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==Obligation of the Mitzvah of [[Brit Milah]]==# A father is obligated to perform a [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] (circumcision) on his son or to appoint a pious Mohel to perform a [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] on his son. <ref>Kitzur S"A 163:1</ref>
# The father of the baby should place the baby on the knees of the Sandak. <ref>Kitzur S"A 163:1</ref>
# The father of the baby should stand near the Mohel (the one who is performing the circumcision) in order to show that the Mohel is his proxy. <ref>Kitzur S"A 163:1</ref>
==When a [[Brit Milah ]] should take place==# The [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] is performed on the eighth day after the baby's birth.<ref>Vayikra 12:3, Tur and S"A 262:1</ref> # The [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] may be performed any time during the day, after [[HaNetz HaChama]], however, one should make an effort to fulfill the mitzvah of [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] early in the morning because of "Zarizin Makdimin LeMitzvot". <ref>Pesachim 4a says that the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] may be performed any time during the day but those who have alacrity in fulfilling mitzvot will do it early. The gemara learns this concept of Zarizin Makdimin LeMitzvot from Avraham Avinu when he went to perform the Akeda early in the morning. S"A YD 262:1 codifies this as halacha.</ref># If one performed the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] before [[HaNetz HaChama]] after [[Olot HaShachar]] one fulfills one's obligation. <ref>[[Megillah]] 20a, Rama 262:1</ref> # If it will cause a fight among the family to perform the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] very early, one may delay it, but one should still try to make it as early as possible.<ref>Rav Mordechai Eliyahu's comment on Kitzur S"A 163:1</ref># If there is a concern of a health risk to the baby, the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] should be delayed until the baby is healthy. Once the baby is healthy, in the case of some illnesses the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] should be performed without delay, while in other cases, the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] is only performed after 8 days after the baby became healthy. <ref>S"A 262:2, Kitzur S"A 163:4</ref> Needless to say, because of the complexity of these issues, it is incumbent for a person to consult an Orthodox Rabbi to assess the situation. For more details about a delayed Milah, see the [[#A Delayed Milah]] section.# If a baby is born during [[Ben HaShemashot]], since there is a doubt whether it was day or night, the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] is performed on the ninth day from the baby's birth. <ref>S"A YD 162:4</ref>Because of the complexity involved in practically determining [[Ben HaShemashot]] an Orthodox Rabbi should be consulted.<ref>Kitzur S"A 163:6</ref>==Brachot for the [[Brit Milah]]==
# The Mohel makes the Bracha "ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קידשנו במצותיו וציונו על המילה" (“Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam Asher Kiddeshanu BeMitzvotav VeTzivanu Al HaMilah”) prior to the Milah. <ref> S"A YD 265:1 </ref> This bracha should be said standing. <ref>Rama YD 265:1 </ref>
# The father of the baby makes the Bracha "ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קידשנו במצותיו וציונו להכניסו בבריתו של אברהם אבינו" (“Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam Asher Kiddeshanu BeMitzvotav VeTzivanu LeHachniso BeBrito Shel Avraham Avinu”) before the Milah <ref> S"A YD 265:1 writes that this Bracha should be made after the cutting of the Orlah before the Periyah, however, Yalkut Yosef (Sova Semachot vol 2 pg 60) writes that the minhag is to make it before the Milah altogether. </ref> This bracha should be said standing. <ref>Rama YD 265:1 </ref>
# According to Ashkenazim a [[Shehecheyanu]] is not said at the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] except when a father is doing a [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] for a firstborn son who is obligated in [[Pidyon HaBen]], <ref>Rama YD 265:7 </ref> however, according to Sephardim, the bracha is always said. <ref>S"A YD 265:7, Yalkut Yosef (Sova Semachot vol 2 pg 72) </ref># Next [[HaGefen|Hagefen]] is made on wine and then the bracha of Asher Kidesh Yedid MeBeten. <ref>S"A YD 265:1 </ref># If the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] takes place on [[Shabbat]], if the one making the [[Brachot]] didn't yet make [[Kiddush]], he should drink from the cup of wine a Melo Lugmav and another [[Revi'it]].<ref>Kitzur S"A 77:14</ref>
==Sandakut (holding of the baby)==
# One should appoint a pious Sandak.<ref>Kitzur S"A 163:1</ref>
# According to Ashkenazim, one shouldn't appoint the same person as a Sandak if he was already a Sandak for another one of one's sons.<ref>Kitzur S"A 163:1</ref>
==Those watching the [[Brit Milah]]==# Everyone in attendance of the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] should stand except for the Sandak who is holding the baby.<ref>Kitzur S"A 163:2</ref># After the makes the Bracha of LeHachniso, the people in attendance should answer [[Amen]] and add "Keshem SheNichnas LaBrit Ken Yikanes LeTorah ULeChpah ULeMaasim Tovim".<ref>Kitzur S"A 163:2</ref>==The meal of the [[Brit Milah]]==# It is a proper practice to make a meal on the day of a [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] and it is considered a Seudat Mitzvah. <Ref>S"A Kitzur 163:8</ref># The practice is not to invite people to this meal because there is an issue for someone who was invited to a meal of [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] and didn't attend.<Ref>Rav Mordechai Eliyahu's comment on S"A Kitzur 163:8</ref># There is a Sephardic practice to read the Zohar the night before the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]].<Ref>Rav Mordechai Eliyahu's comment on S"A Kitzur 163:8</ref>
==A Delayed Milah==
# A delayed Milah may not take place on [[Shabbat]] or [[Yom Tov]].<ref>Kitzur S"A 163:4</ref># According to Ashkenazim, one may perform a delayed [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] on Thursday or Friday even if it will cause a situation of Pikuach Nefesh, however, Sephardim hold that one should not perform a delayed [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] on Thursday or Friday. <Ref>
* The Gemara [[Shabbat]] 19a quotes the Briatta which states that one may not board a boat in order to travel on [[Shabbat]] unless one got on before 3 days before [[Shabbat]] (whether or not this includes Wednesday, see Mishna Brurah 248:4).
