Difference between revisions of "Month of Adar"

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Purim
 
 
==Month of Adar==
 
==Month of Adar==
# Chazal tell us “Mishnichnas Adar Marbim BeSimcha” (Adar brings with it happiness). <Ref> Tanit 29a </ref> Thus, if one has a court case with a non-Jew one should try to have it during this month. <Ref>Tanit 29b Rav Papa says one should try to have his court cases with non-Jews during this month. Sh”T Chatom Sofer 160 writes that Rambam doesn’t quote this halacha (to have court cases during this month) because Ein Mazal LeYisrael (there are no superstitions in Israel). However this halacha is brought down by many Achronim including Torat HaMoadim (Purim 1:1), Siddur Bet Ovad (pg 167b), and Moed Kol Chai 31:52. </ref>  
+
# Chazal tell us “Mishnichnas Adar Marbim BeSimcha” (Adar brings with it [[Simcha|happiness]]). <Ref> Tanit 29a, Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #1), Yerushalmi [[Megillah]] 4:1, Magen Avraham 686:5 </ref> Thus, if one has a court case with a non-Jew one should try to have it during this month. <Ref>Tanit 29b Rav Papa says one should try to have his court cases with non-Jews during this month. Sh”T Chatom Sofer 160 writes that Rambam doesn’t quote this halacha (to have court cases during this month) because Ein Mazal LeYisrael (there are no superstitions in [[Israel]]). However this halacha is brought down by many Achronim including Torat HaMoadim ([[Purim]] 1:1), Siddur Bet Ovad (pg 167b), Moed Kol Chai 31:52, Mishnah Brurah 686:3 and Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #1. </ref>  
# Some have a custom to fast on the seventh of Adar for the yehrzeit of Moshe Rabbenu. <Ref> Even though it’s a dispute in the midrashim (Yalkut shimoni yehoshua 5), Midrash Rabba (Ester 7:11), the Gemara (kedushin 38a) records the date as the 7th of Adar in the Adar juxtaposed with Nisan. There is an ancient Minhag to fast on this date as brought in Tur and S”A 580, Sh”t Trumat Hadeshen 294, Sh”t Maharil 31 in name of Bahag, and Sh”t Mahari Mintz 9. [Nonetheless this is a minority Minhag, as even the Bet Yosef 580 writes that he never saw anyone keeping these fasts.] </ref> If one plans on fasting one needs to accept it upon oneself in Mincha the day before. <Ref> Tanit 12a says that for every fast one needs to accept it the day before otherwise it doesn’t count as a fast, except for Tanit Tzibbur. So rules Rambam (Tanit 1:10), Tur and S”A 562:5. </ref> If it’s a leap year one should fast in the second Adar, yet Ashkenazim have what to rely on to fast in the first Adar. <Ref>Sh”t Maharil 31 in name of Bahag and Sh”t Turmat HaDeshen 294 write that in a leap year one should fast in the first Adar and then says from here we learn that the yehrzeit of someone who died in Adar should be commemorated in the first Adar. Rama 568:7 rules that a yehrzeit of Adar is commemorated in the first Adar. However since S”A 568:7 rules that a yehrzeit of Adar is commemorated in the second Adar based on Sh”t Maharar Yacov Vill (quoted in Bet Yosef), we also should hold to fast in the second Adar. Sh”t She’ilat Yavetz 1:117 supports the Trumat HaDeshen because Sotah 12b says that Moshe was born on the first Adar of a leap year and since Hashem calculates the years of Tzaddikim precisely it’s reasonable he also died in the first Adar; yet, he also quotes his father the Chacham Tzvi that one should fast on the second Adar. On the Yavetz’s proof Torah HaMoadim 1:2, Agurah BeAhalach 6a, Sh”t Halachot Ketanot 2:173 argue that since Kedushin 38a says Moshe died in Adar juxtaposed to Nisan it’s reasonable that Moshe died in the second Adar. Sh”T Chatom Sofer O”C 163, Petach Aynaim (Rosh Hashana 11a), Sh”t Vayan Yitzchak Y”D 39, Rav Brachot (pg 192a), Sh”t Yacheve Daat 1:83, and Torat HaMoadim 1:2 hold that the fast should be held in the second month. However, Sh”T Lev Chaim 2 (pg 157a), Mishna Brurah 580:15, and Aruch HaShulchan 580:3 hold that the fast should be held in the first month. </ref>
+
# MeSheNichNas Adar Marbim BeSimcha really refers to removing sadness and worry but not necessarily including activities of simcha. <Ref> Halichot Shlomo Chapter 18, pg 238 note 36 </ref>
# Even if there are ten fasting in the minyan it’s considered a Tanit Yachid, meaning the Shaliach Tzibbur can only say Anenu in Shema Kolenu and not as it’s own bracha, and the minyan shouldn’t take out a Torah to read Vayichal. <Ref> Those who argue on the Minhag Rishonim: Ravyah quotes Rabbenu Shmuel and Rabbenu Eliezer Bar Shmuel who questioned the Minhag that when the community would fast to prevent a tragedy they would say Anenu as it’s own bracha and read Vayichal as Torah reading because the Tosefta (Tanit 2:4) says that for a Tanit Yachid one doesn’t say Anenu as it’s own bracha or read Vayichal. Their proof that it’s called a Tanit Yachid is Tanit 14b says that even if the entire community in a large city has to pray for rain must pray in Shema Kolenu and not add an extra bracha. Defender of the Minhag: Rosh (Tanit 1:20) rejects the proof because by rain one can’t add a bracha changing the order of Chazal but if an entire community accepts a fast it’s certainly considered a Tanit Tzibbur. S”A 566:2 rules for fasts that a community accepts a fast to prevent a tragedy we hold like the Minhag Rishonim, however by fasts that the community just accepts to inspire Teshuva one should consider it like a Tanit Tzibbur. Torat HaMoadim 1:3 says that since the fast of the 7th of Adar is only observed by individuals according to everyone it’s considered a Tanit Yachid. Shaarei Efraim 8:103 writes that for a yehrzeit such as 7th of Adar they shouldn’t take out a Torah to read Vayichal. Rav Ovadyah in Kol Torah (Adar Bet 5725), and Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha 566 D”H VeYesh) concur. </ref> Even if the Cohanim are fasting they shouldn’t do Nesiat Kapayim at Mincha. <Ref> Sh”t Ginat Veradim O”C 1:34 argues that the Cohanim should do Nesiat Kapayim as long as they are fasting, however, Sh”t Perach Shoshan O”C 1:7, Yad Aharon (Hagot Tur 129) in name of Maharil, Shalmei Tzibbur (pg 142c), Hagot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 129, and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 552) hold that Kohanim shouldn’t do Nesiat Kapayim. </ref>
+
# Many hold that MeSheNichNas Adar Marbim BeSimcha applies to [[purim]] katan in the first Adar during a leap year. <ref>Piskei Shemuot pg 51 quoting Rav Elyashiv. See also Shevet HaLevi 10:105 as well as Nitei Gavriel 11:1. </ref>
# Some have a custom to learn extra Torah on the seventh of Adar. On a leap year it’s better to learn extra also on the seventh of the first Adar. <Ref> Siddur Yavetz pg 375, Rav Brachot pg 192a, Torat HaMoadim (Purim 1:2) </ref>
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# Beginning [[Rosh Chodesh]] Adar, some have the custom to hang a sign which says "Mishnichnas Adar Marbim Brsimcha." Some have the custom to place this sign covering the "Zecher Lechurban" unfinished part of a wall that is usually left in the home. <ref> Piskei Teshuvos 686:5, Nitei Gavriel 11:4 </ref>
==Purim Katan==
 
