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Sechar Shabbat

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The Rabbis forbad receiving wages for (permissible) work done on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Rashi Ketubot 64a s.v. Kesechar explains that the reason chazal prohibited taking sechar shabbat, wages from work done on Shabbat, is based on a concern of coming to doing business on Shabbat. S”A 306:4, Mishna Brura 306:16 and Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:54 codify this as halacha. Rabbi Simcha Bunim Cohen explains (The Shabbos Home p. 27) that Chazal forbade engaging in any type of business transaction because it might lead to Kosev, writing down the transaction in a journal or the like. </ref>
 
==Upon whom is the prohibition?==
# The Rabbis forbad receiving wages for (permissible) work done on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Rashi Ketubot 64a s.v.Kesechar explainst that the reason chazal prohibited taking sechar shabbat, wages from work done on Shabbat, is based on a concern of coming to doing business on Shabbat. S”A 306:4 and Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:54 codify this as halacha. </ref>
# The primary prohibition applies to the one receiving the wages; however, it’s also forbidden to pay these wages (for permissible work) because one transgresses “[[Lifnei Iver]]”. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 306:21, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:54 </ref>
==What is included?==
# It is permitted to receive money on Shabbos for a rental that includes a pre-/post-Shabbos period. The same applies to services performed, that a Jew may serve as a waiter on Shabbos provided he does some set-up before, or cleanup after Shabbos. <ref>S”A (306:4) writes that one is permitted to earn money on Shabbos if it is blended in with payments for the week, month, year, or shemittah cycle. This is known as Schar Shabbos B’Havla’ah, Shabbos payments which are blended in, or literally swallowed up, with week payments. Rav Herschel Schachter ([http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/751485/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Doing_Business_on_Shabbat_%E2%80%93_Schar_Shabbat Doing Business on Shabbos – Schar Shabbos] min. 43-45) explains that Havla’ah is when the unit that is paid is larger than Shabbos. If one were to pay an hourly rate, any hours charged on Shabbos would be Schar Shabbos. But if one pays a flat rate which includes services not performed on Shabbos, this would be permitted because of Schar Shabbos B’Havla’ah. </ref> # It’s forbidden to receive payment for any service or rental over [[Shabbat]] (such as renting one's house for a specific number of days), however. However, if one purchases something on [[Shabbat]] (in cases where it’s permissible) one must pay the amount owed after [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Mishna Brurah 306:19, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:57 </ref>
# One may not receive payment for renting out a room for [[Shabbat]] specifically, rather one should stipulate that the rental should begin a little before [[Shabbat]] or a little after [[Shabbat]] and certainly for a few days amongst them [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:71 </ref>
# One may rent out a car even if the rental is paid per day and includes [[Shabbat]] because the rental is paid for every 24 hour day from morning to morning and automatically in the payment for [[Shabbat]] is also a few hours after [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:67 </ref>
==Permissible way to receive payment==
# It is permissible to receive payment for work done over a period of time such as a month, week, or year even if [[Shabbat]] is included. <Ref> Rambam Shabbat 6:25, Rosh Ketubot 5:37, S”A 306:4, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:64 . The Braisa (Bava Metzia 58a) writes that one who hires a worker to guard, cannot pay him Sachar Shabbos, therefore the guard is not responsible for Shabbos. If he was hired for the week, month, year or Shemitah cycle, he can be paid for the whole period, including Shabbos, therefore, he is responsible for Shabbos. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchita 28:64 in the footnote he explains that the gezerah is only because one may could to write down the transaction and the Rabbis didn’t extend it to a case where one receives wages over a period of time because one will not come to write about the transaction of [[Shabbat]] specifically). </ref> According to Ashkenazim, this is only true if each side sees it as an agreement which is intended to last, however, if it’s seen as a temporary agreement and the either side could retract and only pay wages for each day, it’s not permissible to receive wages for the [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Rama 306:4, Mishna Brurah 306:20, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:64 </ref>
===Baby sitter===
