676:5. Torat HaMoadim 6:13 explain that this is the Bach according to his opinion that one who has someone lighting for him at home makes Brachot HaRoah; however since we hold (S”A 676:3) that if one has someone lighting for home doesn’t make Brachot HaRoah here too, one fulfills Shehecheyanu with his wife’s lighting. This is also the opinion of Sharei Knesset Hagedolah 676:2, Magen Avraham 676:2, Pri Megadim A”A 676:2, Mishna Brurah 676:7, and Kaf HaChaim 676:26. Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 4:50 (4-5), 6:42(3-4) holds that even by Shehecheyanu we apply Safek Brachot LeHakel.
    • The picture of Shulchan Aruch's lighting is above by the summarized halacha. The pictures for the other opinions are below or see different drawings in Sefer Natai Gavriel (Chanukah pg 637).
    Levush's order of lighting
    Gra's order of lighting
    • Maharik (Responsa 183, cited by Beit Yosef 676:5 s.v. Aval) writes that on the first night, one should light the rightmost candle and on subsequent nights should add a candle to the left and light the new one first, such that one lights from left to right (the way English is written). He bases his argument on the Gemara (Sotah 15b) that a person always should turn to the right, which the Mordechai (Shabbat 2:268) applied to lighting chanuka candles. The Shulchan Aruch 676:5 codifies this as halacha. This is also the opinion of the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 108c), Nagid VeMitzvah (26:72), Maharil (quoted by the Magen Avraham 676:5), Chazon Ovadia pg. 32.
    • [The Trumat Hadeshen 106 agrees that if one is lighting opposite the Mezuzah then one should light from left to right with the new candle always being the leftmost candle which is within a Tefach of the door. However, if there’s no mezuzah, and one is lighting on the right side of the door as one enters, then one should light right to left so that the new candle is always the rightmost candle and is within a Tefach of the door. The Sh”t Maharshal 85 agrees with the Trumat HaDeshen. However, the Bet Yosef 676:5 quotes the Trumat HaDeshen and argues that there shouldn’t be any difference whether one is lighting on the left or right of the door one should always light the new candle first and light from left to right.]
    • However, the Levush (676:5) and Taz (676:6) argue that the Gemara means in one’s first decision between right and left one should go right, but afterwards one may continue to follow that path even if that means going left. Therefore, they rule that on the first night, the candle is placed in the leftmost position, and on the subsequent nights the candles are put to the right of the previous candles and are lit from right to left. This is also the opinion of the Sh”t Panim Meirot 1:98 and Sh”t Semach Tzedek O”C 67.
    • A third approach is that of the Gr”a (Bei’ur HaGra 676:5 and Maaseh Rav 232). He writes that one always should light the candle closest to the door first, even if it is not the newest candle and even if it means lighting from right to left.
    • Halacha: Mishna Brurah 676:9 quotes the Bet Yosef and the Gra and concludes one can do like either one. The Pri HaChadash, Be'er Sheva (Sotah 15b), Nezirut Shimshon (Sotah 15b), Sh”t Chatam Sofer O”C 187, Chazon Ovadiah (Chanukah pg 33) argue on the Levush and hold like S”A. Kovetz Hamoadim (Moriah pg 61), Evan Israel (9 pg 129a), Sadeh HaAretz O”C 3:33, and Nehar Mitzrayim Chanukah 7, the Kitzur S”A 139:11, Kaf HaChaim 676:31, Aruch HaShulchan 676:11, Natai Gavriel (Chanukah 28:2, pg 177), and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 229) write that the halacha and minhag follow Shulchan Aruch. Rav Mordechai Willig (Hilchos Chanukah and Purim #1, 37-8) observed that the minhag is like the S”A.
    • Rav Hershel Schachter (Halachipedia Article 5773 #10) said that common practice is to put the candles in from right to left. He explained that the idea is to start the candles within a tefach of the doorway.
  9. Mishna Brurah 676:11
  10. Masechet Sofrim 20:4 says that a person should say HaNeirot Halalu and implies that it is said in middle of the lighting. Magen Avraham 676:3 says that HaNeirot should be recited after lighting the first candle, while Pri Megadim M”Z 676:5 suggests that perhaps since the Bracha applies to all of the candles, one should say HaNeirot Halalu after lighting all of the candles. Mishna Brurah 676:8 cites both opinions.
  11. Kaf HaChaim YD 116:115
  12. Rivevot Efraim 8:103:6
  13. The above halacha is a quote from the Rambam Chanukah 4:12 and S”A 671:1. This is based on the Mishna (Pesachim 99b) which states that a poor person may take from the charity fund in order to purchase the 4 cups of wine on Pesach. The Gemara explains that the poor can take from charity for this because it has the very significant purpose of Pirsumeh Nisa, publicizing the miracle of our leaving Egypt. The Maggid Mishna (Chanukah 4:12) comments that this is the source of the Rambam's ruling that even a poor should should rent or sell his clothing in order to be able to light Chanukah candles because concept of publicizing the miracle applies even more to Chanukah than by the 4 cups of Pesach. The Lechem Mishne (Chanukah 4:12) argues the law of publicizing the miracle by Chanukah is equal to the 4 cups of wine. The Sh”t Kanaf Ranana O”C 84 defends the Miggid Mishna saying that the Chanukah candles are the only way in which we publicize the miracle of Chanukah, whereas regarding Pesach there are other actions we do to publicize the miracle besides the 4 cups of wine.
