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Electricity on Shabbat

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* There's is a lengthy discussion about which melacha is involved when using electricity. One suggestion is that it is a violation of [[Mavir]] ([[Lighting a fire]]). See a very interesting comparison of Rav Henkin (Edut LeYisrael p. 151) who seems to compare an electric current to movement of electrons when a person starts to walk or hits a piece of metal and says that’s not called a fire unless the fire is visible. Rabbi Yitzchak Schmelkes Beit Yitzchak Hashmatot to YD 2:31, says that completing a circuit constitutes a rabbinic violation of [[molid]]. In Beitza 23a the gemara prohibits one from adding scent to a garment because of [[molid]]. Similarly, the Beit Yitzchak argues, introducing electricity into a device is [[molid]].
* Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach Minchat Shlomo 1:9 says that the two are different because adding a scent to a garment is adding something to it, that it never had before. Electricity on the other hand was put into this device to be activated and deactivated often. Rav Shlomo Zalman concludes that even without light, the halachic precedent has been established to be concerned for a rabbinic prohibition with the activation of electric device. The Chazon Ish OC 50:9, rules that completing a circuit constitutes a violation of the melacha of boneh, building and deactivating a device by opening the circuit would constitute a violation of [[soter]], destroying. Another possibility raised by Heichal Yitzchak 43 is the prohibition of makeh bepatish, delivering the final blow, completing any item in a way that now renders it beneficial. </ref>
# According to many poskim it is Biblically forbidden to turn on an incandescent and fluorescent light bulb. However, if one needs to turn on a light for someone who is mortally sick (see [[Medicine on Shabbat]]) one should turn on a fluorescent instead of an incandescent light bulb. <ref>Menuchat Ahava 24:3-4. Incandescent bulbs and halogen bulbs contain filaments that can get extremely hot. The Gemara [[Shabbat]] 42a, discusses the concept of gachelet shel matechet, a glowing hot piece of metal. The Avnei Nezer OC 229 based on the gemara in [[shabbat]] 42a says that according to most Rishonim, heating a piece of metal to the point that it is glowing hot is a biblical violation of havarah, kindling. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach in Minchat Shlomo 1:12, says that since turning on an incandescent bulb ignites a glowing hot metal filament, it would be in violation of havarah from the torah. </ref> ===Changing an Existing Current===# In a theoretical discussion, according to those poskim who hold that closing a circuit is a Biblical violation of Boneh or Makeh Bpatish, changing a current could be a Biblical violation of Shabbat and is certainly forbidden.<ref>Kedushat Hashabbat pp. 22-23 quotes Rav Elyashiv as explaining that according to the Chazon Ish it would still be a Biblical violation of Shabbat to change the current since the change creates something new. He explained that it isn't a physical building and an addition to the building that we're discussing, rather it is an abstract type of building that is created when a useful circuit is closed and the same is created when the current is changed. Rav Asher Weiss in Minchat Asher 1:32 who agrees with the Chazon Ish that it is considered Makeh Bpatish to close a circuit is concerned for the prohibition of Makeh Bpatish when changing the current.</ref># However, according to Rav Shmelkes and Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, who believe that the issue with closing a circuit is a rabbinic one of introducing a new feature into the wire, there is no technical issue with changing the amount of energy in a circuit.<ref>Minchat Shlomo 1:9. One precedent for such an approach is found in the Maharil (Etrog no. 15). He explained that if a person has an Etrog that he took out of a wool cloth on Yom Tov he can return it back to the wool even though it’ll become scented on Yom Tov because of its contact with the Etrog since the wool was already scented beforehand. It is only molid to introduce a smell but not to increase more of what is already existent. This is quoted by the Magen Avraham 511:11 and clarified further by the Shulchan Aruch Harav 511:7.</ref> Yet, some argue that even according to Rav Shmelkes's approach changing a current should be forbidden.<ref>Kedushat Hashabbat pp. 22-23 quotes Rav Elyashiv as explaining that changing a current is forbidden even according to the Beit Yitzchak. Introducing electricity in a wire isn't comparable with scent in a clothing since an increase of scent is an addition of quantity but more electricity is a qualitative addition and forbidden because of molid.