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Boneh

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==Definition==
# The basic definition of Boneh is creating or assembling any kind of structure. In order to be chayav for Boneh, one need not even build the entire structure; even contributing to the building process can be enough to be chayav. The classic example of the av melacha of Boneh would be the construction of a permanent structure, like a house.<ref> Rav Eli Baruch Shulman highlighted a Rashi in Beitzah, 11b (s.v. d’ein binyan b’keilim) that says the reason that there is no binyan by keilim (according to Beis Hillel) is because Boneh applies only to binyan batim. </ref> # The amount of Boneh that one must do to be chayav is a kol shehu, any amount.<ref> Mishnah, Shabbos 102b. The Gemara says this is learned from the Mishkan where they would fill up wormholes in the kerashim with melted lead. </ref>
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=== Two Primary Principles of Boneh ===
# Creating a shelter ("asiat ohel") <ref>Rambam 7,6 This was done in the Mishkan when the walls and rooftops were assembled. </ref>
# Assembling pieces to create a form or structure ("me'dabek chalakim") <ref> Rambam 11,13 and 22,27 This was done in the Mishkan when the planks were assembled. </ref>
 # Performing either of these actions constitutes a Torah-prohibition, as both of these actions were done in the construction of the Mishkan. An action that involves both of these principles is the av melacha of Boneh. <ref>Rambam as explained by the Even Ha'ezel 10,17. For instance, Rambam Hilchos Shabbos 7:6 writes that making cheese on Shabbos is a violation of Boneh, as it involves combining pieces together to create a new object.</ref> Pitching a tent, even if it does not require assembly, would be asiyas ohel and a toldah of Boneh.<ref> Rambam, Hilchos Shabbos, 10:13</ref>
===Building shelters and tents===
# If a roof was attached before [[Shabbat]] with hinges or another permanent connection it is permitted to spread out that roof (which was attached) on [[Shabbat]]. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:13 </ref>
# It is permitted to open the hood of a baby carriage if it was attached from before [[Shabbat]], however, it was attached on [[Shabbat]] one may not spread it one [[Shabbat]]. Once the hood is open it is permitted to add a temporary additional roof but one should start to add to that roof from the side which is already covered (by the hood). <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:13 </ref>
==Practical Examples of Building==
==Folding table==
# It is permitted to open a folding table. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:23 </ref>
# It’s permitted to add a table leaf to extend a table on [[Shabbat]] (for temporary use), however, one should take it apart unless one needs the space on that [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:23, Practical Laws of [[Shabbat]] (Rabbi Rafeal Soae, vol 2, pg 146). Chazon Ovadia (v. 5, p. 315) writes that it is permitted to add a leaf to a table and it doesn’t involve constructing an ohel, since part of the ohel was already in place (and it is temporary). </ref>
# One should not remove a drawer from a table if there’s a depth of a [[Tefach]] in the drawer, however, it is permitted to remove a drawer from a dresser because even after removing the drawer there still remains a roofed structure in the dresser. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:24 (and note 85) </ref>
# It is permitted to spread a tablecloth even if it hangs over the side of the table. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 315:31, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:25 </ref>
 