    • The Braitta on Gemara Shabbat 21b states that the minimum requirement of Chanukah candles is that each household should have one candle lit every night. The next best method (Mehadrin) to fulfill this mitzvah is by lighting one candle for every person in the house every night. The best (Mehadrin Min HaMehadrin) way to fulfill this mitzvah is to increase the number of candles light each night, one on the first night, two on the second, and so on. However, regarding the last method there is a dispute to it's precise explanation.
    • The Rambam (Chanukah 4:1-2) rules that each night one should add one candle per person per night, meaning that for a family of 10, the first night there would 10 candles and 20 the second night. [He adds that the Minhag of Spain is to only light add one candle per household increasing according to the number of the night.] This is also the opinion of the Rabbenu Yehonatan in name of Ran (Shabbat 21b), Piskei Riaz (Shabbat 2, Chanukah 5), and Rif explained by Buir HaGra 671:4.
    • However, Tosfot (Shabbat 21b s.v. VeHaMehadrin) in name of the Ri writes that one should only have one increasing per household so that it’s recognizable what night of the Chanukah it is. So writes Mordechai (Shabbat 270) in name of the Ri, Meiri (Shabbat 21b) that such is the Minhag, Ran (Shabbat 21b) in name of Raah, Tur(671). Ritva (Shabbat 21b) brings both explanations of the Gemara. S”A 671:2 holds like Tosfot and Rama 671:2 holds like Rambam.
    • The custom of Sephardim, as recorded in S"A 671:2 is to have one chanukia per household and increase the number of candles according to the day. This is the ruling of Chazon Ovadia pg. 19.
    • Interesting point: The Taz 671:1 writes that here is a case where Ashkenazim uncharacteristically follow the Rambam and Sephardim follow Tosfot. Chemed Moshe 671:4 argues that the Rambam concludes so is the Minhag not like the ruling, meaning it’s an old practice even before his time. The Torat HaMoadim (Chanukah pg 18) brings the Rama in Darkei Moshe 671:1 who says the Ashkenazi practice goes even according to Tosfot since the candles are indoors and separate. Sdei Chemed (Chanukah 9:4) argues that the Ashkenazic practice for each member of the household to light isn’t like the Rambam who says that one person lights for everyone according to the number of people. For this reason many challenge the Rama who quotes his ruling in name of the Rambam including Maamar Mordechai 671:4, Bet Halevi on Torah (Chanukah pg 69). Yet, the Sh”t Maharil 145, Sh”t Trumat Hadeshen 101, and Sh”t Mahari Mebrona 50 hold like the explanation held by the Rama and could be sources for his opinion. Also, the Alfasi Zuta (Shabbat 2 beginning) says that the Rama is following the idea of the Rambam to light according to the number of household members but in order to satisfy Tosfot’s issue of being recognizable, every person lights instead of one person lighting.
  14. S”A 672:2. Siddur Rashi 316 pg 151 quotes Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda who says that there’s no make up for a missed day, otherwise those who see will think you’re violating the words of the Rabbis. So writes the Tur 672. There’s a dispute whether this means that since it can’t be made up one doesn’t light the next night or one lights like the rest of the world. The Sh”t Maaseh Geonim (55 pg 43) quoting Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda that the next night one lights like everyone else. (Thus, Rabbenu Yitzchak means not to light the amount of the night he missed with the amount of that night because that would look like he’s going against the Rabbis); So hold Mordechai 2:268 explained by Sh”t Maharil 28, Agudah (Shabbat 31), Roke’ach 226 pg 128, Shibolei Leket 186, and Pardes Hagadol 199. However, Sefer Minhagim in name of Meharar MeMerizberg writes that the next night one should light the number of candles you missed last night. [He understood Rabbenu Yitzchak quoted by the Tur that one can’t add 8 candles on the 9th night.] Darkei Moshe 672:3 holds like the Agudah and Rokeach against the Maharam.
  15. Rav Shlomo Kluger (Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo O”C 380) says adding to the number doesn’t ruin the mitzvah as the Rama 263 says by Shabbat candles. However, Sh”t Ohel Moshe 69 and Sh”t Mishna Sachir O”C 199 argue that since he lit the wrong number, someone seeing this will think he didn’t light it for Chanukah candles but just for the light. Yet, the Pri Chadash 675 says one who extinguishes the candles fulfills the mitzvah since the candles are in a Chanukiya that’s only used for Chanukah it’s recognizable that he lit for Chanukah. Also, Eliya Raba 671:7 says the first night doesn’t need to illustrate the number of the nights. Sh”t Lehorot Natan 2:51, Sh”t Shraga HaMeir 4:73, 5:75(1), Sh”t Shevet Hakehati 1:202 hold like Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo. Chazon Ovadiah pg. 29 agrees and adds that one who repeats and makes a bracha is making a bracha levatala.
