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Boneh

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Umbrella
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# The basic definition of Boneh is creating or assembling any kind of structure. In order to be chayav culpable for Boneh, one need not even build the entire structure; even contributing to the building process can be enough to be chayavculpable. The classic example of the av melacha of Boneh would be the construction of a permanent structure, like a house.<ref> Rav Eli Baruch Shulman highlighted a Rashi in Beitzah, 11b (s.v. d’ein binyan b’keilim) that says the reason that there is no binyan by keilim (according to Beis Hillel) is because Boneh applies only to binyan batim. </ref> # The amount of Boneh that one must do to be chayav culpable is a kol shehu, any amount.<ref> Mishnah, Shabbos 102b. The Gemara says this is learned from the Mishkan where they would fill up wormholes in the kerashim with melted lead. </ref>
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# However, using an object as it is normally used such as closing a door is permitted. Similarly one may replace a removable paper towel roll or removable toilet paper holder. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1014-5) </ref>
===Adding on to a existing structure===
# Just as it is forbidden to create even a temporary structure on [[Shabbat]], it is forbidden to add onto a permanent structure even if the addition is temporary.<ref>Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 80:67</ref>
# In previous centuries it was common to have dirt floors and it would be forbidden to put down new sand as it is left as a permanent layer of the floor and is a violation of Boneh (building). <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1015) </ref>
# Putting down a large area rug which is meant to remain there for more than 7 days is forbidden as it is considered something that can become nullified to the floor. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 4, pg 1017 and 1019) explains that since it is only a loose addition it doesn't become nullified to the floor unless it is put there for 7 days. </ref>
===Assembling objects===
# One of the biggest limitations in the melacha of Boneh is its application to keilim, moveable vessels that are not attached to the ground. ''Ein binyan b’keilim'' is a concept that appears in several Gemaras<ref> Shabbos 102b, 122b and Beitzah 11b are some examples </ref> and is the subject of an enormous machlokes<ref> It According to Rashi Shabbat 74b s.v. ve’iy there is no issue of boneh when constructing a utensil and only if it is attached to the ground is it boneh, altogether either way it’ll be macah b’patish. However, Tosfot s.v. chavita argues that creating a kli is also boneh as the gemara Shabbat 102b cites the opinion of Rav who holds that assembling a shovel is well beyond boneh. Maginei Shlomo Shabbat 102b answers Tosfot’s question based on the scope Ramban (Milchamot Shabbat 37a) who explains that many other amoraim disagree with Rav and hold that there's no boneh in constructing utensils. See Peni Yehoshua Shabbat 74b for another answer. Nonetheless, the conclusion of this forum most rishonim is that it is boneh to discuss create a utensil from scratch like Tosfot. This is the magnitude opinion of this topicBaal Hameor (on Rif Shabbat 37a s.v. ayil), Ran (37a s.v. makshu), Ramban (102b s.v. rav), and Rashba (102b s.v. hay). For further reading, the sefer Binyan Shabbos (Part 1) dedicates several chapters to this topic. </ref> among the rishonim, achronim, and poskim. Despite the all-encompassing implication of “ein binyan b’keilim,” most rishonim and poskim say that there are situations when one can make a kli and be chayav on a biblical level for Boneh. The general consensus among most rishonim is that Boneh does apply to keilim when one makes a kli in its entirety<ref> Chiddushei HaRamban, Shabbos 102b, s.v. Rav Amar. Also see Tosfos, Shabbos 74b, s.v. Chavisa </ref> or if one uses strength and craft (''chizuk v’umanus'') in the process of making it.<ref> Tosfos, Shabbos 102b, s.v. Hai. It should be noted that Rashi (Shabbos 47a, s.v. Chayav Chatas; Beitza 11B11b, s.v. d’ein) seems to be of the opinion that there is no concept of binyan b’keilim at all. However, Rashi says (Shabbos 47a) that there are cases, like making a kli in its entirety, when one would be chayav for makeh b’patish. </ref># Making a utensil loosely is permitted if it usually is made loosely, but it is forbidden to fit it together tightly or even loosely if it usually fits together tightly.