</ref>===Benefiting from Electricity===# In Israel the electric companies are run by non-religious Jews and even so it is permitted to use the electricity of one's home on Shabbat. If one is strict to get a home generator one will be blessed.<ref> Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach in Minchat Shlomo 2:27 explains at the electric plant if they increase or decrease the electricity in the grid they are directly turning on, off, or altering the state of many ovens and incandescent bulbs which are Biblical prohibitions. [ (See Minchat Shlomo P. 111)]. Although he concludes that one can benefit from the electricity he adds that it is really mechu'ar to enjoy a Shabbat using electricity that was produced with sin. </ref> 
==Using Electric Appliances==
# According to many poskim it is Biblically forbidden to turn on an oven or warming plate. <ref>Menuchat Ahava 24:3 </ref>
# It is forbidden to turn off or dim an electric light. <ref> While Melamed Lehoil OC 49, Kuntres Gorem HaMalot 185, Maharsham 2:146, Minchat Shlomo pages 85-88 and pages 107-109, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchatah 13:1 all say this prohibition is rabbinic and this is the conclusion by [ Rabbi Jachter and Rabbi Broyde], Machaze Avarham OC 41 and Beit Yitzchak Hashmatot YD 2:31:8 say it is a violation from the torah and this possibility is also raised by Rav Shlomo Zalman. </ref>
# It is forbidden to turn off any electric appliance. <ref>Menuchat Ahava 24:5 </ref>
# It is forbidden to pick up a phone off the receiver, speak on a phone, or return the phone to the receiver on [[Shabbat]]. <ref> Menuchat Ahava 24:6,8,9.
* Lifting the Phone: In addition to the problems of circuits or the problem of a light flashing when lifting the phone, Rabbi Levi Yitzchak Halperin in Maaseh Choshev 1:60 argues that starting the dial tone violates the rabbinic prohibition of making a noise, or hashma'at kol. *Dialing: In addition to the problem of circuits being built by dialing a phone, Rabbi Benzion Meir Chai Uziel Mishpatei Uziel 1:13 writes one violates makeh bipatish, delivering the final blow but Chacham Ovadia Yosef in Sh"t Yabia Omer 1:20 disagrees because the phone is a functional object even before one dials. Rabbi Yitzchak Schmelkes Beit Yitzchak Hashmatot YD 2:31 and Rabbi Chaim Ozer Grodzinski Achiezer 4:6 say that one violates the rabbinic prohibition of making a noise, hashmaat kol, in the place where the phone rings. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach Minchat Shlomo pages 75 and 76 argues that maybe since this is indirect and rabbinic one may be lenient. In the Sinai 5705 journal page 152 he argues that since the noise is made in another's house it is possible that the rabbinic prohibition doesn't apply at all because you would never come to fix the object in someone else's house.*Talking into the Phone: Rabbi Yitzchak Schmelkes Beit Yitzchak Hashmatot YD 2:31 asserts that talking into the phone is also a problem of making a noise, or hashmaat kol. [[Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach]] Minchat Shlomo page 67 and Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg Tzitz Eliezer 1:20:10 both disagree based on the Rama 338:1 where he rules that the prohibition of making a noise doesn't apply when this is done through a human voice. Since talking into the phone increases the electrical current being used, Rabbi Yitzchak Yaakov Weiss Minchat Yitzchak 3:38 and 3:60 prohibits based on that. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Minchat Shlomo page 110) writes that the increase in current is not a problem in appliances where heat is not created.</ref>
# Some say it is a good practice to unplug the phone before [[Shabbat]] so that if someone calls on [[Shabbat]] one won't hear it ring. <ref>Menuchat Ahava 24:10 </ref>
===Recorders===# It is forbidden to speak into a tape recorder even if the recorder was turned on before [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Menuchat Ahava 24:13, Yechave Da'at 2:57. Igrot Moshe OC 3:55 forbade recording a shiur on Shabbat or the like since speaking into it might cause the voltage to increase in the circuit and also it might be considered molid to have something new introduced into the memory of the recorder.57 </ref>===Electric Blanket===# It is permitted to use an electric blanket on [[shabbat]], provided one does not move the knob that adjusts it. It is proper to place scotch tape on top of the knob in order to prevent oneself from accidentally adjusting the blanket on [[shabbat]]. <ref> Igrot Moshe 3.:50, Menuchat Ahava 1.:24.:37, Yechave Da'at 2.:49 </ref>Note this only applies to the older electric blankets that work when plugged in but not ones which are responsive to sensing a person's presence are forbidden. 