  16. Chazon Ovadia pg. 28, Shu"t Sde Ha'aretz OC 3:34.
    • The Beit Yosef famously asks why it is that we celebrate Chanuka for 8 days, if after all they had enough oil for one day, so the miracle was only for 7 days. One of the answers he proposes is that in they split the one cup of oil into 8 parts, and it miraculously lit for the full time. Accordingly, the Neta Sorek (Chiddushei Sugyot 73b) and Divrei Tzvi 671 write that if you only have enough oil for one night, you should split it into 8 cups. However, Chazon Ovadia pg. 28 writes that most poskim disagree and argue that there is no proof from there because the Beit Hamikdash was different because they were accustomed to miracles.
  17. Chayei Adam 154:25, Chazon Ovadia pg. 29
  18. Magen Avraham 671:1, Eliya Rabba 671:1, Chazon Ovadia pg. 29
  19. Chazon Ovadia pg. 30 , Beit Yosef 672, Birkei Yosef 671:3
  20. Chazon Ovadia pg. 31, Mishna Brura 671:5, Kaf Hachaim 671:10, Beit Halevi (Al Hatorah, Inyani Chanuka 29b), Chayei Adam 154:25, Shu"t Ketav Sofer 135, Shu"t Shevet Sofer 26, Aruch Hashulchan 671:10, Shu"t Mishpat Kohen 95. Avi Ezri (Chanuka 4:1) disagrees and says you should light as many candles as you have, even if it doesn't correspond to the night you are up to
  21. Chazon Ovadia pg 32
  22. Shulchan Aruch 672:2
  23. Shabbat 21b says the time of Tichle Regel is when the Tarmodeans (merchants) leave, which the Rif says is about a half hour. The Rambam (Chanukah 4:5) and Orchot Chaim (Chanukah 15) write it’s a half hour or (a little) more. The Rosh (2:3), Rabben Yerucham 9:1, Meiri, S”A 672:2, Mishna Brurah 672:1 (who is strict to satisfy all opinions to light by Shekiah and have it last a half hour past Tzet), and Torat HaMoadim 4:5 agree that the candles need enough oil to be lit for a half hour. Some say that the practice of the Griz was that since the Gemara sets the ending time for candles as when people leave the marketplace, nowadays when many people stay at the marketplace late into the night one should have to light longer than a half hour. Indeed, Avodot VeHanagot LeBet Brisk says that the Griz himself challenged that idea when he heard it from another Rabbi in Brisk, yet he lit candles that lasted for very long only as a hiddur mitzvah. Also, Yomin DeChanukah and Leket Yoshar say there’s a hiddur mitzvah to light for longer than a half hour. However, Chazon Ovadiah pg 66, Sh”t Mishna Halachot 4 pg 79, and Sh”t Or Letzion 44 argue that the measure set by Chazal (a half hour) hasn’t changed because of the practice of our time. Halachos of Chanukah by Rabbi Eider p. 20 agrees.
  24. Magen Avraham 671:1
  25. Smag in name of the Ri, Hagahot Maimon (Chanukah 4:2), Ravyah (843 pg 579) in name of Rabbenu Tam hold that no minimum measure is needed (the gemara’s two explanation of ‘Tichleh Regel Min HaShuk’ argue and we hold the first explanation). Similarly, Hilchot and Minhagei Maharash in name of Rimzei HaRosh (quoted by Darkei Moshe 672:1), Piskei Tosfot (Shabbat 89), Leket Yoshar pg 151, Shiltei Giborim(Shabbat 9a:5), Taharat Mayim Shuirei Tahara 8:9, Sh”t Chochavei Yitzchak 1:5(3), Sh”t Bear Tzvi 31 that nowadays when we don’t light for Parsumei Nisa of the public, we don’t need a minimum measure. Thus we have a Safek Safeka(double doubt) perhaps no minimum measure is needed and perhaps even if the measure is necessary, the candle will last the minimum measure. Chazon Ovadiah (Chanukah pg 67) says if one wants to make a bracha, he can make a bracha with this Safek Sefaka. For more about Safek Safaka BeBrachot see Sh”t Yachave Daat 5:21 (the footnote), Otzrot Yosef 4:3, and Sh”t Chazon Ovadiah 48 pg 866.
  26. Shabbat 22a brought by S”A 673:1 writes that it’s a disgrace to mitzvah to benefit from the candles. Sh”t Ginat Veradim (Began HaMelech 42) writes that the prohibition applies equally to the new candle of mitzvah and extra candles of Hidur. Bear Hetiev 673:2, Sh”t Ketav Sofer O”C 133, and Simchat Yehuda (Masechet Soferim 20:6) agree.
