Placement of the Chanukah Candles
Placement of the Chanukia
- If one's house opens to the street one should light at the entrance to one's house on the outside. 
- If there’s a courtyard from one’s house to the public domain, one should light by the courtyard entrance near the public domain and not at the door of one’s house.  For example, if one has a front yard in front of one's house one should light near the entrance to the front yard. However, others held that nowadays one shouldn't light at the entrance of a courtyard.
- Many poskim hold that the stairwell from one apartment downstairs to the lobby is considered a courtyard and so one should light by the entrance to the apartment building.
- Many poskim disagree and do not consider the stairwell to be a courtyard and so one should light by the entrance of one’s apartment if it can be seen by those who pass by. Alternatively, one should light by the window facing the public domain unless the window is above 20 amot from the street level.
- Nowadays, one doesn’t have to light by a door on each side of the house because of a concern that passersby will say that he didn't light a Chanukia.
- One must light in the place where the Chanukia is going to stay. Thus, one shouldn’t light indoors and then move the Chanukia outside or light it in one’s hand and then put it down. If one did so, one should extinguish the candles and relight without a bracha. Consequently, a sick person should not light while in bed and then have the Chanukia moved but rather should let another household member light. 
- Some say that if one is lighting in the window they should turn off the lights so that it is more noticeable outside.
Lighting Indoors or Outdoors
- Nowadays, many have the practice to light indoors even when it is not dangerous to light outside. If one is lighting indoors, he should place the chanukia to the left of the door within a tefach of the door. If, however, there is a window facing the public within 20 amot of the ground, he should light by the window rather than by the door. Some are strict to light outside, placing their chanukia inside a glass box.
- If there are many people in a building lighting outside so that there's not enough room for everyone to light within a tefach of the door, some poskim write that as long as one chanukia is within a tefach the others that are adjacent are acceptable. However, some poskim hold that the chanukia needs to be within a tefach and if that isn't possible several people should join together in lighting one chanukia.
Lighting in Yeshiva
- Some say that one fulfills his obligation with lighting in the lobby of the dorms. Some also have the minhag to light in the cafeteria of the yeshiva. Others, however, argue that one would fulfill his obligation only if he lights on the same floor as his room. Due to safety considerations, though, many Yeshivot, forbid lighting in or next to the dorm rooms.
- Some say that one fulfills his obligation by lighting in the lobby of a dormitory. Some also have the minhag to light in the cafeteria of the yeshiva. Others, however, argue that one would fulfill his obligation only if he lights on the same floor as his room. Due to safety considerations, though, many Yeshivot, including YU, forbid lighting in or next to the dorm rooms.
- See full article Where should one light one’s Chanukia if one lives in an apartment building? but here is the summary:
- If one lives in an apartment building and one is lighting outside then one should light by the entrance to the apartment building unless there is a path leading to the public domain in which case one should light by the beginning of the path near the public domain.  However, some argue that one may not light at the entrance of the apartment building. Some say that instead one should light by the entrance of the apartment (if people will see it) and some say that instead one should light by the window (if it is below 20 amot).  Some say that if there are buildings facing the apartment then one may light in the window above 20 amot rather than light inside.
- In a place where it’s windy (which would blow out the candle) one is allowed to light inside. Some are strict to light outside with a glass covering. However, one should be careful to light with the glass covering on and not that after lighting one covers it with the glass. 
- One shouldn’t light in a place where it’s windy. If one did so and it gets blown out within a half hour one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation, therefore one should relight without a Bracha. 
- If one lit in a windy area and the candles last a half hour so say that retroactively one fulfilled the mitzvah, while others say that one didn’t fulfill the mitzvah and should relight without a Bracha. 
- Some achronim say that one shouldn’t light with the glass case doors wide open when one lights and then close them after lighting if it’s a windy place, while most others argue that one may be lenient. 
- Having two Chanukiyot in one case can be an issue of lacking recognition of the day of Chanukah and so one Chanukia should be raised so that the flames are seen separately. 
- The Chanukia should be placed within a Tefach of the left side of the door, opposite the doorpost with the mezuzah. 
- If there's no mezuzah one should light within a Tefach of the right side of the door. 
Heights of Placement of Chanukia
- The Chanukah candles should be placed between 3 and 10 tefachim (between 24 and 80 centimeters) from the ground. If they are placed above 10 Tefachim, one fulfilled the obligation.  If one is lighting indoors, one should light by the window even if it is above 10 tefachim, rather than light by the doorway on the inside.