===Umbrella===
# The Rabbis forbad opening and closing an umbrella on [[Shabbat]]. Furthermore, they forbad using an umbrella that’s already opened from before [[Shabbat]]. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:15, Biur Halacha 315:7, Ben Ish Chai (second year Shemot #8), Noda Biyehuda 1:30, [https://www.dailyhalacha.com/Display.asp?ClipDate=3/25/2008 Rabbi Eli Mansour], Rivevot Ephraim 7:105 and 2:115:61. see however Chatam Sofer OC 72 who is lenient </ref>
# An umbrella is [[muktzeh]] since it cannot be used <ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:15 </ref>
===Binoculars===see See [[Balls_and_games#Binoculars_and_Telescopes | Binoculars and Telescopes]] on the [[Games on Shabbat]] page
===Setting up a Mechitza===
# It’s permissible to set up a partition as a mechitzah in shul between men and women on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (vol 2, 315, pg 531) </ref>
===Saltshakers===
# It is permitted to open and close a saltshaker on [[Shabbat]]. <ref> Minchat Shlomo 1:11:4 says that this isn't an issue of boneh since it isn't typically screwed on tightly. </ref>
==Pot covers==
It is permitted to cover or remove the cover on a pot on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (pg 506) </ref> Some say that one may not cover a pot which is larger than 40 seah. <Ref>Or Letzion (vol 2, chap 28:5) </ref>
===Glasses===
# Some poskim permit a glasses lenses to be replaced by a non-professional <ref>Yalkut Yosef (pg 512) </ref> while others forbid. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:77 </ref>
 ===Hanging up Pictures===
# Some say that on [[Shabbat]] it’s permitted to hang or remove a picture on a nail already in the wall. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef (pg 527) </ref>
===Bottle caps===
# See the [[Opening_bottles_and_containers#Bottle_caps]] page.
===Ice cubes===# Some are lenientto allow making ice on Shabbat and don't consider it to be constructing ice cubes. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef (pg 515) </ref>In terms of preparing for after Shabbat, see [[Hachana]].
==Watches===
# It is forbidden to wind a watch which has stopped working on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:19 </ref> Some say that one may wind it if it is still working. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (pg 512) </ref>
===Shtender===
# Some say that it is permitted to adjust the height of a shtender if (1) the parts aren’t held tightly and (2) the parts are frequently opened and closed (as is common which shtenders in shul). However, if the parts fit tightly or it isn’t opened and closed frequently (as is common which shtenders in a house) it’s forbidden. The pieces are considered held loosely if one isn’t considered if the parts move around where they are joined. <Ref>Or Letzion (vol 2, 27:3). Sh"t Minchat Yitzchak 9:38 prohibits in any event </ref> However, some poskim are lenient in all cases. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef (314, pg 504), Shulchan Shlomo 313:7, Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 6:32. </ref>
===Play pen===
# Some sat that it is permitted to set up a baby’s play pen only if (1) the parts aren’t held tightly and (2) the parts are frequently opened and closed. However, if the parts fit tightly or it isn’t opened and closed frequently it’s forbidden. The pieces are considered held loosely if one isn’t considered if the parts move around where they are joined. <Ref>Or Letzion (vol 2, 27:1) </ref> However, some permit it if it is used frequently. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:23 </ref>
# It is forbidden to cover a play pen with a blanket to protect it from the sun or bugs. However if the blanket was spread over the pen from before [[Shabbat]] at least a [[tefach]] in width (not including the part which was rolled up) then one may spread it out fully on [[Shabbat]]. One should make sure not to remove the blanket totally rather leave at least a [[Tefach]] spread out. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:9 </ref>
===Baby basket===
# It is permitted to adjust the height of a baby’s basket if (1) the parts aren’t held tightly and (2) the parts are frequently opened and closed. However, if the parts fit tightly or it isn’t opened and closed frequently it’s forbidden. The pieces are considered held loosely if one isn’t considered if the parts move around where they are joined. <Ref>Or Letzion (vol 2, 27:1) </ref>
===Sukkah Schlock===
# It is permitted to put a rainproof cover (like a plastic tarp) on top of the Sachach of a [[Sukkah]] on [[Yom Tov]], however, when doing so one should be careful not to move the Sachach because it is [[Muktzeh]]. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:10 </ref>
==Folding table==# It is permitted to open a folding table. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:23 </ref># It’s permitted to add a table leaf to extend a table on [[Shabbat]] (for temporary use), however, one should take it apart unless one needs the space on that [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:23, Practical Laws of [[Shabbat]] (Rabbi Rafeal Soae, vol 2, pg 146). Chazon Ovadia (v. 5, p. 315) writes that it is permitted to add a leaf to a table and it doesn’t involve constructing an ohel, since part of the ohel was already in place (and it is temporary). </ref># One should not remove a drawer from a table if there’s a depth of a [[Tefach]] in the drawer, however, it is permitted to remove a drawer from a dresser because even after removing the drawer there still remains a roofed structure in the dresser. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:24 (and note 85) </ref># It is permitted to spread a tablecloth even if it hangs over the side of the table. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 315:31, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:25 </ref>=Beds=Beds==
# It is permitted to spread a bed sheet even if it hangs over the side of the bed. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 315:31, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:25 </ref>
# It is forbidden to put together a crib on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:23 </ref>

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