  27. Beiur Halacha 673:1, quoted by Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673).
  28. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim Asur Lishtamesh Lorah n. 3). One proof is the Yerushalmi that the Rosh (Seder Avodat Yom Kippur, cited by Bet Yosef 621:4) quotes that the Kohen Gadol would walk in the Kodesh Kadoshim by the light of the Aron. However, the Zohar 3:16a implies that the Kohen Gadol would close his eyes.
  29. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673)
  30. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673)
  31. Rav Kanievsky (Sefer Yamei Hallel VeHodah 25 note 11) says that the Minhag applies even if there’s electric candles. Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach (Berchat Moshe; quoted by Halichot Yosef pg 319) says if there are electric lights one doesn’t need a Shamash.
  32. The Gemara Shabbat (23a) says that women are obligated in lighting chanuka candles because they too were part of the miracle of chanuka. Rambam (Chanukah 4:9), Tur 665, and S”A 665:5 codify this as halacha. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 139:16 and Chazon Ovadia pg. 25 concur
    • Piskei Maharam Riketani (154) holds women can fulfill a man’s obligation on his behalf. This is also the opinion of Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1, Rokeach Chanukah 226:3, Ritva and Meiri (Shabbat 23a, Megilah 4a), Baal Hamaor Megilla 19b in the name of the Itur, Maharil (Chanukah pg 407). Levush (675), Bach (675), Taz(675:4), Magen Avraham 675:4, Olot Shabbat 675:1, Pri Chadash 675:4, Eliyah Raba 675:6, Sh”t Shar Efraim 42, Shulchan Gavoha 675:6, Mor Ukesia 675:6, Machzik Bracha 675:4, Mishna Brurah 675:9, Chazon Ovadia pg. 25.
    • Sh”t Yechave Daat 3:51 writes that since some rishonim and achronim hold one can only light at Tzet HaKochavim, one should let his wife light at the right time and fulfill his obligation according to all opinions. The Yechave Daat holds like the Chaye Adam 154:33, Kaf Hachaim 676:25. Chaye Adam adds that Ashkenazim can light without a bracha.
    • Interesting point: S”A 689:2 says a women can read the megillah for a man to fulfill his obligation of megillah, and some hold otherwise. [Bahag (quoted by Tosfot Megilah 4a, Erchin 3a) and Morchedai 4a in name of Ravyah (Megilah 569,843) hold women can’t fulfill the obligation of a man, but Rashi Erchin 3a, Or Zaruh 2:324, Rambam (Megilah 1), Rif (quoted by Sefer Eshkol 2:30) hold a woman can fulfill the obligation of a man]. However Smag (brought by Magen Avraham 589:5), Itur (Megilah 113d), Eshkol 2 pg 30 differentiate between Megilah which is like Torah reading, but by Chanukah women can fulfill the man’s obligation according to everyone. Also Torat Moadim Chanukah pg. 40 says the Behag only held a women can fulfill megilah for a man since a woman’s obligation is derebanan and a man’s is from divrei kabalah (Ketuvim). Similarly, Sh”t Maharash Halevi O”C 24 says Chanukah isn’t an obligation on each person but on the household and so a women can fulfill it for a man. Thus even those who say by Megilah a woman can’t fulfill a man’s obligation, agree by Chanukah that she can.
  33. Shabbat 23a says a deaf, insane person, and a child aren’t obligated. This is also the opinion of Rambam (Chanukah 4:9), Tur and S”A 675:3. The Mishna Trumot 1:2 defines deaf in Talmud as deaf and mute, but someone just deaf is obligated like anyone else. So quotes Pri Megadim M”Z 670:5, Mishna Brurah 675:12, and Torat HaMoadim 2:19. There’s a dispute whether a child who is at the age of Chinuch can fulfill the obligation of an adult. Bet Yosef 675e quotes the Ran (Shabbat 23a) in name of the Itur (Chanukah pg 116a) that a child can fulfill the obligation of an adult. So writes the Shibolei HaLeket 185, Orchot Chaim (Chanukah 12). However Meiri writes that he disagrees with the Rabbis of Provincia who say a child at age of chinuch can fulfill the obligation of an adult. [Seemingly, this is the opinion of Tosfot (Megilah 19b concerning megilah) that a double derabanan (child only obligated on a chinuch level and it’s only a derabanan mitzvah) can’t fulfill the mitzvah of one obligated on level of rabanan (adult for a mitzvah derabanan). The Tur 689 writes that so is the opinion of the Bahag and Rosh. However Bet Yosef 53 in name of Sh”t HaRashba 1:239, and Raavad disagree with Tosfot.] S”A 675:3 says a child isn’t obligated to light but some permit “a child at age of chinuch to fulfill the obligation of others” Yet, it’s a dispute in the Achronim whether S”A meant it as “Setam and then Yesh Omerim” (anonymous and then a disagreeing opinion) in which case we hold like the anonymous opinion or that it’s not a dispute but the “some say” was just explaining the first line. Magen Avraham 689:4 (as understood by Pri Megadim A”A 689:4), Sh”t Zivchei Tzedek 3:41 say that S”A meant the “some say” is just explanatory. However, Yaavetz in Mor U’Kesia 689 understands S”A that we hold like the anonymous opinion. This is also the opinion of Sh”t Kol Gadol 100, Chelko Shel Yedid pg 58b, Sh”t Olat Shmuel 105e, Pri Chadash 675:3, Ben Ish Chai Veyeshev 19, Mishna Brurah 675:13, and Torat HaMoadim 2:19.