- One should be careful to light in a different place than one normally lights the rest of the year so that the fact that one is lighting specifically for Chanukah will be recognizable. 
- If it’s above 20 amot (9.6 meters) one doesn’t fulfill the obligation and should extinguish the candle and relight it in the proper height without a bracha. 
- Similarly someone who lives an upper floor apartment, should light by the door of the apartment and if they want they can light at the window even if it’s above 20 amot. Some have the custom to light by the apartment building entrance. 
- The measurements are measured to the flame of the candle. 
- If one is lighting in a window, preferably the candles should be within 10 Tefachim from the floor, however, there’s no issue of lighting in the window above 10 Tefachim. 
|0||Rav Chaim Noeh||Chazon Ish|
|3 Tefachim||24 cm||28.8 cm|
|10 Tefachim||80 cm||96 cm|
|20 Amot||9.6 meters||11.52 meters|
- Gemara Shabbat 21b, Shulchan Aruch 671:5
- The Gemara (Shabbat 21b) states that Chanukah candles should be lit outside the door of one’s house. Rashi (s.v. MeBaChutz) explains that the Chanukah candles should be placed inside the courtyard and not in the public domain, whereas Tosfot (s.v. Mitzvah) argue that it should be placed by the entrance to the courtyard. The Piskei Rid, Rashba, Tur, and Shulchan Aruch 671:5 hold like Tosfot.
- Rashba (Shabbat 21b) and Ran explain that Rashi's opinion is that the candles should be lit by the doorway to the house and not the doorway to the courtyard. This is also the opinion of the Ri (cited by the Smag Chanukah and Hagahot Maimon (Chanukah 4:30), see, however, Bach 671:5), Riaz (Shabbat 21a), and Shiltei Giborim (Shabbat 21a).
- Based on this dispute between Rashi and Tosfot, there is another dispute about how to explain the case of someone who lives in an upper floor. Rashi (Shabbat 21b s.v. im haya dar ba’aliya) writes that one living in an upper floor only puts it by the window if he has no place to put it in the courtyard (this fits with his opinion of putting it in the courtyard and not by the entrance).
- Similarly, the Tur 671:5 (explained by the Beit Yosef) writes that one who lives in an upper floor apartment is supposed to light in the window only if the apartment doesn't have a doorway to a courtyard or public domain. If there was a doorway to a public domain, one should light by that doorway and if there was a doorway to the courtyard, one should light by the door to the courtyard. If the door to the upper floor apartment only opens up to the downstairs apartment, one should light in the window. If there's a doorway from the upstairs apartment into the downstairs, why couldn't one light by the doorway to the entire house? The Beit Yosef 671:5 answers that the Tur holds that only if the door to the upstairs apartment goes into the house itself, lighting by the house doorway won’t be recognizable that it belongs to the upstairs apartment. Nonetheless, Torat HaMoadim 3:2 based on Ritva (Shabbat 21b) says that the Bet Yosef’s concern doesn’t apply to the stairwell because it’s known that all the tenants have rights to the stairwell so someone in an upper floor apartment can still put a chanukia there.
- Hilchot Chag B'chag (Chanuka 5:1) writes that it was common in Yerushalayim for people to light at the entrance of their courtyard near the street, however, the Chazon Ish's opinion is that nowadays we don't have courtyards like the days of Chazal, therefore one can't light near the entrance of one's courtyard.
- Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo 14:4) holds that if one lives in an apartment building, he should light by the entrance to the apartment building, as it leads out to the street. Since the stairwell and entrance is used for entering and exiting, it is recognizable that the candles lit at the entrance of the building were lit by one of the tenants. Therefore, he considers the staircase that goes from one’s apartment to the building entrance as a courtyard, and one should light at the entrance of the courtyard in accordance with the opinion of Tosfot.
- Regarding Eruvin, the Chazon Ish (OC 65:52) posits that nowadays, there is no such thing as a halachic courtyard because we don’t treat courtyards or streets as extensions of the house as they did in the days of Chazal. Therefore, the Chazon Ish (quoted in Shevut Yitzchak Chanukah p. 6) rules that one may not light Chanukah candles by the entrance to a courtyard because it is not considered a halachic courtyard. Rav Nissim Karelitz (Chut HaShani Chanukah pg 306-7) adds that according to the Chazon Ish, one who lives in an apartment should light at one’s doorway unless people won't see it, in which case one should light in the window facing the public domain. Similarly, Torat HaMoadim (Rav David Yosef, 3:2, pg 74-6) writes that according to the Chazon Ish, one should light by the window facing the public domain if it's within 20 amot of street level, otherwise one should light by the door of one's apartment.
