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==Definition==# The basic definition of Boneh is creating or assembling any kind of structure. In order to be chayav for Boneh, one need not even build the entire structure; even contributing to the building process can be enough to be chayav. The classic example of the av melacha of Boneh would be the construction of a permanent structure, like a house.<ref> Rav Eli Baruch Shulman highlighted a Rashi in Beitzah, 11b (s.v. d’ein binyan b’keilim) that says the reason that there is no binyan by keilim (according to Beis Hillel) is because Boneh applies only to binyan batim. </ref> # The amount of Boneh that one must do to be chayav is a kol shehu, any amount.<ref> Mishnah, Shabbos 102b. The Gemara says this is learned from the Mishkan where they would fill up wormholes in the kerashim with melted lead. </ref> === Two Primary Principles of Boneh ===
# Creating a shelter ("asiat ohel") <ref>Rambam 7,6 This was done in the Mishkan when the walls and rooftops were assembled. </ref>
# Assembling pieces to create a form or structure ("me'dabek chalakim") <ref> Rambam 11,13 and 22,27 This was done in the Mishkan when the planks were assembled. </ref>
Performing either of these actions constitutes a Torah-prohibition, as both of these actions were done in the construction of the Mishkan. An action that involves both of these principles is the av melacha of Boneh. <ref>Rambam as explained by the Even Ha'ezel 10,17. For instance, Rambam Hilchos Shabbos 7:6 writes that making cheese on Shabbos is a violation of Boneh, as it involves combining pieces together to create a new object.</ref> Pitching a tent, even if it does not require assembly, would be asiyas ohel and a toldah of Boneh.<ref> Rambam, Hilchos Shabbos, 10:13</ref>
===Building shelters and tents===
# Setting up a functional installation attached to the ground is a violation of Boneh (building). For example, it's forbidden to erect a post in the ground or tomato stake to support a tomato plant. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1005) </ref>
# Laying bricks, setting up rocks as a border to a garden, putting down rocks for landscaping purposes (like chips around a tree or on a road or path), and building a fence are all violations of Boneh (building). <ref> 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1006) </ref>
# However, using an object as it is normally used such as closing a door is permitted. Similarly one may replace a removable paper towel roll or removable toilet paper holder. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1014-5) </ref>
===Adding on to a existing structure===
# Just as it is forbidden to create even a temporary structure on [[Shabbat]], it is forbidden to add onto a permanent structure even if the addition is temporary.<ref>Kitzur S"A 80:67</reFref>
# In previous centuries it was common to have dirt floors and it would be forbidden to put down new sand as it is left as a permanent layer of the floor and is a violation of Boneh (building). <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1015) </ref>
# Putting down a large area rug which is meant to remain there for more than 7 days is forbidden as it is considered something that can become nullified to the floor. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1017 and 1019) explains that since it is only a loose addition it doesn't become nullified to the floor unless it is put there for 7 days. </ref>
# According to many poskim it is permitted to rehang a picture that fell on [[Shabbat]] as long as the picture isn't expensive and rare. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1019) explains that that according to many opinions hanging a picture isn't a violation of adding to a existing structure because it retains it's own function similar to putting a potted plant on the floor or a vessel in the breakfront even though it will remain for a long time. On pg 1038 he writes that it's permissible to rehang it unless it is a expensive and rare painting because it would be [[muktzah]] and according to some poskim it's [[muktzeh]] once it was attached during the onset of [[Shabbat]]. </ref>
# One should not replace a [[mezuzah]] that fell on [[Shabbat]] because of issues of adding to an existing structure and [[muktzeh]]. However, if it is [[lying]] on the floor one pick it up in a abnormal way such as by using the palms of both hands. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1038) </ref>
===Digging and filling a hole===
# When people used to have dirt floors, if there was a hole in the floor, filling it up would be a violation of Boneh. <reF>In Gemara ([[Shabbat]] 73b) Rava says that if one fills in a hole with dirt inside the house, one has violated Boneh. Rambam ([[Shabbat]] 10:12) rules that flattening the ground indoors, by flattening a mound or filling in a hole is a violation of Boneh. Mishna Brurah 337:6 writes that if one intentionally fills the holes when sweeping one would violate Boneh.</ref>
===Assembling objects===# One of the biggest limitations in the melacha of Boneh is its application to keilim, moveable vessels that are not attached to the ground. ''Ein binyan b’keilim'' is a concept that appears in several Gemaras<ref> Shabbos 102b, 122b and Beitzah 11b are some examples </ref> and is the subject of an enormous machlokes<ref> It is well beyond the scope of this forum to discuss the magnitude of this topic. For further reading, the sefer Binyan Shabbos (Part 1) dedicates several chapters to this topic. </ref> among the rishonim, achronim, and poskim. Despite the all-encompassing implication of “ein binyan b’keilim,” most rishonim and poskim say that there are situations when one can make a kli and be chayav on a biblical level for Boneh. The general consensus among most rishonim is that Boneh does apply to keilim when one makes a kli in its entirety<ref> Chiddushei HaRamban, Shabbos 102b, s.v. Rav Amar. Also see Tosfos, Shabbos 74b, s.v. Chavisa </ref> or if one uses strength and craft (''chizuk v’umanus'') in the process of making it.<ref> Tosfos, Shabbos 102b, s.v. Hai. It should be noted that Rashi (Shabbos 47a, s.v. Chayav Chatas; Beitza 11B, s.v. d’ein) seems to be of the opinion that there is no concept of binyan b’keilim at all. However, Rashi says (Shabbos 47a) that there are cases, like making a kli in its entirety, when one would be chayav for makeh b’patish. </ref># Making a an earth vessel such as an oven or barrel before it is hardened in the kiln is a violation of Boneh. <ref>Rambam ([[Shabbat]] 10:13)</ref>
# One shouldn't untangle [[Tzitzit]] strings on [[Shabbat]] because this involves Tikkun Kli (fixing of a vessel). <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 15:94</ref>
# One shouldn't make a paper boat or paper hat by folding the paper since this involves creating a vessel. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 16:21</ref>
# One may fold a napkin regularly, but one shouldn't fold it in a special shape, such as is normally done in honor of guests. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 28:17</ref>
==In the Mishkan==# The melacha of Boneh was done in the Mishkan when they placed the kerashim, the planks that made up the walls, into their sockets.<ref> Yerushalmi Shabbos, 7th and 12th Perek </ref>
==Building a tent==
# It’s forbidden to set up the roof of a tent, permanent or temporary, on [[Shabbat]], even if one there are no walls. Additionally, it’s forbidden to add onto a tent structure, however, a temporary addition to an existing structure is permitted. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:1-2 </ref>
# Setting up a curtain in place of a window is the same as a door (if it’s temporary it’s permitted, if it’s permanent some permit if one only attaches it at the top while others forbid.) <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:29 </ref>
* ['aseh Boneh: Halacha lema'aseh] by Rabbi Yaakov Neuburger
* Article on [ Assembling Portable Cribs and Adjusting Shtenders on Shabbos] by Rabbi Yirmiyohu Kaganoff
[[Category:Orach Chaim]]

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