  34. Sh”t Maharshal 76, Magen Avraham 675:4, Eliyah Raba 675:7 write that a blind is obligated and preferably should fulfill it through joining with other house members or his wife, otherwise they can light own their own.
  35. Levush 671, Yaavetz in Mor U’Kesia 671, and Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 18 hold the making the bracha should light all the candles. However, Sh”t Maharshal 85, Magen Avraham 671:11, Mishna Brurah 671:49, Ruach Chaim 671:3, and Torat HaMoadim 2:20 (he writes that his father Rav Ovadyah Yosef would hold his hands while lighting in order to satisfy all opinions).
  36. Sh”t Maharam Mintz 43, Sefer Mnhagim of Rav Yitzchak Tirna (Yom Kippur 155), Taz 671:8 write that a mourner shouldn’t light in shul the first night because of Shehecheyanu. The Nodea Benyehuda Tanina O”C 141 writes that at home one can light even the first night with shechiyanu. This is also the opinion of Machzik Bracha 671:10, Birkei Yosef Y”D 205:14m,Bet HaRoeh pg 59, Chatom Sofer on S”A 671, Chaye Adam 154:17, Sh”t Binyan Olan O”C 35, Sh”t Olat Shmuel 106, Sh”t Machane Chaim Y”D 2:61, Sh”t Rav Poalim O”C 4:36, Siddur Bet Ovad pf 160b:2, Kemach Solet 137d, Shulchan Lechem HaPanim 676e, Mishna Brurah 671:44, and Kaf HaChaim 671:73.
  37. Eliyah Raba 670:19 writes one should have someone else light and answer amen. However, Erech HaShulchan 670:3 writes one should light without a bracha. Kaf Hachaim 670:20 explains that this is only a dispute if the first-day mourner is alone, otherwise his wife or a household member can fulfill for him his obligation. Pri Megadim M”Z 670:5 agrees with Eliyah Raba but argues that one can’t answer amen as in S”A Y”D 341 where we follow the anonymous opinion that a first-day mourner doesn’t answer amen. Torat HaMoadim 2:24 agrees with Erech HaShulchan.
  38. Sh”t Rambam (Pasya edition 158, Kisei Nirdamim Mehuderet Fredman 42, Mehuderet Belav 293) writes that a convert can say all of the Brachot like every Jew because he converted he becomes a descendant of Avraham and part of the Jewish people for all their history, however if he wants to change the brachot that relate to the Jewish history such as Yetsiat Mitzrayim, and Chanukah. The Sh”t Rashba 7:54, Hagahot Mordechai Megilah 1:786, and Sh”t Ridvaz 5:520 agree. Torat HaMoadim 2:25 finds support for this opinion in the ruling of Shulchan Aruch (See S”A 53:19 and Shulchan Aruch 199:9).
  39. Shulchan Aruch and Rama 671:2. For the background see #Number of candles to light.
  40. Shulchan Aruch 671:2 writes that the Sephardic minhag is that one person lights for the entire house. Mishna Brurah 671:8 writes that the household members who fulfill their obligation with the household lighting includes older children and servants if they "dependent on the table of the household regularly" (סומך על שלוחנו). Torat HaMoadim 2:4 uses the same expression. Hopefully, this term will be clarified as we continue.
  41. A married women is exempt by her husband because “Ishto Kegufo Dami”(a husband and wife are like one person). So writes the Maharshal 88, Knesset Hagedolah 671, Mateh Moshe 982, Eliya Raba 671:3, Machasit Hashekel 675:4. Mishna Brurah 675:9 quotes this in name of Sh”t Olot Shmeul 105 and says if women want they can light with a Bracha like any mitzvah for which one’s exempt according to the Ashkenazi Minhag. Mishmeret Shalom 48 says since a married woman doesn’t light and relies on her husband, her daughters also don’t light as derech eretz. Similarly, Chiddushei Chatom Sofer (Shabbat 21b D”H Vehamehadrin) writes since the practice used to be to light outside it wasn’t Derech Eretz for women to light if her husband is already lighting and since then the Minhag hasn’t changed. Ashel Avraham Mebustatesh 675:3 says according to kabbalah women don’t light (unless they have to). However it seems as the minhag is that Ashkenzic unmarried girls also light. Rav Moshe Feinstein is quoted in sefer Moadei Yeshurun 1:4 says if a woman wants to light and recite the beracha, she should light before her husband does.