- Rama 671:8, Chazon Ovadia pg. 41, Torat HaMoadim 3:8
- In Shabbat 23a, Rav Huna says that if you have two doors and only light by one of them, someone who passes by the second door will suspect you of not lighting. Therefore, because of suspicion he should light by both. Rava explains that this is only if the doors are on separate sides. The Ran there writes that since this lighting is only for marit ayin, one would not recite a beracha. This is also the opinion of Rambam (Chanukah 4:10), Tur and S”A 671:8.
- However nowadays, since everyone lights indoors anyway, one doesn’t have to light because of suspicion. This is also the opinion of Sefer HaTruma 228, Smak 280, Orchot Chaim (Chanukah 13) in name of Rabbi Yehuda MeKorvin, Hagahot Maimon (Chanukah 4:30) in name of Rabbenu Simcha, Sh”t HaRashba 1:541, Ritva (Shabbat 23a), Meiri 23a d"h "chatzer sheyesh la", Mordechai (Shabbat 2:266), Sefer HaMeorot (Shabbat 23a), Shibolei HaLeket 185, Ohel Moed (Chanukah 5, Rama 671:8, Sh”t Maharshal, Hagahot Maharikash, Pri Chadash, Sh”t Bet David O”C 472, Chazon Ovadia pg. 41, Torat HaMoadim 3:8.
- Rava's opinion on Shabbat 22b is that one must light the Chanukah candles where the candles are going stay. Rambam (Chanukah 4:9), Tur and S”A (675:1) codify this as the halacha. Pri Chadash says one shouldn’t make a bracha if one needs to light again, against Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 675 who says to make a bracha. Torat HaMoadim 3:9 and Sh”t Hitorerut Teshuva 2:110 hold that because of Safek Brachot one shouldn’t make a bracha (in addition to the idea that perhaps one fulfills the mitzvah not it’s place if it’s recognizable that it’s lit for Chanukah, Sh”t Lev Chaim 3:146). [Regarding reciting a bracha in cases where there is a double safek see Yechave Daat 5:21.]
- Torat HaMoadim 3:9 quotes the ruling of a sick person from Sh”t Lev Chaim 3:146
- Or Letzion 2:42:5 p. 244 writes that if someone is lighting in the window they should turn off the electric lights so that those passing by can see it, however, on Friday night they should leave on the lights for their meal.
- The Gemara (Shabbat 21b) states that one may light indoors if there is a danger in lighting outside. Rashi and Tosfot (s.v. Ubeshat HaSakanah) explain that the ruling authority of the time outlawed lighting candles outdoors. Accordingly, the Or Zaru’a 2:323 asked why nowadays, when such danger no longer exists, the practice is to light inside. The Shibolei HaLeket 185, Itur 2 pg. 114d, and Haohel Moed (Chanukah 5) answers that once there was a time when Jews had to light indoors, the minhag remained even if its original motivation dissipated. Another approach in defense of the minhag is based on the opinion of the Ritva. The Ritva (Shabbat 21b s.v. Ubeshat HaSakana) quotes his teacher as saying that if one cannot light outside because of the winds, one should light inside. This argument in defense of the custom to light indoors is made by the Aruch Hashulchan 671:24. see however Sheelet Yaavetz 1:149 who argues that for this reason you should light in a glass case that is protected from the wind
- Similarly, Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1, Siddur Rav Amram Gaon, Hilchot Kesuvot Min HaGoenim, Darkei Moshe 671:9, Bach 671e hold that since thieves come (which is also called “danger”), they would light inside.
- Sh”t Imrei Noam 2:29 and Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 6:66 quote Megilat Taanit 1 which says because of a fear of scoffers the practice is to light inside.
- The Rama 671:7 writes that the accepted minhag nowadays is to light indoors next to the doorway. The Mishna Brurah 671:38 (and Shaar HaTziyun 671:20) adds that if there's a window to the public domain and there's no issue of danger one should light by the window unless it is above 20 amot from the street level. Yalkut Yosef 671:22 and Chazon Ovadia pg. 36-38 write that if it is possible one should light outdoors since there’s no danger to light outside nowadays.