# If it’s a leap year the 14th and 15th of the second Adar is Purim for all it’s Mitzvot <ref> Megilah 6b brings a dispute on the topic about on which Adar do we celebrate Purim and Rambam (Megilah 1:12), Tur and S”A 697:1 rule that Purim is celebrated in the second Adar. </ref> while, the 14th and 15th of the first Adar are Purim Katan on which we don’t say Tachanun<ref> Maharil (Beginning of Hilchot Purim) writes that minhag genusa was to say Tachanun on Purim Katan. However, Sh”t Tashbetz 2:2248 writes that we don’t say Tachanun on Purim Katan. So rules S”A 697:1. </ref>, fast, or make eulogies<Ref> Rosh (Megilah 1:7) says that nowadays fasting and eulogies is permitted  on Purim Katan. Sh”T Maharam (Prague 643), Tashbetz 178, Sefer HaParnes 269, Hagot Maimon (Megilah 2:Shin), Agudah (Megilah 1:6), and Tur 697 hold like the Rosh. However, Rambam (Megilah 2:13) implies that even nowadays one can’t fast or eulogize on Purim Katan. Smag (Asin MeDivrei Sofrim 4), Rabbenu Yerucham 10:1 in name of the Rif, Tosfot (6b D”H VeRabbi Eliezer), Ran (6b D”H Elah), Meiri 6b, Shibolei Leket 203, Or Zaruh 2:371, and S”A 697:1 rule like Rambam. </ref> (except for a Talmud Chacham at the Levaya).<Ref> Torat HaMoadim adds that a Talmud Chacham during the levaya is permitted as it’s even permitted on Chanuka and Purim (S”A Y”D 401:5). </ref>
 
