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Mitzvot Aseh SheHazman Grama

No change in size, 00:00, 10 October 2013
Text replace - "Yechava Daat" to "Yechave Daat"
# [[Tzitzit]] is a Mitzvah Aseh SheHaZman Grama and so women are exempt. <Ref>S”A 17:2 </ref> Even though usually women are allowed to fulfill מצות from which they are exempt, by [[Tzitzit]] it’s preferable that women do not fulfill this mitzvah. <ref> Mitzvat Nashim (pg 34) quoting Ben Ish Chai (Lech Lecha #13), Sh”t Mishneh Halachot Tanina 1:21, Sh”t Igrot Moshe O”C 4:49 and others </ref>
# [[Tefillin]] is a Mitzvah Aseh SheHaZman Grama and so women are exempt. Even though usually women are allowed to fulfill מצות from which they are exempt, by [[Tefillin]] it’s preferable that women do not fulfill this mitzvah. <ref> S”A and Rama 38:3, Mitzvat Nashim (pg 35) </ref>
# Tefilla is a Mitzvah Aseh SheHaZman Grama but nonetheless women are obligated in praying once a day and it’s praiseworthy to pray three times a day. <Ref>Sh”t Yechava Yechave Daat 3:17 </ref> There is a dispute regarding [[Mussaf]]; see further Sh”t Yabia Omer 2:6(7).
# Women are obligated to eat Matza on the first night of [[Pesach]]. Even though this is a time bound positive mitzvah, Chazal write that just like women are obligated to avoid Chametz on [[Pesach]] so too they're obligated in the mitzvah of eating matzah (as the pasuk juxtaposes eating matza and avoiding chametz). Similarly, they are obligated in all the mitzvot of the night such as the 4 cups of wine, [[Matzah]], Maror, and saying the Haggadah. <Ref>Pesachim 43b, Rambam (Chametz UMatzah 6:10), S"A 472:14, Mishna Brurah 472:45 </ref>
# Women are exempt from the mitzvah of sitting in the sukkah. <ref>Mishna Sukkah 28, S"A 640:1 </ref> See [[Sitting in the Sukkah]].
# Women are obligated in Chanuka candles since they too were part of the miracle of Chanuka. Thus a man who is away traveling he should have his wife light at home for him to fulfill his obligation. Even if he will come that night later than [[Tzet HaKochavim]] (the night to light Chanuka candles), he should still have his wife light. Ashkenazim who have the Minhag that everyone in the household lights and they are able to light where they are should light without a bracha. <ref> S”A 565:5 says that women are obligated in Chanuka candles based on [[Shabbat]] 23a, Rambam (Chanuka 4:9), and Tur 565. Piskei Maharam Riketani (154) holds women can fulfill a man’s obligation on his behalf. So holds Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1, Rokeach Chanuka 226:3, Ritva and Meiri ([[Shabbat]] 23a, Megilah 4a), Maharil (Chanuka pg 407). Levush (675), Bach (675), Taz(675:4), Magan Avraham 675:4, Olot [[Shabbat]] 675:1, Pri Chadash 675:4, Eliyah Raba 675:6, Sh”t Shar Efraim 42, Shulchan Gavoha 675:6, Mor Ukesia 675:6, machzik Bracha 675:4, Mishna Brurah 675:9. Sh”t Yechava Yechave Daat 3:51 writes that since some rishonim and achronim hold one can only light at [[Tzet HaKochavim]] one should let his wife light at the right time and fulfill his obligation according to all opinions. The Yechava Yechave Daat holds like the Chaye Adam 154:33. Kaf Hachiam 676:25. Chaye Adam adds that Ashkenazim can light without a bracha. Interesting point: S”A 689:2 says a women can read the megillah to fulfill for a man his obligation of megillah, and some hold otherwise. [Bahag (quoted by Tosfot Megilah 4a, Erchin 3a) and Morchedai 4a in name of Ravyah (Megilah 569, 843) hold women can’t fulfill the obligation of a man, but Rashi Erchin 3a, Or Zaruh 2:324, Rambam(Megilah 1), Rif (quoted by Sefer Eshkol 2:30) hold a women can fulfill obligation of a man]. However Smag (brought by Magan Avraham 589:5), Itur (Megilah 113d), Eshkol 2 pg 30 differentiate between Megilah which is like Torah reading but by Chanuka women can fulfill the man’s obligation according to everyone. Also Torat Moadim Chanuka pg 40 says the Behag only held a women can fulfill megilah for a man since a women’s obligation is derebanan and a man’s is from divrei kabalah (Ketuvim). Similarly, Sh”t Maharash Halevi O”C 24 says Chanuka isn’t an obligation on each person but on the household and so a women can fulfill it for a man. Thus even those who say by Megilah a woman can’t fulfill a man’s obligation agree by Chanuka. </ref> See [[Lighting Chanuka Candles]].
# The halacha is the women are exempt from [[Sefirat Haomer]] (Magen Avraham 489:1). The Shitat HaKadmonim (last page of bava kama, [ quoted here]), however, records the responsa of the son of the Maharam Chavallah in the name of his father who quoted his Rabbi, the Ramban, to say that the women were obligated to count the Sefirat HaOmer (See Ramban Kiddushin 34a). The Maharam Challavah explains that since the time doesn’t cause the mitzvah it’s not considered “Zman Grama”. It happens to be time-bound since of another factor which is that the mitzvah of Sefirah depends on the Korban Omer which itself is bound by time. The Sh”t Maharam Challavah compares it to the obligation on women to eat [[Shabbat]] meals which require [[Birkat HaMazon]]. That doesn’t make [[Birkat HaMazon]] a mitzvah Aseh SheZman Grama because the [[Birkat HaMazon]] is obligated as a result of the meal which itself is time bound.

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