- Nonetheless, the Meiri (Shabbat 21b), Tosfot (Shabbat 45a s.v. Makmi) in name of Ri, Rid, Riaz, Ran, and Pri Chadash explaining S”A 671:5 say that a “danger” is considered when the government makes a decree forbidding lighting (and not just a fear of thievery). Still, the Raavad, Rashba, Sefer Trumah, and Ritva (against the Rambam) hold that if one lights inside in a time of no danger one fulfills his obligation after the fact.
- Others who defend the practice to light inside include: Tzafnat Paane’ach (Chanukah 3:3), Yaskil Avdi O”C 7:46, and Torat HaMoadim 3:4. See Mishna Brurah 671:35. Hanukah Booklet by Shaare Rachamim (pg 110) writes that Syrian minhag is to light indoors.
- [Sh”t Devar Yehoshua 1:40 says nowadays one can only light indoors, and it doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah to light outside. However Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Chazon Ovadia pg. 36-38 and Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 231-2) strongly disagrees. He writes that both the Rambam (Chanuka 4:7) and the Shulchan Aruch 671:5 wrote the halacha that you should light outside but when it's dangerous you can light inside. This implies that if possible, one should light outside. Thus he concludes, that it’s better to light outside, although one is allowed to light inside.] Rabbi Eli Mansour, Rav Elyashiv (Kovetz Teshuvot 1:67), Shu"t Divrei Menachem 4:36, Shu"t Yaskil Avdi OC 7:46, all argue that ideally you should light outside when it's not dangerous.
- Piskei Shemuot (Chanuka p. 63 quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman (Madenei Shlomo p. 110) as saying that since it is evident that one is only not lighting within a tefach because there is already a chanukia there, it is acceptable to light further away. However, he also quotes Rav Elyashiv (Shvut Yitzchak v. 8 p. 112) as saying that one may not light beyond a tefach of the door even in such a case. Rather some people should join together for a single chanukia.
- Chazon Ish cited in Teshuvot Vihanhagot 2:342:11 and Rav Aharon Kotler cited in Halachos of Chanukah by Rav Shimon Eider pg. 37
- The Gemara (Shabbat 21b) establishes that the primary place for Chanukah candles is right outside the door of one’s house. Rashi (s.v. Mibachutz) explains that even if one has a courtyard in front of his house, he still is obligated to light by the entrance of one’s house. Tosfot (s.v. Mitzvah), on the other hand, argue that in such a case, one should light at the entrance to the courtyard, as it connects to the public thoroughfare. Although the Ran (9b s.v. Tanu) agrees with Rashi, the Tur and S”A 671:5 cite the view of Tosfot.
- Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo 14:4) holds that if one lives in an apartment building, he should light by the entrance to the apartment building, as it leads out to the street. Opinion of Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach cited in MIkraei Kodesh by Rav Moshe Harari pg. 101. Rav Shlomo Zalman explains that the staircase that goes from one’s apartment to the building entrance is considered a courtyard, and one should light at the entrance of the courtyard in accordance with the opinion of Tosfot. He adds that the staircase is considered a courtyard even if people don’t use it as people would use their private home. The Griz (cited by Shevut Yitzchak Chanukah p. 6) agrees.
- On the other hand, regarding Eruvin, the Chazon Ish (OC 65:52) posits that nowadays, there is no such thing as a halachic courtyard because we don’t treat courtyards or streets as extensions of the house as they did in the days of Chazal. Therefore, the Chazon Ish (quoted in Shevut Yitzchak Chanukah p. 6) rules that one may not light Chanukah candles by the entrance to a courtyard because it is not considered a halachic courtyard.
- Rabbi Mordechai Willig (Halachipedia Article 5773 #11) said that even according to the Chazon Ish one could explain the minhag of the yeshiva to light at the dorm building entrances because people walk around more casually in the dorms than they would in the street.
