Shinui Makom

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Shinui Makom is a technical term for changing one's place when one is eating. If a complete shinui is effected, then it is considered like one interrupted one's eating and one is required to make a new bracha in order to continue eating. The details of which changes are considered a shinui and the exceptions are explained below.

Which changes are considered a Shinui Makom?

Cases of Shinui Makom

  1. Leaving a house or going from one house to another is considered a Shinui Makom. Therefore, if one ate something in one house, one should make a new Bracha Rishona if one eats another time in the second house or even if one returned back to the first house. Even if one only left for a second it’s considered a Shinui. [1] When exiting a house, even if one only goes through the opening of the door and comes back in, this is considered a shinui makom.[2]
  2. Moving from one apartment with one owner to another apartment of another owner is considered a Shinui Makom even if they are both in one building. [3]
  3. Moving in an open area outdoors is considered a Shinui Makom if now it’s impossible to see the place from where one started, whether it’s because of distance or because of an interruption. [4]
  4. Moving from a car to an enclosed area outdoor or house or vise versa is considered a Shinui Makom. [5]
  5. Moving from a Sukkah to the house, if the Sukkah is not connected to the house, then it is considered like moving from one house to another and is a shinui makom. However, if it is connected to the house then it's like going from one room to another and isn't a shinui makom. [6] According to Sephardim, one may move between the Sukkah and the kitchen in order to get food and it is not considered a shinui makom. [7]

Cases that are not Shinui Makom

  1. Moving from corner to corner in one room isn’t considered a Shinui Makom even if one can’t see from one corner to the other. [8]
  2. Moving in an open area outdoors is not considered a Shinui Makom if it’s still possible to see the place from where one started. [9]
  3. Moving in an enclosed area outdoors (like a fenced in area) is not considered a Shinui Makom even if one can’t see the place from where one started. [10]

Cases that are in doubt and are preferable to avoid

  1. In the first place one may not switch from place to place from room to room under one roof (unless one had intention originally or can see from room to room). However, after the fact it is not considered a Shinui Makom. [11]
  2. Moving from an apartment to the stairwell of the building is a dispute and certainly in the first place one shouldn’t move from an apartment to a stairwell. After the fact, one shouldn’t consider it as a Shinui Makom that would require a new Bracha. [12]
  3. Moving from an apartment to the porch which is roofed is considered like moving from room to room and should be avoided but after the fact isn’t a Shinui Makom. However, going to a porch that’s unroofed is a dispute and one should certainly not change places to there, however, after the fact it isn’t considered a Shinui Makom. [13]
  4. Moving to a courtyard or backyard is considered a Shinui Makom unless the courtyard is used frequently just like a room in the house then it’s considered moving from room to room which shouldn’t be done initially but after the fact isn’t a Shinui Makom. [14]
  5. Moving from standing under one tree to standing under another tree is a dispute and should be avoided, however, after the fact, it’s not a Shinui Makom. [15]
  6. Moving from a car to an open area outdoor or vise versa is a doubt and should be avoided, however, after the fact, it’s not considered a Shinui Makom. [16]
  7. Moving from a Sukkah to the house if the Sukkah is connected to the house is a doubt and should be avoided, however, after the fact, it’s not considered a Shinui Makom. [17]

Particular circumstances that permit changing places

Seeing from one place to another

  1. If one can see from the room in which started eating to the room one wants to move, even in the first place, it’s permissible to move. [18] Some say that one must see the area (within 4 amot) in the room where one ate, however, many hold even if one can only see a part of the room it’s considered as seeing the original place. [19]
  2. Even if one can see from house to house (or outside), moving there will be a doubtful Shinui and so it should be avoided, however, if one did move there, no Bracha is required. [20]