===Automatic Doors, Doorbells, and Door Chimes===
# It is forbidden to enter an automatic electric door which opens with a motion sensor unless there is a need to enter a hospital with an electric door for the needs of a patient who is in a life threatening situation. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat Khilchata 40:19</ref>
# It is forbidden to press an electric doorbell on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Menuchat Ahava 24:14 </ref>
# Some say that it is forbidden to open a door that will cause an electric chime or bell to go off.<ref>Chelkat Yakov 1:78 writes that it is forbidden to enter a door that will cause an electric chime to go off. He explains that even though it is a Shinuy, Melacha Sheino Tzaricha Lgufa, and a Pesik Reisha Dlo Nicha Leh since the concern is a Biblical one of Maavir it is prohibited. He was discussing a device that created sparks when the circuit was closed and he considered those to be a Biblical violation of Shabbat. He also points out that perhaps this isn't considered a Shinuy since that is how the system is set up to be used. However, regarding Yom Tov he is lenient since Molid Esh is only derabbanan. Shemirat Shabbat Khilchata 23:57 agrees that it is forbidden to enter a door with an electric chime or bell.</ref>
# If a person has a Smartlock affixed to their door they should deactivate it before Shabbat so that it doesn't register when one opens and closes the door on Shabbat. If one goes to someone else's house with a Smartlock that is active on Shabbat one may open the door since it is only a rabbinic concern, not beneficial to the one opening the door, and a pesik reisha.<ref>See article by [,%20Automatic%20Bathrooms,%20and%20Automatic%20Lights%20in%20Hotels%20on%20Shabbat? Rabbi Sultan]</ref>
===Shabbos Elevators===
* Lastly, Chelkat Yaakov O”C 76 argues that while it may be a psik reisha, perhaps it is not considered grama since this is the intended normal way it is used. Therefore, he rules that one may only open the door when the motor already is running. Minchat Yitzchak 2:16 and 3:24, Az Nidberu 2:36, Sh"t Igrot Moshe 2:68, 4:74, and Mishnat Rabbi Aharon 1:4 agree.
* Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 10:12, Orchot [[Shabbat]] (vol 3 p. 62), and The [[Shabbos]] Home (p. 482) quote the two approaches but do not give a final ruling. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata (10:12) recommends setting the refrigerator to a timer.