- Rav Hershel Schachter (“Where to Light Neiros Chanukah in the dorm,” min 1-6 min 1-6) explained that perhaps a yeshiva student living in the dorms cannot fulfill his obligation by lighting in the lobby, as the staircase is not considered a courtyard. He added that the hallways of each floor are considered courtyards because they really are used for private uses, as people walk around in bathrobes when going to take a shower. Regarding lighting on a floor other than where one lives, there is less room to believe that the stairwell is considered a courtyard. Rav Schachter (Halachipedia Article 5773 #11) stated explicitly that it is absolutely forbidden to light in the dorm rooms without permission. As such, one either should light at home or, if that is not feasible, he should light in the lobby after hearing the brachot from someone else.
- See Rav Baruch Simon (Imrei Baruch Eruvin p. 40-1), in discussing the Chazon Ish, argues that there is room to distinguish between Eruvin and Chanukah regarding the definition of a courtyard.
- Torat HaMoadim 2:5 writes that if there’s a place to eat, such as the cafeteria, and place to sleep, such as the dorms, in one building, one can light wherever in the building there’s more Pirsume Nisa (Publicizing the miracle) such as the entrance to the cafeteria, in the cafeteria, entrance to the dorms, or in the dorms. He writes that if the cafeteria and dorm are in separate buildings there is a dispute whether one should light by the place one eats or the place one sleeps. The dispute is based on the Rashba (responsa 1:542) who says that if one eats daily at someone’s house he must join in the lighting at that house. Thus, the Rama 677:1, Taz 677:2, and Leket Yoshar rule the main place for the Chanukah candles is where he eats. However, Sh”t Maharshal 85 says the place where one sleeps is primary. Sefer Yosef Ometz Yuzfa 1071, Sh”t Rivivot Efrayim in name of Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe (Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe O”C 4:70(3), Y”D 3:14(5); and cited by Halachos of Chanuka by Rabbi Eider p. 37), and Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 7:48 agree. Rav Moshe adds that the people living their should draw lots to determine who will sit by the candles to prevent a fire. The Chazon Ish cited in Teshuvot Vihanhagot 2:342:11 and Rav Aharon Kotler cited in Halachos of Chanukah by Rav Shimon Eider pg. 37 hold that the primary place is the place of eating. Chazon Ish says that as a stringency one should also light without a bracha by the place of sleeping.
- Rav Aharon Kotler (cited by Rabbi Shimon Eider in Halachos Chanukah p. 37, n. 12)
- Rabbi Mordechai Willig (oral communication, Halachipedia Article 5773 #11) said that even according to the Chazon Ish one could explain the minhag of the yeshiva to light at the entrances of the dorm building because people walk around more casually in the dorms than they would in the street. Rav Hershel Schachter (“Where to Light Neiros Chanukah in the dorm,” min 1-6) explained that perhaps a yeshiva student living in the dorms cannot fulfill his obligation by lighting in the lobby, as the staircase is not considered a courtyard. He added that the hallways of each floor are considered courtyards because they really are used for private uses, as people walk around in bathrobes when going to take a shower. Rav Schachter (oral communication, Halachipedia Article 5773 #11) stated that it is absolutely forbidden to light in the dorm rooms without permission.
- Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo 14:4, Maadei Shlomo pg 110) ruled that a stairwell is considered a courtyard, therefore, if one lives in an apartment building and one is lighting outside, one should light by the entrance to the apartment building unless there is a path leading to the public domain in which case one should light by the beginning of the path near the public domain. [Rav Elyashiv (Shevut Yitzchak vol 5 pg 7) and the Brisker Rav (Piskei Shemuot (pg 41, note 21), Kol Bo Chanukah (pg 98)) agree that even nowadays the stairwell and path is considered a courtyard.]
- The Chazon Ish (Orchot Rabbenu vol 3, pg 3) held that nowadays one may not light by the entrance to a courtyard. (This is similar to the Chazon Ish OC Eiruvin 65:52).
- Rav Nissim Karlitz (Chut Sheni Chanukah pg 306-7) explains the position of the Chazon Ish as follows: nowadays one may not light in a courtyard since the courtyards aren’t used as part of the house as they were in the times of the Gemara. Rather one should light at one’s door unless people won't see it in which case one should light in the window facing the public domain. Yet, if the window is above 20 amot from the street it’s preferable to light at the entrance of one’s door towards the stairwell which is used by a few tenants instead of lighting one’s table.