Having intention to move

  1. If before one starts to eat a bread meal one has in mind to move from place to place, according to Ashkenazim, one is initially allowed to move places and say Birkat HaMazon in the second place.[21] (This is a common practice by chasidim on Friday nights moving from their meals to the Rebbe's Tisch.)
  2. Amongst Sephardim having intent to move houses during a meal is discouraged and even if one has intent to move during the meal one shouldn't do so initially.[22] However, even according to Sephardim, if one started one's meal on the doorstep as if he was ready to leave the house, he may move during the meal since he didn't establish a place for his meal.[23]

Eating on the Go

  1. It is permissible for a person to start eating intending to continue eating as he travels. Then it is permissible to continue to eat as he is changing places and that isn't considered a change in locations since he didn't originally establish a place for his meal.[24]

If one left friends

  1. If one ate together with friends (any food or drink) in the place where one ate (assuming they are eating together unlike a restaurant where everyone is separate) when one returns no new Bracha Rishona is needed. [25]
  2. Even one person and even a child suffice for this purpose. [26]

Eating on the walk

  1. If one eats on the walk or if one is about to leave the house and one plans on eating while walking one doesn’t need a new Bracha even if one walks into a house and continues eating there. [27]
  2. If one began eating in the car and one can continue outside the car without a new Bracha because it’s considered eating on the walk. [28]

Eating Continuously

  1. If one ate continuously even if one didn’t have in mind to change places, one doesn’t need a new Bracha upon changing places. For example, if one left the house with a candy in his mouth no new Bracha is needed. [29]
  2. Additionally, if one ate within interruption such as if one ate chips without an break of Toch Kedi Dibbur (2-3 sec), however, in this case if one changed places (left the house) it’s preferable to make an interruption and make a new Bracha. [30]

Which Foods does Shinui Makom apply to?

  1. If one had a Kezayit of bread there’s no Shinui Makom whether one leaves that place and returns or if one leaves that place and goes to another place, no new Bracha Rishona is needed. [31]
  2. Even by bread, initially, one may not move from house to house unless one had intent to do so from the beginning. [32]
  3. If one had less than a Kezayit of bread, Mezonot, or Shivat HaMinim (grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, dates) it’s like all other foods and if one changes places a new Bracha would be required. [33]
  4. Even by bread, initially one may not make a Shinui for an extended period of time because one may forget to return and make Birkat haMazon, however, it’s permissible to make a Shinui for a short time. In order to perform a mitzvah, it’s permissible to leave the area for a long time, however, one should make sure not to forget the Bracha Achrona within Shuir Ikul. If one is afraid that one will forget, then one should make the Bracha Achrona before moving to the other place. [34]
  5. If one had a Kezayit of Mezonot or the other Shivat HaMinim (7 Species of which Israel is praised), initially one should be careful not to make a Shinui, and if one needs to leave, then one should make a Bracha Achrona on that which one ate, move places, and then make a new Bracha Rishona. However, after the fact (that one didn’t make a Bracha Achrona), no new Bracha is needed. [35]

If one made a Shinui Makom

  1. The result of a Shinui Makom is only that one must make a new Bracha Rishona but it does not effect the Bracha Achrona and so if one ate fruit and then changed places only a new Bracha Rishona is required. [36]

When it is permissible initially

  1. If one is in a situation of Safek Brachot it’s permissible to make a Shinui Makom and then make a new Bracha Rishona. [37]

Sephardim

Bread Meal

  1. Someone eating a meal, preferably, one should make sure not to change one’s place even to another room, even if one leaves friends there, even if one intended originally to move places, and even if one plans on returning. [38]
  2. If one needs to leave one should make a Birkat HaMazon and then when one returns to make a new Bracha. After the fact, if one left and didn’t make Birkat HaMazon, when one returns one should continue eating without a new Bracha. [39]
  3. It’s permissible to leave the meal to go to the kitchen to get food. [40]
  4. it’s permissible to leave the Sukkah to get food from the house. [41]
  5. For a Mitzvah (going to daven in a minyan if there’s no others, going to a funeral) it’s permissible to leave the place without making Birkat HaMazon. [42]