  42. See next footnote
    • Rav Sheshet (Gemara Shabbat 23a) stated that a guest is obligated to light Chanukah candles. Rabbi Zeiri commented that his wife lit Chanukah candles for him at home, he fulfilled his mitzvah. This is codified by Rambam (Chanukah 4:11), Tur and Shulchan Aruch 677:1 that someone who has someone else lighting for him at home doesn't have to light Chanukah candles.
    • While the Rambam, Tur, and S”A state that if one has his own room that leads to the outside one would have to light so people don’t suspect him of not observing Chanukah, many Rishonim including the Sh”t Rashba 1:541, Orchot Chaim Chanukah 13, Smak 280, Sefer Trumah 228, Hagahot Maimon Chanukah 4:30, Ritva (Shabbat 23a), Mordechai (Shabbat 2:226), Ohel Moed (Chanukah), and Shibolei HaLeket 185 say that there’s no suspicion of not lighting by a extra doorway nowadays when we light indoors.
    • Sefer HaTrumah (229 Introduction) says clearly students that learn outside their home don’t light if they have someone lighting for them at home. Magen Avraham (Introduction to 677) quotes the Maharshal who says that a yeshiva student who is dependent on the owner of the house is considered like a family member and doesn't have to light. Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Sh”t Yechave Daat 6:43, Chazon Ovadyah Chanukah pg 144-151) writes clearly that a family member who is dependent on his parents fulfills his obligation with the lighting of his parents at home. Meiri Shabbat 23a and Orchot Chaim (Chanukah 14) say an older and married child should light for themselves.
    • Similarly, Rav Mordechai Willig (Am Mordechai Moadim p. 104-5) writes that a man fulfills his primary obligation with his wife’s lighting at home even if he is a guest somewhere else. Similarly, a student can fulfill his primary obligation with his parent’s lighting at home. However, according to the minhag of the Rama, Ashkenazim still may light with a bracha even if someone is lighting for them at home.
    • However, Rav Hershel Schachter (B’ikvei HaTzon p. 123-4) writes that a man does not fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his wife in another city unless he actually goes home later that night. Similarly, he stated in a shiur (“Where to light Neiros Chanukah in the dorm,” min 24) that a yeshiva student does not fulfill his obligation with his father’s lighting in another city unless he is at home that night.
  43. Rav Elyashiv (cited by Bet Chatanim 15:4, Yemeh Chanukah pg 156) rules that if the wedding takes place during the night, then the groom fulfills his obligation with the lighting at his father’s house. Rav Vosner (cited by Imrei Shefer Chanukah pg 172) and Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo 14:14, pg 275) agree. Yalkut Yosef 672:11 agrees that if the wedding takes place during the night then the groom fulfill his obligation with the lighting at his father’s house and adds that if he wants to be strict he may light again without a Bracha after the wedding at his new house.
  44. If the wedding takes place during the day before sunset, then there’s a dispute what the groom should do.
    • (1) Rav Elyashiv (cited by Bet Chatanim 15:4, Yemeh Chanukah pg 156, Neimat HaChaim pg 244) rules that the groom should light in his new home after the wedding.
    • (2) Chacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (cited by Bet Chatanim 15:4, Yemeh Chanukah pg 156) rules that if it’s difficult to leave the wedding the groom should appoint a messenger to light for him.
    • (3) Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (cited by HaNesuin KeHilchatam 15:60, Yemeh Chanukah pg 156, Halichot Shlomo (pg 275, note 47)) rules that if the wedding takes place during the day then the groom must light at his new home and should leave the wedding after the chuppah before the meal, go to their new home, have a small meal, light chanuka candles, and return to the wedding.
    • (4) Piskei Teshuvot 677:5 (pg 499) rules that if it’s difficult to leave the wedding the groom may light at the wedding hall because they’re renting the place. (Rabbi Mansour applies this Piskei Teshuvot even if the wedding takes place during the night but the parents didn’t have a chance to light beforehand. Additionally, Rabbi Mansour seems to say that Yalkut Yosef also agrees with this leniency but was unable to find any proof to this from the words of the Yalkut Yosef.)
  45. Halachos of Chanukah by Rabbi Eider p. 10 writes that someone don't have the single daughters light chanuka candles themselves since a wife doesn't light and it isn't proper for the daughter to light but not the wife. However, others have the minhag that the daughters light. He quotes that this was the practice of Rav Moshe Feinstein.