# Some say to increase festivity and to increase in a meal on Purim Katan. <Ref>Tosfot Megilah 6b D”H VeRabbi Eliezer says that the Minhag was to increase festivity and to have a meal on Purim Katan but disagrees with it based on the Gemara. Ran 6b, Smak 148:2, Hagot Maimon (Megilah 2:Shin), Rabbenu Peretz (Hagot Tashbetz 178) bring the Minhag only on the 14th of the first Adar. Bet Yosef 679 writes that nowadays the minhag isn’t to have a meal on Purim Katan, while, Rama concludes it’s preferable to have a increase a little in a meal to satisfy all opinions. </ref>
 
# It’s permitted to work on Purim Katan. <Ref> Rabbenu David Avudraham (Purim pg 208) forbids work on Purim Katan, while Smak 148:2 and Hagot Maimon (Megilah 2:Shin) permit. Most Achronim rule leniently including Torat HaMoadim 1:8. </ref>
 
  
==Tanit Ester==
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==Fast of 7th of Adar==
# It’s the Minhag of Yisrael to fast on the 13th of Adar <ref>Sefer Eshkol 2:3 pg 7 and Bal HaMoar (Megilah end of first perek) write that it’s forbidden to fast on the 13th of Adar because it’s the day before a holiday. However based on many Rishonim, S”A rules 686:1 that one can fast the day before and after purim and so Tanit Ester should be observed as is Minhag Yisrael. </ref>in commemoration of the fast of the Jews in the time of Ester and Mordechai and it’s called Tanit Ester. <Ref> Shiltot (Vayihakel 67) writes that the reason for Tanit Ester is to remember that the Jews fasted on the 13th of Adar (see Tanchuma Beresheet 3) in order to pray for mercy before the war they had with their enemies. Ravyah 550, Or Zaruha 2:437 pg 77d, Rosh (Megilah 1), Mordechai, Ran, and Tur 686 also quote this reason. However, Machsor Vitri 245 says that the fast is a minhag for the remembrance of the fast the Jews made in Nisan (mentioned in the Megilah) in days of Haman. This reason is also found in the Siddur Rashi 345, Shilbolei Leket 194 and Sefer Pardes 252. Sefer Manhig (Megilah 21) argues on this because we don’t fast 3 days or in Nisan. Actually, the Masechet Soferim (17:4, 21:1,12) says that since we are remembering the fast of Ester some have the Minhag to fast 3 fasts in Adar. This minhag is quoted in Or Zaruha, Rosh, Tur 686, and S”A 686:3. Sefer Eshkol (2:3 pg 7) and Magid Mesharim (Vayihakel) writes that the reason for the fast is so people listen in Megilah and not get caught up in eating. Ravad (quoted by Ran (Tanit 2nd perek)) and Sh”t Tashbetz 2:271 explain that the fast is based on the pasuk in the megilah “Kiymu Al Nafsham Divrei Tzomot”. Bach 686 says that the Ravad hold it’s a tanit that was established by the rabbis (in time of Ester) which is stronger than a Minhag. However Rambam (Tanit 5:5) writes that nowadays it’s only a Minhag (This is only true according to our (and the Bet Yosef’s) version of the Rambam but the Magid Mishna’s reading of Rambam leads one to say that perhaps the fast is an rabbinical establishment. Rama 686:3 concludes that the Tanit is only a Minhag and so one can be lenient for pregnant women. </ref>
+
# Some have a custom to fast on the seventh of Adar for the [[yahrzeit]] of Moshe Rabbenu. <Ref> Even though it’s a dispute in the midrashim (Yalkut shimoni yehoshua 5), Midrash Rabba (Ester 7:11), the Gemara (kedushin 38a) records the date as the 7th of Adar in the Adar juxtaposed with Nisan. There is an ancient Minhag to fast on this date as brought in Tur and S”A 580, Sh”t Trumat Hadeshen 294, Sh”t Maharil 31 in name of Bahag, and Sh”t Mahari Mintz 9. [Nonetheless this is a minority Minhag, as even the Bet Yosef 580 writes that he never saw anyone keeping these fasts.] Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 274, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #3),  Chazon Ovadyah [[Purim]] (pg 32), Sh"t Yabia Omer YD 4:24 write that this is the minhag of the pious ones. see also Tzitz Eliezer 5:1  </ref> If one plans on fasting one needs to accept it upon oneself in [[Mincha]] the day before. <Ref> Tanit 12a says that for every fast one needs to accept it the day before otherwise it doesn’t count as a fast, except for Tanit Tzibbur. This is also the opinion of Rambam (Tanit 1:10), Tur and S”A 562:5. </ref>  
# If the fast falls out on Shabbat it’s pushing forward to Thursday. <Ref> Shiltot (Vayihakel 67) and Tanchuma Beresheet 3 write that if Tanit Ester falls out on Shabbat it’s pushed earlier to Thursday. Rambam (Tanit 5:5), Tur and S”A 686:2 rule like the Shiltot. However Ravad (in Magen Avot 23 pg 152, quoted by Rashba (Eiruvin 41b), and Ritva (Eiruvin 41b)) holds that the fast occurs on Friday and one can eat after one prays right before Shabbat. Sefer Pardes pg 252 says that some people would fast on Thursday with the Tzibbur and then fast again on Friday but says that they are mistaken. </ref> Someone who mistakenly ate on Thursday should make up the fast the next day, Friday. <Ref>Sh”t Shevut Yacov 3:50 writes that if one mistakenly didn’t fast on Thursday can make it up by fasting on Friday. Shaarei Teshuva 686:5, Mishna Brurah 686:3, Torat HaMoadim 3:2 quote this as halacha. </ref>
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# If it’s a leap year one should fast in the second Adar, yet Ashkenazim have what to rely on to fast in the first Adar. <Ref>Sh”t Maharil 31 in name of Bahag and Sh”t Trumat HaDeshen 294 write that in a leap year one should fast in the first Adar and then says from here we learn that the yehrzeit of someone who died in Adar should be commemorated in the first Adar. Rama 568:7 rules that a yehrzeit of Adar is commemorated in the first Adar. However since S”A 568:7 rules that a yehrzeit of Adar is commemorated in the second Adar based on Sh”t Maharar Yacov Vill (quoted in Bet Yosef), we also should hold to fast in the second Adar. Sh”t She’ilat Yavetz 1:117 supports the Trumat HaDeshen because Sotah 12b says that Moshe was born on the first Adar of a leap year and since Hashem calculates the years of Tzaddikim precisely it’s reasonable he also died in the first Adar; yet, he also quotes his father the Chacham Tzvi that one should fast on the second Adar. On the Yavetz’s proof Torah HaMoadim 1:2, Agurah BeAhalach 6a, Sh”t Halachot Ketanot 2:173 argue that since Kedushin 38a says Moshe died in Adar juxtaposed to Nisan it’s reasonable that Moshe died in the second Adar. Sh”T Chatom Sofer O”C 163, Petach Aynaim ([[Rosh Hashana]] 11a), Sh”t Vayan Yitzchak Y”D 39, Rav [[Brachot]] (pg 192a), Sh”t Yacheve Daat 1:83, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 274, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #4), Chazon Ovadyah [[Purim]] (pg 32), and Torat HaMoadim 1:2 hold that the fast should be held in the second month. However, Sh”T Lev Chaim 2 (pg 157a), Mishna Brurah 580:15, and Aruch HaShulchan 580:3 hold that the fast should be held in the first month. </ref>
==Those exempt from Tanit Ester==
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# Even if there are ten fasting in the [[minyan]] it’s considered a Tanit Yachid, meaning the Shaliach Tzibbur can only say Anenu in Shema Kolenu and not as it’s own bracha, and the [[minyan]] shouldn’t take out a Torah to read Vayichal. <Ref> Those who argue on the Minhag Rishonim: Ravyah quotes Rabbenu Shmuel and Rabbenu Eliezer Bar Shmuel who questioned the Minhag that when the community would fast to prevent a tragedy they would say Anenu as it’s own bracha and read Vayichal as Torah reading because the Tosefta (Tanit 2:4) says that for a Tanit Yachid one doesn’t say Anenu as it’s own bracha or read Vayichal. Their proof that it’s called a Tanit Yachid is Tanit 14b says that even if the entire community in a large city has to pray for rain must pray in Shema Kolenu and not add an extra bracha.
# Pregnant (after 3 months of pregnancy or a women who is in pain from aches or vomiting even before 3 months) and nursing (24 months after birth even if she stopped nursing or there was a miscarriage) women are exempt from fasting on Tanit Ester. <Ref>Concerning the 3 rabbinic fasts (Asara Betevet, Shiva Asher BeTamuz, Tzom Gedalya), S”A 554:5 (based on Magid Mishna (Tanit 5:10) and Rabbenu Yerucham 27) holds that pregnant and nursing women are exempt, while Rama 550:1 (based on Hagot Maimon 5:1) holds they aren’t exempt only if they are in pain. Thus, concerning Tanit Ester S”A will clearly exempt these women and even the Rama will exempt these women even though they aren’t in pain (so rules the Rama 686:2 according to the explanation of Yeshuot Yacov 686:2 and Kaf HaChaim 686:18). Eshel Avraham MeButshatash 686, Sh”t Divrei Yacov Shor 41, Sh”T Maharsham 4:120, and Sh”t Hitorerut BeTeshuva 1:6(4) concur to be lenient. Yet, some Achronim are strict within the opinion of the Rama including the Yavetz (Siddur Yavetz 26), Eliyah Rabba 686:2, Machsit HaShekel 686 and Chaye Adam 155:3. Mishna Brurah 686:4 quotes the dispute and in Shaar Tzion writes that one should follow the Minhag of the place.