Other foods

  1. For foods that have a Bracha Achrona of Boreh Nefashot (drinks besides wine, fruit and vegetables besides Shivat HaMinim), one should make a Bracha Achrona in the place where one ate, however, after the fact (even if one didn’t have in mind to change places) if one goes to another room (even on another floor) no new Bracha is necessary. However, if one leaves the house, a new Bracha is required. [43]
  2. Leaving a room and walking to a separate stairwell room is considered an interruption and another Bracha Rishona is required, however, walking up stairs that are in the house isn’t an interruption. [44]
  3. Leaving to the courtyard is considered an interruption and another Bracha Rishona would be required. [45]
  4. If one was eating fruit of the Shivat HaMinim (grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, dates) or Mezonot and one left the house no new Bracha is needed, however, if one didn’t eat a Kezayit of the fruit before leaving then a new Bracha is needed upon leaving the house. However, if one was eating together with others and some remain in the place one began eating and one left and returned, no new Bracha is needed. [46]

Eating on the walk

  1. If one eats on the walk or had intent to eat on the way, whether it’s bread, Mezonot, or fruit, one doesn’t need a new Bracha even if one makes a Shinui Makom. [47]For example, if one made a Shehakol on gum in the house and then walks out of the house, and even if one has more gum a new Shehakol isn’t necessary as long as one had intent originally to eat on the walk. [48]

Bracha Achrona

  1. If one at first ate less than a Kezayit, subsequently made a Shinui Makom, and upon returning completed the Kezayit, everything combines for a Bracha Achrona as long as it’s within Shuir Kedi Achlilat Pras. [49]
  2. If one started a meal in one area and then ate somewhere else one may make Birkat HaMazon in that second place. [50]
  3. If one ate in one place and then intentionally left that place to make Birkat HaMazon one must return to the first place in order to make Birkat HaMazon, however, if one left the first place unintentionally one isn’t obligated to return, yet one who does shall be blessed. [51]