* [ Rabbi Willig (min 33-35)] says that using a water fountain on [[Shabbat]] depends on how long it takes for the motor to turn on. He mentions that one shouldn't use a water fountain which clearly will have the motor go on with a single regular use. However, he did not say this as a definitive ruling but in passing. Note that this wouldn't apply to an electric water fountain that triggers a circuit. See [ R' Sultan's note about water fountains at YU].* See [] or [] for details on other problems with refrigerators. </ref> # If one forgot to disable the light he is permitted to ask a gentile to open or close the refrigerator for him. <ref> Yalkut Yosef Chelek 4 [[Shabbat]] 5 page 229, Iggerot Moshe OC 2:68, and Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchatah 3:31. The aforementioned poskim all reject the opinion of the Aruch either because psik reishe dilo nicha leih is not permitted and they also argue that it is nicha leih because had it not been [[shabbat]] one would certainly want the light to help him see (see minchat shlomo page 91), and say that one should get a gentile to do it for him. [ Rabbi Broyde and Rabbi Jachter] permit even asking a Jew who doesn't know that the light will turn on as this would fall under the category of mitasek. Iggerot Moshe OC 2:68 and Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchitah 31:1 also permit hinting to the gentile to disable the light so that the refrigerator could be used for the remainder of [[shabbat]], but not telling him directly. </ref># If the light is left on and one finds a way to open the refrigerator the food inside isn't mutkzeh.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata ch. 10 fnt. 44 explains that it isn't muktzeh since turning on the light is merely an impediment (Magen Avraham 518:14 from Ran and Rashba Beitzah 31b) and also there are permitted ways to get a refrigerator to open a refrigerator with a light on.</ref> 
===Security Cameras===
# Many poskim permit walking in an area where there surveillance cameras will capture a person’s image as long as he does not intend to be recorded. <Ref>
* Rabbi Hershel Schachter ([ “Electricity on Shabbos,”] min 62-8) explains that if one is doing an action that is physically disconnected from where the melacha is occurring, it isn’t considered a psik reisha. Thus, Rav Schachter says that there’s what to rely on to permit walking in an area where there is a surveillance camera or a motion sensor which will turn on a light as long as one doesn’t have intent to be videoed or turn on the light.
* Sh"t Besel Chachma 6:65 suggests that walking in a place where there are surveillance cameras isn't considered Koteiv whatsoever and is no different than looking in a mirror on [[Shabbat]].</ref>
# Walking in the Kotel Plaza according to a minority opinion is forbidden on Shabbat but many poskim are still lenient.<ref>See the lenient opinions in the previous footnote. However, Rav Elyashiv (Or HaShabbat v. 25 p. 157) held that walking in the Kotel Plaza on Shabbat is forbidden since one does benefit from the added security with the surveillance cameras and as such it isn't considered an unintentional action. </ref>
===Motion Sensor Toilets===
# Many poskim permit using an electrical automatic toilet if no other toilet is available. <Ref>
* Practical Laws of [[Shabbat]] (Rabbi Rafael Soae, p. 335) quotes Kedushat HaShabbat (Rabbi Moshe Harari p. 79) who says that if there’s no other bathroom available other than one which has toilets that automatically flush when one moves away, one may use the toilet because of Kavod HaBriyot.
* Rabbi Yisrael Belsky in Shulchan HaLevi 7:7 permits using this type of bathroom if there is no other bathroom available, but if there’s another option, he forbids using the electrical toilet. Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz ([ “Using Automatic Bathrooms on Shabbos”]) quotes Rav Belsky as saying that kavod habriyot would not be a leniency in order to wash one’s hands with an automatic sink. </ref>
===Alarm Systems===
# If someone has a grama system (for example [ Zomet's grama alarm]) set up so that when the door is closed a mechanism will close an alarm system after some time, according to some poskim it is permitted to use it for a significant need.<ref>Minchat Shlomo 2:60:20</ref>
Many poskim would permit closing a door that sets up an alarm system that only go off after some time as it is considered grama.
===Motion Sensor Lights===
# Some poskim permit walking in an area where a motion sensor will turn on a light provided that one does not intend to turn on the light if there’s no other way to walk. <Ref>
* Sheivet HaLevi 9:69 permits walking in an area where there is a motion sensor that will activate a light, such as those attached to the outside of buildings. He explains that davar she’eino mitkaven refers only to when one does an action that may cause an unintended melacha. If, however, one is walking normally and makes no motion in order for a melacha to occur, it is not even a psik reisha as long as one’s intent isn’t to turn on the light. </ref> Some poskim only permit walking in front of an automatic light if one doesn't benefit from the light such as if it is possible to walk without that light.<Ref>Orchot [[Shabbat]] (p. 79) quotes Rav Elyashiv and Rav Nissim Karlitz who say that since one doesn’t have a direct connection to the melacha and doesn’t care about the light, it’s not called melechet machshevet. The [[Shabbos]] Home (p. 489) agrees.