# Someone watching children every [[Shabbat]] can receive the wages as a gift. <ref> Sh”t Bear Moshe 5:103 </ref>
# A doctor can receive wages for a call he did on [[Shabbat]]. <Ref> Sh”t Teshuvot Vehanhagot 1:214, Sh”t Bear Moshe 5:102, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 28:67 (based on Mishna Brurah 306:24), Menuchat Ahava 10:28, Kaf Hachaim 306:36. </ref>
===Chazzan, Bal Koreh, Mashgiach===
# A chazzan, bal koreh, or mashgiach who are only working on [[Shabbat]] can receive wages, but it’s better that it’s mixed with payment for some work done on a weekday. <Ref> Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C *The Mordechai (Kesubos 189) quotes from Rabbeinu Baruch both the reasons to permit and to prohibit hiring chazanim or baalei keriah for Shabbos. He writes that it should be prohibited because of Schar Shabbos, but maybe it would be permitted because there is no decree of chazal by a mitzvah. The S"A (306:5) writes that it is prohibited to hire Chazanim to daven on Shabbos, and some say it’s permitted. As a general rule, when the S"A writes a halacha and then writes “some permit it,” we follow the first opinion. So it therefore it seems, in terms of Sachar Shabbos, that there should be no difference whether the work is a Mitzvah or not.The Aruch Hashulchan (306:25 says that since S”A 12) notes a contradiction with the Mechaber here and the Mechaber by Hilchos Rosh Hashana. Over there (585:5 says ) he writes that one won’t may take money to blow shofar, however he will not see any a siman bracha in the from that money . But over here he writes that it implies is prohibited (see also Sh"t Yabia Omer OC 5:25 who points out this contradiction as well) .The Aruch Hashulchan writes that because it seems that the minhag is to hire chazanim, it’s probably not forbidden, however S”A 306:5 is strict about this so perhaps S"A retracted from his stringent positionprohibited. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 2, pg 121) writes that the minhag is to be lenient to hire Chazanim just for [[Shabbat]] as long as one doesn’t speak about the amount on [[Shabbat]]. Nonetheless one doesn’t see Bracha from that money and so one should use that money for buying sefarim or the like.* Rabbi Simcha Bunim Cohen (The Shabbos Home p. 35) concludes that as long the chazzan or baal korei prepare during the week, it would be permissible because of Schar Shabbos B’Havla’ah. Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 7:28(7), Sh”T Shevet Hakehati 2:103 say if the chazzan or Rabbi spends time prepares for that [[Shabbat]] on the weekday it’s certainly permittedagree. * Sh”t Shaarei Ezra allows a Mohel to accept payment as it’s a dvar mitzvah but preferably he should visit the baby before or after [[Shabbat]] so the payment is mixed with permissible payment. </ref>
==Renting to a non-Jew==
# One can switch a rotation of a guard or cleaning duty to work on [[Shabbat]] instead of a weekday. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 28:55 the work he’s doing isn’t for a wage but just to exempt himself from working another day. </ref>
==Interest over Shabbat==
# Interest in a bank accrued on [[Shabbat]] is permitted. <Ref> [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 20:8. [The Mishna Brurah 306:19 writes that one may not take interest from a non-Jew for money lent for [[Shabbat]] unless one doesn’t specify a number of days but only a number of weeks.] see Bayit Hayehudi 5:22(11) and BeYitzchak Yikra Yikareh on Mishna Brurah 306:19 </ref> ==Links==# Rav Herschel Schachter ([http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/751485/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Doing_Business_on_Shabbat_%E2%80%93_Schar_Shabbat Doing Business on Shabbos – Schar Shabbos]# Rabbi Shay Schachter Twenty Minute Halacha [http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/763404/Rabbi_Shay_Schachter/Paying_a_Chazzan_and_Baal_Tokeah_ Paying a Chazzan and Baal Tokeah] 
==Sources==
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[[Category:Shabbat]]

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