</ref>
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* Defender of the Minhag: Rosh (Tanit 1:20) rejects the proof because by rain one can’t add a bracha changing the order of Chazal but if an entire community accepts a fast it’s certainly considered a Tanit Tzibbur. S”A 566:2 rules for fasts that a community accepts a fast to prevent a tragedy we hold like the Minhag Rishonim, however by fasts that the community just accepts to inspire Teshuva one should consider it like a Tanit Tzibbur. Torat HaMoadim 1:3 says that since the fast of the 7th of Adar is only observed by individuals according to everyone it’s considered a Tanit Yachid. Shaarei Efraim 8:103 writes that for a yehrzeit such as 7th of Adar they shouldn't take out a Torah to read Vayichal. Rav Ovadyah in Kol Torah (Adar Bet 5725), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 276, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #5), and Chazon Ovadyah Purim (pg 35) , and Mishna Brurah (Beiur Halacha 566 D”H VeYesh) concur. </ref> Even if the Cohanim are fasting they shouldn’t do Nesiat Kapayim at [[Mincha]]. <Ref> Sh”t Ginat Veradim O”C 1:34 argues that the Cohanim should do Nesiat Kapayim as long as they are fasting, however, Sh”t Perach Shoshan O”C 1:7, Yad Aharon (Hagahot Tur 129) in name of Maharil, Shalmei Tzibbur (pg 142c), Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 129, and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 552) hold that Kohanim shouldn't do Nesiat Kapayim. </ref>
# Children under Bar/Bat Mitzvah aren’t obligated to fast and some say that they shouldn’t even if they want to. <Ref> Concerning the 3 rabbinic fasts, Sh”t Ramah MePano 111, Sh”t Peni Yehoshua (2nd edition, O”C 16), Maharam Ben Chaviv in Tosfet Yom HaKippurim pg 30c write that a child is exempt. Chaye Adam 133:3 and Mishna Brurah 550:5 add that they are exempt from fasting partially (Tanit Shaot). Clearly concerning Tanit Ester, children are exempt and don’t have to fast partially. Torat HaMoadim 3:4 writes that even the Erech HaShulchan 554:2 who holds by the other fasts that a child should fast partially can agree by Tanit Ester that children are totally exempt. </ref>
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# Some have a custom to learn extra Torah on the seventh of Adar. On a leap year it’s proper to learn extra also on the seventh of the first Adar. <Ref> Siddur Yavetz pg 375, Rav [[Brachot]] pg 192a, Torat HaMoadim ([[Purim]] 1:2), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 274, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #4) and Chazon Ovadyah [[Purim]] (pg 32) </ref>
==references==
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==Ninth of Adar==
</references>
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# Some have the minhag to fast on the ninth of Adar because that was the day that Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel became divided. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 276) </ref>
 +
==Reading the Megillah early==
 +
# If one is going out to the army or on a boat voyage where there will not be a kosher megilla, one should nevertheless endeavor to read the [[megillah]] in the appropriate time. One is allowed to read the megilla even at the beginning of the month but one shouldn’t say the blessing at that point. However, the [[seudah]] of [[purim]] and mishloach manot and matanot le’evyonim are only performed in their appropriate time.<ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #2) </ref>
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==Leap Year==
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===Purim Katan===
 +
see page for [[Purim Katan]]
 +
==Links==
 +
[http://www.hebrewbooks.org/56811 Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Purim (Hebrew 5773)]
 +
==Sources==
 +
{{reflist|30em}}
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[[Category:Holidays]]
 +
[[Category:Purim]]