* Rabbi Mordechai Willig ([ “Halacha Engages Modernity Part 8,”] min 50-60) challenges this line of reasoning because it should be considered a psik reisha d’nicha lei and turning on a light might be deoraitta. Furthermore, The 39 Melachos (p. 1215) says that if one can’t avoid walking in a place that will turn on a light because of a motion sensor and the streets are dark so that one will benefit from the light turning on, one shouldn’t leave his house! He does permit one to walk past such a motion sensor if he closes his eyes at the time when the light will turn on because in such a case then it is not considered niche lei, even if one will open one's eyes right afterwards.
* On the other hand, Rabbi Hershel Schachter ([ “Electricity on Shabbos,”] min 62-8) explains that if one is doing an action that is physically disconnected from where the melacha is occurring, it isn’t considered a psik reisha. Thus, Rav Schachter says that there’s what to rely on to permit walking in an area where there is a surveillance camera or a motion sensor which will turn on a light as long as one doesn’t have intent to be videoed or turn on the light.* Rav Yitzchak Yosef ([ Motzei Shabbat Mishpatim 5779 min 18]) explained that the opinion of the Shevet Halevi is based on the Rashba Shabbat 106a which is rejected by Shulchan Aruch. He said that his father forbade walking in front of an automatic light if it is necessary to walk such as in a stairwell. </ref>
# If one is already in the room that has a motion sensor and the lights are on and as long as one is inside the lights stay on one may stay in the room.<ref>Minchat Asher 1:31:5</ref>
# If one is already in a room that has a motion sensor and if one leaves the room the lights will go off one may leave the room.
===Hearing Aids and Microphones===
# Someone who's hard of hearing may use a hearing aid which was turned on before [[Shabbat]]. It's proper to attached a piece of scotch tape on the button so one doesn't come to turn it off on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Menuchat Ahava 24:11, Sh"t Yabia Omer 1:19(19), Minchat Yitzchak 2:17-8, 3:41, Minchat Shlomo 1:9, Tzitz Eliezer 6:6, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita 34:28. Rav Shlomo Zalman in his teshuva Minchat Shlomo 1:9 is dealing with microphones and concludes that a change in a voltage of a current isn't molid but still using a microphone is forbidden since it is audible and is a violation of Avsha Milta, degrading Shabbat. However, regarding hearing aids the Shaarim Metzuyim Bhalacha v. 2 p. 137 80:39:5 cites a letter from Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach that it is permitted to turn up a hearing aid on Shabbat and as there's no issue of muktzeh with a hearing aid that is already on. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 34:28 confirms this. Chelkat Yakov 119 forbids using a hearing aid on Shabbat because he holds that connecting the circuit is Biblical as it created sparks (according to the science of that time which is no longer the case) and he leaves it unresolved if it is permitted to use if was already functioning before Shabbat.</ref>
# It is permitted to use a hearing aid on Shabbat even if it automatically adjusts the volume depending on the loudness of the environment.<ref>Rav Asher Weiss in Minchat Asher 1:31:1 writes that using hearing aids which automatically adjust depending on your surrounding. In a quiet place it amplifies noise and in a loud place it lowers the amplification. He explains that it is permitted to use them and move around while wearing them since either that isn't considered your action that the device changed its functionality or that it is but it is permitted since the accomplishments of the change in voltage in the circuit are insignificant and don't violate makeh bpatish, boneh, or molid. The automatic mode of hearing aids is described here:</ref>
# It is forbidden to use a microphone on Shabbat.<Ref>Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach in Minchat Shlomo 1:9 s.v. ach writes that even if one solves all melacha issues with speaking into a microphone on Shabbat nonetheless it is forbidden since it creates an audible noise which is a violation of Avsha Milta (Shabbat 18a, Rama 252:5), which is Zilzul Shabbat. One of his precedents is the Nodeh Byehuda OC 30 regarding umbrellas where there is a concern of Zilzul Shabbat even if it was open before Shabbat.</ref> 
===Medical Monitoring===
# A patient hooked up to a monitor that measures his heartbeat and the like doesn't have to be concerned for its functioning on Shabbat.<ref>Minchat Asher 1:31:2</ref>
# It is forbidden to set a timer before [[shabbat]] to automatically operate a dishwasher on [[shabbat]]. <ref> Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 12:37, Menuchat Ahava 1.24.31. The Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata's proof is that when you close the door even though it is totally off it is considered a grama when the melacha will occur later like we find in Mishna Brurah 253:100. [ Rav Hershel Schachter (Electricity on Shabbat min 35)] explained that it was forbidden to use a dishwasher on Shabbat even if it is going to turn on at a later time since closing the door is considered a grama for when the timer will turn on.