<ref>The Gemara Shabbat 47a cites a dispute whether constructing a bed in a loose fashion is permitted but everyone agrees if it is tight it is forbidden. The Shulchan Aruch 313:6 rules that if it is loose it is permitted. Rama 313:6 writes that it is only permitted to assemble a utensil in a loose fashion if it is normally loose, however, if it is usually tight and you just made it loose once there is a concern you'll make it tight this time. The Bet Yosef cites this concept from the Hagahot Ashuri Shabbat 3:23 and infers it from the Rambam 22:26.</ref> For example, constructing an army cot from pieces that come apart on Shabbat or Yom Tov is forbidden since the legs fight in tightly.## If a shtender is made of multiple pieces it is forbidden to construct or reassemble if it is apart unless it is so loose that the pieces would wobble in their sockets.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 313:6 cites a dispute whether constructing a cup is similar to constructing a bed. Mishna Brurah 313:45 explains the dispute is whether a cup which is which put together tightly but not hammered together is judged like a bed or not. Mishna Brurah 313:46 writes that initially we are strict to assume that it is the same halacha as a bed but if there's a need of Shabbat we are lenient. Lastly, Mishna Brurah 313:47 equates a shtender made of pieces to a cup. Shulchan Aruch 313:6 only permits constructing a bed if it is loose. Biur Halacha 313:6 s.v. darka cites the Raavad who explains that loose means that it is so loose that it would wobble in its socket.</ref># Covering a pot with a cover tightly is permitted since it is meant to be opened and closed all the time.<Ref>Mishna Brurah 313:45</ref># A shtender which can have its height adjusted with a knob but isn't frequently adjusted, according to many poskim it is permitted to adjust the height on Shabbat, and according to others it is forbidden.<ref>Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach in Meor HaShabbat (v. 2 Letter 32:3) holds that it is permitted to adjust the height of a shtender with a knob which tightens and loosens, even if it is only infrequently adjusted, since the shtender is like covering and uncovering a pot, which was a utensil before and after the use. However, Minchat Yitzchak 9:38 disagrees since the shtender is only infrequently adjusted unlike a pot cover. See Dirshu (Mishna Brurah 313:45) and [http://ph.yhb.org.il/01-15-06/ Peninei Halacha Shabbat 15:6].</ref>
# Making an earth vessel such as an oven or barrel before it is hardened in the kiln is a violation of Boneh. <ref>Rambam ([[Shabbat]] 10:13)</ref>
# One shouldn't untangle [[Tzitzit]] strings on [[Shabbat]] because this involves Tikkun Kli (fixing of a vessel). <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 15:94</ref>
# One shouldn't make a paper boat or paper hat by folding the paper since this involves creating a vessel. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 16:21</ref>
# One may fold a napkin regularly, but one shouldn't fold it in a special shape, such as is normally done in honor of guests. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 28:17</ref>
 
==In the Mishkan==
# The melacha of Boneh was done in the Mishkan when they placed the kerashim, the planks that made up the walls, into their sockets.<ref> Yerushalmi Shabbos, 7th and 12th Perek </ref>
===Roof which is attached===
# If a roof was attached before [[Shabbat]] with hinges or another permanent connection it is permitted to spread out that roof (which was attached) on [[Shabbat]]. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:13 </ref>
# It is permitted to open the hood of a baby carriage if it was attached from before [[Shabbat]], however, it was attached on [[Shabbat]] one may not spread it one [[Shabbat]]. Once the hood is open it is permitted to add a temporary additional roof but one should start to add to that roof from the side which is already covered (by the hood). <Ref>Chazon Ish OC 52:6 holds that it is permitted to open and close the roof of a baby carriage and it isn't considered like creating an ohel to protect from the sun. His reasoning is that it since it is attached to the carriage opening it is like extending a preexisting ohel. Also, it is like opening and closing a door which is built to do that. See Rama 626:3 regarding opening and closing a shlock for the sukkah and Mishna Brurah 315:27 regarding shtenders. In that piece Chazon Ish is disagreeing with the Nodeh Beyehuda OC 2:30 regarding umbrellas. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:13 agrees and is lenient. Rav Ovadia Yosef in Chazon Ovadia (Shabbat v. 5 p. 302) writes that one should be strict for those are strict. Yalkut Yosef 315:12 quotes those who are strict and concludes that it is proper to leave it a tefach (excluding the folded part) open before Shabbat and extend it or fold it up on Shabbat.</ref> 
==Practical Examples of Building==
==Folding table==
# It is permitted to open a folding table. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:23 </ref>
# It’s permitted to add a table leaf to extend a table on [[Shabbat]] (for temporary use), however, one should take it apart unless one needs the space on that [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:23, Practical Laws of [[Shabbat]] (Rabbi Rafeal Soae, vol 2, pg 146), Rivivot Ephraim 1:222:3. Chazon Ovadia (v. 5, p. 315) writes that it is permitted to add a leaf to a table and it doesn’t involve constructing an ohel, since part of the ohel was already in place (and it is temporary). </ref>
# One should not remove a drawer from a table if there’s a depth of a [[Tefach]] in the drawer, however, it is permitted to remove a drawer from a dresser because even after removing the drawer there still remains a roofed structure in the dresser. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:24 (and note 85) </ref>
# It is permitted to spread a tablecloth even if it hangs over the side of the table. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 315:31, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:25 </ref>
===Umbrella===
# The Rabbis forbad forbade opening and closing an umbrella on [[Shabbat]]. Furthermore, they forbad forbade using an umbrella that’s already opened from before [[Shabbat]]. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:15, Biur Halacha 315:7, Ben Ish Chai (second year Shemot #8), Noda Biyehuda 1:30, [https://www.dailyhalacha.com/Display.asp?ClipDate=3/25/2008 Rabbi Eli Mansour], Rivevot Ephraim 7:105 and 2:115:61. see however Chatam Sofer OC 72 who is lenient </ref>
# An umbrella is [[muktzeh]] since it cannot be used <ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:15 </ref>
===Setting up a Mechitza===
# It’s permissible to set up a partition as a mechitzah in shul between men and women on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (vol 2, 315, pg 531), Rav Soloveitchik (cited in Nefesh Harav pg. 170) </ref>
===Saltshakers===
# Some are lenient to allow making ice on Shabbat and don't consider it to be constructing ice cubes. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef (pg 515) </ref> In terms of preparing for after Shabbat, see [[Hachana]].
==Watches===
# It is forbidden to wind a watch which has stopped working on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:19 </ref> Some say that one may wind it if it is still working. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (pg 512) </ref>
===Shtender===
# It is permitted to adjust the height of a baby’s basket if (1) the parts aren’t held tightly and (2) the parts are frequently opened and closed. However, if the parts fit tightly or it isn’t opened and closed frequently it’s forbidden. The pieces are considered held loosely if one isn’t considered if the parts move around where they are joined. <Ref>Or Letzion (vol 2, 27:1) </ref>
===Sukkah Schlock===
# It is permitted to put a rainproof cover (like a plastic tarp) on top of the Sachach of a [[Sukkah]] on [[Yom Tov]], however, when as long as it is clear that one is only doing so to protect the sukkah and also the covering is within 3 tefachim of the sachach. When putting on the cover one should be careful not to move the Sachach because it is [[Muktzeh]]. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 640:25, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:10 12 </ref> 
===Beds===
# It is permitted to spread a bed sheet even if it hangs over the side of the bed. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 315:31, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 24:25 </ref>
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