  46. S”A 676:3. There’s a dispute in the Rishonim whether one makes a bracha for seeing Chanukah candles if someone is lighting for him at home and he is thereby fulfilling his obligation with the lighting. The Rashba (Shabbat 23a), Sefer HaHashlamah (Shabbat 23a) in name of Rabbi Asher MeLunil, Smag (Chanukah 250d), Ran (10b s.v. Amar Rav Chiya), Tur 676:3, Magid Mishna (Chanukah 3:4) in name of Itur (2 pg 117c), and Rosh (Shabbat 8) hold that one doesn’t make a bracha if someone is lighting for him at home and he is thereby fulfilling his obligation. However, the Rambam (Chanukah 3:4), Magid Mishna in name of some Geonim, Ravyah 3:843, Riaz (Shabbat 23a), Meiri, Sefer HaMeorot (Shabbat 23a), and Orchot Chaim (Chanukah 9) hold that one can make a Bracha even if someone is lighting for him at home. S”A rules 676:3 that one doesn’t make Bracha HaRoeh if is fulfilling his obligation at home. Pri Chadash 676:3, however, argues that the halacha should follow those Rishonim who say that one should make the Brachot HaRoeh if one is personally not going to light that night even if someone is lighting for him at home. Sh”t Maharshal 85, Bach 676:3 (in name of Rif, Rambam, Smak, Rosh, and Aguda), Eliyah Raba, Biur HaGra, and Chaye Adam 154:33 agree. However, Shirei Knesset HaGedola 677:3, Taz 676:4, Magen Avraham 676:1, Shulchan Gavoha 676:5, Birkei Yosef 676:3, Mishna Brurah 676:6, and Torat HaMoadim 2:15 rule that one doesn’t make a bracha because of Safek Bracha.
  47. The Pri Chadash 677:1 quotes the Maggid Mishna Chanuka 4 that if there's two adults in a house together and are financially independent they each need to light separately and they can't join together. The Birkei Yosef 671:4 quotes some who say that but adds that the Shibolei Haleket says that they can join together. The Pri Megadim EA 677:8 cites the Levush who says that they can join but Pri Chadash who says they can't. Biur Halacha 677:1 s.v. imo cites the dispute. Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev no. 17 writes that it is better for them to join together. Kaf Hachaim 671:12 agrees. Or Letzion 4:47:1 p. 281 writes that it is better to join together but if they want they can light separately with brachot like the Ben Ish Chai.
    • However, Rav Ovadia in Chazon Ovadia p. 151 rules that a person who doesn't know if his wife is lighting for him and he's a guest in a house and has his own room he can light on his own with a bracha. It is clear then that if no one is lighting for him he can light himself if he has his own room. Yalkut Yosef Chanuka p. 476 agrees and explains that there's only a concern that automatically he fulfills his obligation with someone else's lighting if he's staying in the same room but he has his own room then it is possible for him to fulfill his own obligation. However, this wouldn't apply if he didn't have his own room.
    • Rav Ovadyah Yosef in Sh”t Yachave Daat 6:43 rules that a Sephardic Yeshiva student fulfills his obligation with the lighting of his parents. He also quotes Rav Ezra Attiyah who ruled this way. Chacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (Kovetz Zichron Yehuda, Sefer Zikaron, vol 1, pg 104-8), Rav Shlomo Zalman (Halichot Shlomo 14:12), Aderet Tiferet 2:31, Yaskil Avdi (vol 7, pg 316), Yitzchak Yiranen 5:48, and Banim Chavivim (Siman 16) agree. See also Rav Mazuz in Or Torah (Kislev 5745).
    • Torat HaMoadim (2:4 pg 45) explains that since the Yeshiva students return home during break and are still connected to their parent’s home they are considered dependant on their parent’s house. Torat HaMoadim (2:4 pg 48) continues that even if they don’t fulfill their obligation with the lighting at home they fulfill their obligation with the lighting of the Yeshiva. He explains that certainly the administration of the Yeshiva gives a portion of the oil and wicks to the students. He adds that the lighting of the Yeshiva isn’t similar to the lighting in a Shul where some say that one can’t fulfill one’s obligation because the students are in the Beit Midrash all the time and so it’s considered their house.
    • However, Shevut Yitzchak (vol 5, pg 113-4) quotes Rav Elyashiv as saying that a Sephardic Yeshiva student doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation with the lighting of one’s parents. The Shevut Yitzchak explains that a married man fulfills his obligation with his wife’s lighting at home because that’s his primary house, however, a Yeshiva student doesn’t live at home and so his parents can’t fulfill his obligation. Peninei Chanukah (pg 81-2) quotes Rav Elyashiva as saying that this is true even if the parents pay for tuition at the Yeshiva. Sh”t Az Nidbaru 3:53, Shulchan Yosef (vol 2, pg 139-140), Yemeh Chanukah (pg 155) quoting Rav Nissim Karlitz agree. See Teshuvot VeHanhagot 3:215(17) who seems to agree. Listen to shiur by Rav Hershel Schachter (min 14-16) who seems to hold that a person in the Israeli army does not fulfill his obligation with the lighting in his home.