Since the dishwasher doesn't function if it isn't closed it may not be used. It is also forbidden to illegally get a mechanic who will break the dishwasher so that it starts even if the door isn't closed.</ref>
# Most poskim are lenient to allow wearing an automatically winding watch if it is still running.<ref>Yabia Omer OC 6:35 writes that according to his opinion that as long as the watch is still running then it is certainly permitted to wear a watch that self-winds while it is still running. He adds that even those who hold that it is forbidden should agree with the automatic watch since it is a pesik reisha dlo nicha leh on a derabbanan. Additionally, it could be a shinuy and also derech levisha (Rav Poalim 1:26). Shaalei Tziyon 11, Chelkat Yakov 1:75, Tzitz Eliezer 9:20, Shemirat Shabbat Khilchata ch. 28 fnt. 57, and [ Rabbi Mansour] agree that an automatic watch is permitted. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman who was lenient since fundamentally when the watch is still running it isn't fixing to wind it especially in that it is "fixed" with the simple action of just swinging one's hand. Tzitz Eliezer's reason is that many permit winding the watch while it is still running and here it is a dvar sheino mitchaven and a shinuy. Az Nidbaru 2:39 says it is forbidden. </ref>
# According to many poskim the same is true of an electric automatic watch that it may be worn on Shabbat.<ref>The reasons for the mechanical self-winding watch seem to apply to the electric recharging watch as well. See above. [ Rabbi Daniel Mann on] holds that it is permissible to wear the kinetic watch on Shabbat since the transfer of mechanic energy to electrical energy in a battery back into mechanical energy doesn’t create any circuit and is permitted. Additionally, it is similar to some of the arguments made about the automatic watch (that it is a pesik reisha, shinuy, derech levisha). [ Rabbi Pfeffer on], [ Rabbi Yisrael Rozen], and [ Rabbi Li’or on] agree.</ref> However, some hold that it is forbidden to wear an electric automatic watch or solar powered watch on Shabbat.<ref> Orchot Shabbat v. 3 26:50 concludes that it is forbidden since one's movements cause the electric charge to cause the watch to function. He also forbids a solar watch. [ Rabbi Moncharsh on] holds that it is forbidden to wear an electric automatic watch on Shabbat.</ref>
# Winding a watch that stopped on Shabbat is forbidden. <ref>Chayei Adam 114:19 writes that it is Biblically forbidden to wind a watch on Shabbat since it is metaken like Eruvin 103a which says if harp string snaps it is a melacha to fix it. The Tiferet Yisrael in Kalkelet Hashabbat no. 38 argues that it isn’t a Biblical prohibition since tying a string on the harp is assembling parts of a instrument but when winding a watch there are no parts being attached. Chazon Ish also asks this but answers that the opinion of the Chayei Adam was that creating a functional unit is considered Boneh even if it isn’t the assemblance of units in a permanent way. In conclusion some hold that winding a stopped watch is a Biblical prohibition and others hold it is only rabbinic but either way it is forbidden. That is the conclusion of the Mishna Brurah 338:15 and Yabia Omer OC 6:35.</ref>
# However, if it is still running some poskim hold that it is permitted to wind it on Shabbat, however, others hold it is forbidden.