* The Rif ([[Shabbat]] 7a-b) explains that the reason for this restriction is that if one boards a boat within 3 days of [[Shabbat]] it will negatively impact the passenger’s oneg [[Shabbat]] (enjoyment of [[Shabbat]]), however, if it’s started earlier the passengers will get used to it and be able to enjoy [[Shabbat]]. The Rosh ([[Shabbat]] 1:38) and Rambam ([[Shabbat]] 30:13) agree with this reason.
* However, the Baal HaMoer (on Rif) explains that the reason that one may not board a boat close to [[Shabbat]] is because it’s likely that there will be life threatening danger which will necessitate a violation of [[Shabbat]]. However, when it is begun earlier there’s no issue because the obligation to prepare not to violate [[Shabbat]] even for life threatening danger doesn’t begin (explained by Mishna Brurah 248:8).
* The Rashbatz 1:21 originates based on the Baal HaMoer’s concept that a convert shouldn’t schedule his [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] on Thursday because it will lead to a violation of [[Shabbat]] (if he doesn’t recover fully) and the same would be true of a baby who had his [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] delayed. This is codified by the Tur and S”A YD 268. [Interestingly, the Taz explains that even if there’s no concern of a violation of [[Shabbat]] there’s an issue of ruining oneg [[Shabbat]] and so it would be forbidden to do the delayed [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] on Thursday or Friday.]* However, the Shach YD 266:18 argues on the Rashbetz that the Baal HaMoer would permit just like it’s permitted to board a boat on Friday for the purpose of a mitzvah (S”A OC 248:1) and [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] is a tremendous mitzvah. The Magan Avraham 331:9, Mishna Brurah 331:33, and Sh”t HaRanach 38 (quoted by Tzitz Eliezer 12:43) agree with the Shach.
* The Chida in Birkei Yosef 248 quotes several achronim who defended the Rashbetz by saying that it was only permitted to board a boat on Friday for a mitzvah if one stipulated with the group that they wouldn’t continue to travel on [[Shabbat]] (S”A 248:1) and since there’s no way to make such a stipulation regarding Milah it’s forbidden to do it within 3 days of [[Shabbat]] like the Baal HaMoer.
* Sh”t Yabea Omer YD 5:23, Menuchat Ahava (vol 1, 1:6), and Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (comments to Kitzur S"A 163:4) accept the Chida as halacha.
* However, the Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 12:43 rejects the Chida because he points out that the Tashbetz himself wasn’t sure whether to hold like Rebbe that one must stipulate or Rabben Shimon and one wouldn’t have to stipulate and only as a stringency did the Tashbetz hold like Rebbe. The Tzitz Eliezer concludes that it’s illogical that the Tashbetz would have postponed the Milah from Thursday just because of a stringency of holding like Rebbe. [See further in the Birkei Yosef who gives a second defense of the Rashbetz and Tzitz Eliezer who rejects it as well.] </ref>
# Everyone agrees that if a baby boy is born during the [[Ben HaShemashot]] (halachic twilight) on Wednesday can have the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]] on Thursday next week. <Ref>Menuchat Ahava (vol 1, 1:7) and Sh”t Yabea Omer YD 5:23(4) explain that since the [[Brit milah|Brit Milah]]’s original time was set for Thursday because of a doubt it’s not considered like it was delayed specifically for that time. </ref>

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