- Similarly, Torat HaMoadim (Rav Dovid Yosef, 2:2, pg 74-6) also rules that it's preferable not to light by the entrance of the stairwell because of the reasoning of the Chazon Ish and because nowadays it's not crucial to light outside. However, he contends that it's better to light by the window facing the public domain and if that's above 20 amot, then one should light by the door of one's apartment. [Torat HaMoadim writes that this seems to be implied from the ruling of his father, Rav Ovadyah Yosef, in Kol Torah (5725 Kislev) (and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 198)) that one who lives in an apartment building should light by the window unless it is above 20 amot from the street in which case one should light by the door inside. Torat HaMoadim 2:2 (pg 74-76) infers from this that Rav Ovadyah holds one shouldn't light by the entrance of the stairwell perhaps because of the Chazon Ish's reasoning.] Or Letzion v. 4 p. 243 agrees.
- Chazon Ovadia Chanuka p. 39 writes that one can light in the window even if it is more than 20 amot above the street level if there are buildings opposite it since they are able to see his candles. This is preferable to lighting by the door on the inside. See Torat Hamoadim 3:7 p. 87 who writes that a window above 20 amot from the street shouldn't be lit in rather one should just light by the door from the inside.
- Aruch HaShulchan 671:24 says our practice isn’t to light outside since in our areas it commonly rains, snows and there’s strong wind. Also the Rabbis didn’t impose such a burden of setting up a glass case for the Chanukia. Sh”t Shelit Yaavetz 149 writes that one should light outside with a glass covering, implying if there’s wind me’ikar hadin one doesn’t need to light outside. Torat HaMoadim Chanukah 3:3 requires with the glass covering on is because otherwise it’s like lighting a candle that can’t last a half hour which S”A 675:2 renders the lighting unfit even if more fuel is added later. So too Shiltei Giborim (Shabbat 21b), Piskei Riaz, Rivta, Rabbenu Perachya, Back 673, Magen Avraham 673:12, Taz 673e, Pri Chadash, and Eliyah Rabba 673:14 write that one can’t light in a place where the wind would blow it out. Mikrei Kodesh (Chanukah 17) writes that the Mahril Disken would light with the covering on so that at the time he lit he could leave it and it’d stay lit without closing the covering, however he defends the Minhag to light and then put on the cover.
- Mishna Brurah 673:25 writes that just like one shouldn’t light without sufficient amount of oil, one shouldn’t light in a place that’s windy. If one did so and the wind blows it out one should relight it without a Bracha.
- Sh”t Har Tzvi Siman 114 writes that if the wind doesn’t blow it out certainly one fulfills the obligation retroactively. Rav Shlomo Zalman in Halichot Shlomo (16:6 pg 301) agrees. However, Rav Chaim Kanievsky and Rav Nassim Karlitz quoted in Kovetz Shemuot (Chanukah pg 123) who argue that since it wasn’t light properly even if it doesn’t get blown out one doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah and one should relight without a Bracha.
- The Maharal Diskin (quoted by Mikrei Kodesh siman 17 and Moadim UZmanim vol 2 siman 142) holds that one shouldn’t light with the glass case doors open because at the time of the lighting the candles have to able to burn for a half hour and in this case at the time of lighting they were in a windy place. So held the Griz (quoted by Piskei Teshuvot 673:5). However, Rav Chaim Zonenfeld in Sh”t Shelmat Chaim Siman 261 disagrees with the Maharal Diskin. Rav Tzvi Pesach Frank in Sh”t Har Tzvi Siman 114 agrees with Rav Chaim Zonenfeld because one’s intention and completion of lighting was to close the doors. Rav Shternbach in Moadim UZmanim 2:142, Rav Shlomo Zalman in Minchat Shlomo 58:1 (and Halichot Shlomo 16:6), Rav Chaim Kanievsky in Taama DeKra Parshat Vayeshev, and Rav Ovadyah Yosef in Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 675:2) concur with the lenient position.
- Or Yisrael (Dardak pg 86), Kol MeHeichal (pg 520) in name of Rav Ovadyah Auerbach, and Or Yisrael (Blinsky pg 105)
- In the Gemara Shabbat 22a Rabba says that the chanuka candles should be set up within a Tefach of the door. The Gemara continues with a dispute whether Chanukah candles should be on the left or right side of the door and concludes that the halacha is that it should be placed on the left so that the mezuzah is on the right and Chanukah candles on the left. Tur and S”A 671:7 rule like the Gemara that the chanuka candles should be placed within a Tefach of the left side of the door opposite the Mezuzah. Chazon Ovadia pg. 32 holds like this. Shulchan Aruch also adds that if there's no mezuzah one should light on the right side of the door.