Latest revision as of 20:35, 27 May 2018

Month of Adar

  1. Chazal tell us “Mishnichnas Adar Marbim BeSimcha” (Adar brings with it happiness). [1] Thus, if one has a court case with a non-Jew one should try to have it during this month. [2]
  2. MeSheNichNas Adar Marbim BeSimcha really refers to removing sadness and worry but not necessarily including activities of simcha. [3]
  3. Many hold that MeSheNichNas Adar Marbim BeSimcha applies to purim katan in the first Adar during a leap year. [4]
  4. Beginning Rosh Chodesh Adar, some have the custom to hang a sign which says "Mishnichnas Adar Marbim Brsimcha." Some have the custom to place this sign covering the "Zecher Lechurban" unfinished part of a wall that is usually left in the home. [5]

Fast of 7th of Adar

  1. Some have a custom to fast on the seventh of Adar for the yahrzeit of Moshe Rabbenu. [6] If one plans on fasting one needs to accept it upon oneself in Mincha the day before. [7]
  2. If it’s a leap year one should fast in the second Adar, yet Ashkenazim have what to rely on to fast in the first Adar. [8]
  3. Even if there are ten fasting in the minyan it’s considered a Tanit Yachid, meaning the Shaliach Tzibbur can only say Anenu in Shema Kolenu and not as it’s own bracha, and the minyan shouldn’t take out a Torah to read Vayichal. [9] Even if the Cohanim are fasting they shouldn’t do Nesiat Kapayim at Mincha. [10]
  4. Some have a custom to learn extra Torah on the seventh of Adar. On a leap year it’s proper to learn extra also on the seventh of the first Adar. [11]

Ninth of Adar

  1. Some have the minhag to fast on the ninth of Adar because that was the day that Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel became divided. [12]

Reading the Megillah early

  1. If one is going out to the army or on a boat voyage where there will not be a kosher megilla, one should nevertheless endeavor to read the megillah in the appropriate time. One is allowed to read the megilla even at the beginning of the month but one shouldn’t say the blessing at that point. However, the seudah of purim and mishloach manot and matanot le’evyonim are only performed in their appropriate time.[13]

Leap Year

Purim Katan

see page for Purim Katan

Links

Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Purim (Hebrew 5773)

