Safek Brachot LeHaKel

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If one's in doubt if one made a bracha

  1. If is in doubt whether one made a Bracha Rishona or not one may not make the Bracha rather it’s permissible to continue eating without a Bracha because of Safek Brachot LeHakel. [1]
  2. However, it’s preferable to listen to the Bracha from someone else who wants to eat [2] or to change places (by leaving the building temporarily) and then make a new Bracha Rishona oneself. [3] If the above options aren’t available, one should think the words of the Bracha in one’s mind without enunciating them with one’s mouth. [4]
  3. If there’s a doubt whether one interrupted his eating (with a hesech hadaat) one shouldn’t make another Bracha and it’s permissible to continue eating. [5]

Birkat HaMazon

  1. If one had a bread meal, was full, and is in doubt whether one made birkat hamazon, one should say Birkat HaMazon since Birkat HaMazon is Deoritta. [6] However, if one’s not full or isn’t sure if one’s full, one doesn’t make Birkat HaMazon. [7]

Al HaMichya

  1. If one had a kezayit of mezonot and is in doubt whether one made Al HaMichya, one should and may not go ahead make Al HaMichya out of doubt rather one should be careful to eat another kezayit (without a Bracha Rishona) and then make Al HaMichya. [8]


Alternatives to saying the actual bracha

  1. If there’s a safek whether one may make a Bracha, one may not make that Bracha with the language of Barich Rachmana Malka DeAlma and continue with the Bracha because that’s also considered a Bracha. [9]

References

  1. S”A in 167:9 and 209:3 writes clearly that if one is in doubt whether one made a Bracha one doesn’t not go back and say it except for Birkat HaMazon. Mishna Brurah 167:49 adds that it’s forbidden to make a Bracha in a case whether there’s a doubt.
  2. Mishna Brurah 167:49
  3. Vezot HaBracha (beginning of chapter 10, pg 87) in name of Rav Elyashiv
  4. Kaf HaChaim 157:10, Vezot HaBracha (beginning of chapter 10, pg 87)
  5. VeZot HaBracha (beginning of chapter 10, pg 87)
  6. S”A 209:3
  7. Mishna Brurah 209:10 writes that one makes Birkat Hamazon out of doubt only if one’s full. Kaf HaChaim 184:20 (quoted by VeZot HaBracha (pg 87, beginning of chapter 10) adds that even if one is in doubt whether one’s full, one doesn’t make Birkat HaMazon.
  8. Mishna Brurah 209:10
  9. Pri Megadim (M”Z 319:3), Sh”t Igrot Moshe 4:49, Chazon Ovadyah Sukkot (pg 245)