- Shulchan Aruch 671:7, Chazon Ovadia pg. 33
- Shabbat 21b the statement of Ravina that it’s a mitzvah (preferable) to place it below ten; Ran (9b s.v. Garsi) in name of Rabbenu Chananel and Rabbenu Yonah, Rashba (Shabbat 21b Amar Ravina), Rosh (Shabbat 2:5), Smag (Chanukah 250d), Smak (280, 277), Tur and S”A 671:6 hold like Ravina even though the gemara questions him. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 139:8 and Chazon Ovadia pg. 33 concur. Bet Yosef 671:6 says since the Rif and Rambam don’t mention this, it means you can place it anywhere, but to fulfill everyone’s opinion one should put it below 10.
- Orchot Chaim (p. 117b n. 3) and Kol Bo hold explicitly like Rambam and Rif that only after the fact can one light under 10. [Moreover, Seder Hayom and Gefen Poriah (Bava Kama 62b) say that one doesn’t fulfill his obligation if the candles were placed below 10. Yet, the Nemukei Orach Chaim 671:2 disputes such an opinion.]
- The Bet Yosef 671:6 cites a dispute between the Mordechai (Shabbat ch. 2, n. 266) who writes that since everyone lights indoors, one can light even above 10 and the Tur (671:6) who writes to place it within 10 not differentiating between indoors and outside.
- Tur 671:6 in the name of Maharam MeRotenberg holds that one should place it above 3 Tefachim. This is also the opinion of Mordechai Shabbat 266, S”A 671:6. Birkat Yosef Yedid 3 pg 207, Sh”t Kinyan Torah 1:131:2 imply from Orchot Chaim that under three Tefachim doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah. Yet, Pri Chadash 671, Pri Megadim A”A 671:6, Mishna Brurah 671:26, Kaf HaChaim 671:50, Chazon Ovadia pg. 33, Torat HaMoadim 3:5 all rule that if one lit below 3 tefachim he has still fulfilled his obligation.
- Shulchan Aruch 671:6, Mishna Brurah 671:27
- Rama 671:7
- Shabbat 22a Rav says it can’t be above 20 amot. Tosfot (D”H Ner) says it can’t just be lowered since the mitzvah was already done incorrectly. Tur (671:6), Bach, Taz, Pri Chadash, Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tziyun 671:33) say indoors it can be above 20 amot against the Rabbenu Yoel (Ravyah 843) and Rabbi Yitzchak Avuhav (quoted by the Bet Yosef). If one put it above 20 amot, Pri Chadash, Mishna Brurah 671:29 say to relight with a Bracha. Kaf Hachaim (671:53) limits the ruling of the Pri Chadash to only where one finished lighting and stopped thinking about it. However Chazon Ovadiah (Chanukah pg 35) and Torat HaMoadim 3:6 say to relight without a bracha because of the opinion of Rabbenu Yoel (Pri Megadim A”A 671:7), [and Hareri Kodesh who says that perhaps according to Meiri and Shiltot one should repeat Sh’assa Nissim].
- Ritva (Shabbat 21b s.v. VeIm Dar) says someone living in an upper floor should light by the window that’s above 20 amot. However, Pri Chadash 671:6, Pri Megadim A”A 671:8, and Machsit HaShekel 671:6 say to light it by the door of the apartment. Thus, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 139:8 rules that if one's window is more than 20 amot above the ground level of the street outside, one shouldn't light by the window, but rather by the house door. Chazon Ovadiah (Chanukah pg 36) says that one living in an apartment on the fifth floor (just an example) should light inside his house by the door and if he wants he can light by the window that’s above 20 amot as it’s Pirsume Nisa for the household members and to those on the street according Rabbenu Yoel and for others in a building across the street at the same height (similar to Kol Bo Chanukah pg 99). The custom of lighting by the apartment entrance is sourced in halacha 17.
- Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tziyun 671:33), Chazon Ovadyah (Chanukah p. 36) say to measure from the flame of the candle like the Pri Megadim (M”Z 671:5) [However Leket Yosher (Chanukah pg 150) writes in name of a student of the Trumat HaDeshen that just the bottom has to be within 10 Tefachim.]
- Mishna Brurah 671:27, Piskei Teshuvot 671:8, Chazon Ovadia pg. 36
- Piskei Teshuvot 671:7