    • Background: Sh”t Ginat Veradim says the rule that a guest must chip in for the Chanukah candle expenses to fulfill his obligation (S”A 677:1) only applies to a guest who pays for all his expenses like food and board, but a student in Yeshiva or College who can rely on them for all his needs and doesn’t account for every expense, doesn’t need to chip in for the Chanukah candles since they definitely allow him a portion of the candles. This is also the opinion of Yad Aharon, Shulchan Gavoha, Kiseh Eliayahu, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 263:9, Kaf Hachaim 677:3, Sh”t Yechave Daat 6:43, and Torat HaMoadim 2:8 (who says he personally asked his father, Rav Ovadyah Yosef). On the other hand, Pri Megadim A”A 677:3 and Mishna Brurah 677:4 disagree with the Ginat Veradim and hold any guest needs to chip in for the Chanukah candles. See Sh”t Bet David O”C 472, Sh”t Chesed LeAlafim Alkelai O”C 24, Sh”t Zivchai Tzedek 2:27, Sh”t Rav Poalim 2:50, Sh”t Mishnat Halachot 7:87.
    • Chacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (Kovetz Zichron Yehuda, Sefer Zikaron, vol 1, pg 106-7) rules that a Yeshiva student whose parents live outside Israel in a different time zone should light with a Bracha at the Yeshiva. This is also printed in Or Letzion v. 4 p. 281. Chazon Ovadyah Chanuka pg 150 (5767) and Pri HaAretz 1:9 pg 6d agree. Yalkut Yosef 677:5 (5773) agrees. See Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 7:46 who agrees.
    • Rav Shlomo Zalman (Halichot Shlomo, chapter 14, note 22) says that a Sephardic Yeshiva whose parents live outside Israel in a different time zone can fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his parents. Torat HaMoadim 2:7 and Sh”t Mishna Halachot 6:119 agree. Mayan Omer (5768) v. 3 p. 343 quotes Rav Ovadia as saying to light without a bracha.
  48. Yachava Daat 6:43 writes that a yeshiva bachor can be yotzei with the rabbanim of the yeshiva's lighting since it is like one big family. His reasoning is that the rabbanim of the yeshiva are giving as a gift to the talmidim the oil to be yotzei their obligation. Also, since the talmidim make the bet midrash their home they can be yotzei with that lighting in the bet midrash. Yalkut Yosef Chanuka p. 483 agrees. However, Or Letzion 4 p. 282 writes that the yeshiva isn't judged as one large family. You can't see the rosh yeshiva as the head of the house since he doesn't eat with them and he's not sponsoring the yeshiva's budget.
  49. Rashi 23a s.v. HaRoah says one only makes Brachot Haroah when on a boat. So quotes in name of Rashi, Machsor Vitri pg 201, Itur (Chanukah 2 pg 117c), Smag (Chanukah), Smak (280), Ravyah 3:843, Or Zaruah 2:325, Tosfot Rid (Shabbat 23a), and Rosh (Shabbat 2:8). This is also the opinion of Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe Y”D 3:14(5). However Sh”t Maharsham 5:144 writes only in an unroofed boat one can’t light but in a train one should light. This is also the opinion of Rav Tzvi Pesach Frank in Mikra’eh Kodesh (Chanukah 18e), Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Kol Sinai Kislev 5725), Aruch HaShulchan 677:5, Sh”t Mishna Halachot 7:86, and Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 15:29 (he says one should light even if he’s in an unroofed boat); Torat Hamoadim 2:18 says since there’s a safek for Rashi’s opinion one shouldn’t make the Bracha but can make Brachot HaRoeh.
  50. Tur and S"A 670:1, Aruch Hashulchan 670:8, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 190, Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 12
    This practice is brought down by Tur and S”A (670:1), Aruch Hashulchan 670:8. Mor Ukesiah 670 explains that the practice is to show that it’s forbidden to use the light of the candles. The Taz 670:2 says that the custom is similar to their custom of abstaining from melacha on Rosh Chodesh. The basis for the custom on Rosh Chodesh is that the women did not participate in the sin of the Golden Calf so they were rewarded with the Rosh Chodesh. Similarly, since the miracle of Chanukah was brought about through the heroic actions of Yehudis, it is a worthy custom for women to commemorate this by abstaining from melacha. Chayei Adam Chanukah 154:3 also mentions the story of Yehudit as the basis for this custom.
  51. Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 12, Shu"t Shraga Hameir 6:87:2, Shu"t Kinyan Torah 7:52, Beer Moshe (brought in Nitei Gavriel pg. 218), Rav Yaakov Kamenetsky (Emes Liyaakov footnote to Siman 671, Rabbi Eli Mansour
  52. Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 12, Rabbi Eli Mansour, Eliyah Raba 670:2, Kaf HaChaim 670:8, and Mishna Brurah 670:4 say that it’s only forbidden during the half hour of lighting which is a mitzvah against the Magen Avraham 670:2 in name of the Magelei Tzedek who says that it applies as long as the candles are lit.
  53. Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 13, Yalkut Yosef Kitzur S"A 670:3, Mishna Berura 670:5
  54. Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg. 14, Mateh Moshe 974, Pri Chadash 670, Bach 670, Taz 670:2
  55. Halachos of Chanukah by Rabbi Eider p. 4 quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein says that the laws of working follow those of Chol Hamoed when cooking is permitted. See Rivevot Efraim 1:436 who quotes several opinions regarding whether it is permitted to cook during the first half hour while the candles are lit.