Links

Sources

  1. Vezot HaBracha (pg 56, chapter 6)
  2. S.A 178:1
  3. Vezot HaBracha (pg 56, chapter 6) in name of Rav Elyashiv, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, and Rav Sheinburg
  4. Mishna Brurah 178:25, Vezot HaBracha (pg 57, chapter 6)
  5. Vezot HaBracha (pg 58, chapter 6)
  6. Vezot HaBracha (pg 58, chapter 6)
  7. Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 215)
  8. S”A 178:1, Mishna Brurah 178:9, 23 Vezot HaBracha (pg 56, chapter 6)
  9. Mishna Brurah 178:25, Vezot HaBracha (pg 57, chapter 6)
  10. Mishna Brurah 178:25, Vezot HaBracha (pg 57, chapter 6), see there what he quotes in name of Rav Elyashiv regarding an enclosure of an eruv of Shabbat.
  11. Beiur Halacha 178:1 s.v. Bayit, Vezot HaBracha (pg 56, chapter 6). [See the Beiur Halacha who writes that those who commonly move from room to room have what to rely on.]
  12. Vezot HaBracha (pg 56, chapter 6) brings a dispute between Rav Elyashiv and Rav Shlomo Zalman and concludes that one shouldn’t move there while eating, however after the fact one shouldn’t make a new Bracha, yet it’s preferable to leave the building to require a new Bracha according to all opinions.
  13. Vezot HaBracha (pg 56-7 chapter 6)
  14. Vezot HaBracha (pg 57, chapter 6)
  15. S”A 178:3, Vezot HaBracha (pg 57, chapter 6)
  16. Vezot HaBracha (pg 57, chapter 6)
  17. Vezot HaBracha (pg 58, chapter 6)
  18. Mishna Brurah 178:12, Vezot HaBracha (pg 58, chapter 6)
  19. Vezot HaBracha (pg 58, chapter 6)
  20. Vezot HaBracha (pg 58 #4, chapter 6)
  21. Mishna Brurah 178:33 and 40 writes that it is permitted even initially to move from one house to another during a meal if one had intent to do so during one began the meal. Shulchan Aruch HaRav 178:5 agrees. See the Aruch Hashulchan 178:8 who cites this approach but recommends only doing so in the case of a mitzvah need.
  22. Peninei Halacha cites the Ben Ish Chai (Bahalotcha n. 2) as saying that having intent to move during the meal is sufficient, however, Yalkut Yosef 178:1 argues.
  23. Or Letzion 2:12:15
  24. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 178:4, Magen Avraham 178:11, Mishna Brurah 178:43.
  25. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 178:2 and Rama there. The Magen Avraham 178:3 writes that whether the food is bread or simply fruits, leaving friends behind is enough to prevent a change in locations. Mishna Brurah 178:14,18,27 agrees. Kaf HaChaim 178:16 points out that the Bet Yosef, Bach, and Taz disagree with this Magen Avraham and holds that the idea of leaving friends behind only works for bread, yet he says that the agreement of the poskim is like the Magen Avraham. See Igrot Moshe 5:16:10 who suggests several other cases in which it is obvious that a person will return such as if he left his coat there that leaving isn't considered a location change.
  26. Mishna Brurah 178:14, Vezot HaBracha (pg 61) in name of Rav Sheinburg
  27. S”A 178:4, Vezot HaBracha (pg 62, chapter 5). Kaf HaChaim 178:15 writes that even if one established a place of eating but one takes the food along in order to eat it on the way one doesn't need to make another bracha.
  28. Vezot HaBracha (pg 62, chapter 5)
  29. Sh”t Igrot Moshe OC 2:57, Vezot HaBracha (pg 62, chapter 6)
  30. Sh”t Igrot Moshe OC 2:57, Vezot HaBracha (pg 62, chapter 6)
  31. Vezot HaBracha (pg 60, chapter 6), Rama 178:2
  32. Vezot HaBracha (pg 60, chapter 6)
  33. Vezot HaBracha (pg 60, chapter 6)
  34. Vezot HaBracha (pg 61, chapter 6)
  35. Vezot HaBracha (pg 59-60, chapter 6)
    S.A 678:5 quotes the Rambam and the Rashbam that all shivat haminim (including Ha’motzi and Mezonot foods) require a bracha achrona in their place. However, the S.A also cites the Rosh that only grain products (both Ha’motzi and Mezonot) require a bracha achrona in their place. The Rama however holds that only bread requires a bracha achrona in its place. The M.B 178:5 quotes achronim who write that one should be stringent even regarding the shivat haminim to return to one’s place to bentch on these foods. However, the M.B also quotes the Gra who holds that only for grain products must one return to his original place.
  36. Vezot HaBracha (pg 60, chapter 6)
  37. Sh”t Yechave Daat 6:11, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 6:27, Sh”t Chazon Ovadyah 1:18, Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 pg 224)
  38. Yalkut Yosef (S”A Kitzur S”A 178:1)
  39. Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 209, 218)
  40. Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 215)
  41. Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 215)
  42. Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 216)
  43. Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 pg 219, Kitzur S”A 178:9, and 11), Halichot Olam (vol 2 pg 41)
  44. Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 pg 224 and 233, Kitzur S”A 28)
  45. Sh”t Yechave Daat 6:11, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 6:27, Sh”t Chazon Ovadyah 1:18, Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 pg 224)
  46. Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 pg 220, Kitzur S”A 178:10), Halichot Olam (vol 2 pg 41)
  47. Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 pg 220-2)
  48. Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 pg 223)
  49. Halichot Olam (vol 2 pg 41)
  50. Halichot Olam (vol 2, pg 41), Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 pg 218)
  51. Halichot Olam (vol 2, pg 41), Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 pg 218)