Sources

  1. Tanit 29a, Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #1), Yerushalmi Megillah 4:1, Magen Avraham 686:5
  2. Tanit 29b Rav Papa says one should try to have his court cases with non-Jews during this month. Sh”T Chatom Sofer 160 writes that Rambam doesn’t quote this halacha (to have court cases during this month) because Ein Mazal LeYisrael (there are no superstitions in Israel). However this halacha is brought down by many Achronim including Torat HaMoadim (Purim 1:1), Siddur Bet Ovad (pg 167b), Moed Kol Chai 31:52, Mishnah Brurah 686:3 and Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #1.
  3. Halichot Shlomo Chapter 18, pg 238 note 36
  4. Piskei Shemuot pg 51 quoting Rav Elyashiv. See also Shevet HaLevi 10:105 as well as Nitei Gavriel 11:1.
  5. Piskei Teshuvos 686:5, Nitei Gavriel 11:4
  6. Even though it’s a dispute in the midrashim (Yalkut shimoni yehoshua 5), Midrash Rabba (Ester 7:11), the Gemara (kedushin 38a) records the date as the 7th of Adar in the Adar juxtaposed with Nisan. There is an ancient Minhag to fast on this date as brought in Tur and S”A 580, Sh”t Trumat Hadeshen 294, Sh”t Maharil 31 in name of Bahag, and Sh”t Mahari Mintz 9. [Nonetheless this is a minority Minhag, as even the Bet Yosef 580 writes that he never saw anyone keeping these fasts.] Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 274, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #3), Chazon Ovadyah Purim (pg 32), Sh"t Yabia Omer YD 4:24 write that this is the minhag of the pious ones. see also Tzitz Eliezer 5:1
  7. Tanit 12a says that for every fast one needs to accept it the day before otherwise it doesn’t count as a fast, except for Tanit Tzibbur. This is also the opinion of Rambam (Tanit 1:10), Tur and S”A 562:5.
  8. Sh”t Maharil 31 in name of Bahag and Sh”t Trumat HaDeshen 294 write that in a leap year one should fast in the first Adar and then says from here we learn that the yehrzeit of someone who died in Adar should be commemorated in the first Adar. Rama 568:7 rules that a yehrzeit of Adar is commemorated in the first Adar. However since S”A 568:7 rules that a yehrzeit of Adar is commemorated in the second Adar based on Sh”t Maharar Yacov Vill (quoted in Bet Yosef), we also should hold to fast in the second Adar. Sh”t She’ilat Yavetz 1:117 supports the Trumat HaDeshen because Sotah 12b says that Moshe was born on the first Adar of a leap year and since Hashem calculates the years of Tzaddikim precisely it’s reasonable he also died in the first Adar; yet, he also quotes his father the Chacham Tzvi that one should fast on the second Adar. On the Yavetz’s proof Torah HaMoadim 1:2, Agurah BeAhalach 6a, Sh”t Halachot Ketanot 2:173 argue that since Kedushin 38a says Moshe died in Adar juxtaposed to Nisan it’s reasonable that Moshe died in the second Adar. Sh”T Chatom Sofer O”C 163, Petach Aynaim (Rosh Hashana 11a), Sh”t Vayan Yitzchak Y”D 39, Rav Brachot (pg 192a), Sh”t Yacheve Daat 1:83, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 274, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #4), Chazon Ovadyah Purim (pg 32), and Torat HaMoadim 1:2 hold that the fast should be held in the second month. However, Sh”T Lev Chaim 2 (pg 157a), Mishna Brurah 580:15, and Aruch HaShulchan 580:3 hold that the fast should be held in the first month.
  9. Those who argue on the Minhag Rishonim: Ravyah quotes Rabbenu Shmuel and Rabbenu Eliezer Bar Shmuel who questioned the Minhag that when the community would fast to prevent a tragedy they would say Anenu as it’s own bracha and read Vayichal as Torah reading because the Tosefta (Tanit 2:4) says that for a Tanit Yachid one doesn’t say Anenu as it’s own bracha or read Vayichal. Their proof that it’s called a Tanit Yachid is Tanit 14b says that even if the entire community in a large city has to pray for rain must pray in Shema Kolenu and not add an extra bracha.
    • Defender of the Minhag: Rosh (Tanit 1:20) rejects the proof because by rain one can’t add a bracha changing the order of Chazal but if an entire community accepts a fast it’s certainly considered a Tanit Tzibbur. S”A 566:2 rules for fasts that a community accepts a fast to prevent a tragedy we hold like the Minhag Rishonim, however by fasts that the community just accepts to inspire Teshuva one should consider it like a Tanit Tzibbur. Torat HaMoadim 1:3 says that since the fast of the 7th of Adar is only observed by individuals according to everyone it’s considered a Tanit Yachid. Shaarei Efraim 8:103 writes that for a yehrzeit such as 7th of Adar they shouldn't take out a Torah to read Vayichal. Rav Ovadyah in Kol Torah (Adar Bet 5725), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 276, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #5), and Chazon Ovadyah Purim (pg 35) , and Mishna Brurah (Beiur Halacha 566 D”H VeYesh) concur.
  10. Sh”t Ginat Veradim O”C 1:34 argues that the Cohanim should do Nesiat Kapayim as long as they are fasting, however, Sh”t Perach Shoshan O”C 1:7, Yad Aharon (Hagahot Tur 129) in name of Maharil, Shalmei Tzibbur (pg 142c), Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 129, and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 552) hold that Kohanim shouldn't do Nesiat Kapayim.
  11. Siddur Yavetz pg 375, Rav Brachot pg 192a, Torat HaMoadim (Purim 1:2), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 274, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #4) and Chazon Ovadyah Purim (pg 32)
  12. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 276)
  13. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #2)