<ref>Yabia Omer 6:35 explains that it is permitted since the whole issue with winding the watch is that it is equal to fixing it but if it didn’t stop that isn’t considered fixing it to prevent it from stopping. Even though the Mishna Brurah 338:15 is strict unless there is a need for someone sick unless you can find a non-Jew. Piskei Teshuvot 338:9 cites the Daat Torah 338, Minchat Shabbat 80:240, and Darkei Chaim VShalom 419 as lenient. Teshuvot Vhanahagot 1:202 quotes that Rav Chaim Ozer was lenient. In his discussion, Yabia Omer has some interesting comparisons to discuss this halacha. He writes that it is comparable to the Nodeh Beyehuda YD 201:35 who says that you can put boards into the mikveh and that’s not a problem of having a mikveh formed with something that’s mekabel tumah since it didn’t start like that even if those boards are preventing the mikveh from becoming invalid. Similarly, the Trumat Hadeshen writes that you can preemptively fix the letters of a mezuzah so that they don’t fade too much and it isn’t considered an issue of not writing the mezuzah in order. Lastly, it is like the Eliya Rabba who says that you can soak meat that was out for three days since you’re keeping status quo and just preventing its status from becoming forbidden and that isn’t considered fixing (tikun).</ref>
# Wearing a smartwatch or fitbit on Shabbat is forbidden.<ref>[ Rabbi Rozen on] explains that even if all the observable noises and notifications that the watch makes are turned off simply wearing it is forbidden since it isn't appropriate for Shabbat.</ref>
==Setting Timers before Shabbat==
# One may set an alarm clock before [[Shabbat]] even though it will make noise on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>The [[Shabbos]] Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 2, pg 537) and Sh"t Maharshag YD 1:7(2) permit. However, Sh"t Igrot Moshe 4:70(4) only permits if it is not heard outside his personal room. See Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 28:29 (and 28:30 in new edition) who permits before [[Shabbat]] for mitzvah purposes setting a mechanical alarm clock that involves removing a pin (see there). </ref> See [[Making music on Shabbat]].
# Some forbid leaving a digital photo frame which presents a slideshow of pictures set from before [[Shabbat]] to continue during [[Shabbat]]. <ref>[ Rav Hershel Schachter] (OU Kosher Webcast, 2011, min 16-8) </ref>
# It is forbidden to leave a bread machine on a delayed start timer to bake fresh bread on Shabbat because even if one does so the bread will be muktzeh.<ref>Divrei Dovid 4:21 explains that fresh bread cooked on Shabbat is muktzeh since the flour during ben hashemashot wasn't edible. He explains that it isn't considered gamru biyadey adam since 1) Since it wasn't baked before Shabbat it is considered like it was totally rejected (dachinhu byadayim). 2) It didn't start during ben hashemashot. 3) Nolad is more serious than other muktzeh.</ref>
==Sending Email on Friday==
* Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] vol 1 pg 188, Yabia Omer OC 2:17) agrees that one can make a bracha on it but emphasizes that it's a last option and that preferably one should have a designation that the bulb is for [[Shabbat]] candles.
* Rav Shlomo Zalman (Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata (ch. 43 fnt. 22) held that using an electric bulb plugged into the wall is questionable since the fuel to keep it lit on Shabbat wasn't present at the time of the lighting. Rav Moshe Feinstein (quoted by Rabbi Tendler in Moreshet Moshe v. 2 p. 51) agreed with this concern.</ref> This is because the light bulbs essentially accomplish the role<ref>Tosfot [[Shabbat]] 25b</ref> that the traditional [[Shabbat]] candles are intended to serve.<ref>There are two reasons why we light [[Shabbat]] candles. The first is for “Oneg [[Shabbat]]” which requires that the home be illuminated Friday night in order that people not stumble in the dark. The second reason is for “Kavod [[Shabbat]]” which calls for plentiful lighting in honor of [[Shabbat]], as was the custom upon receiving a distinguished guest. </ref> The electric lights actually become the [[Shabbat]] candles and one will discharge one's [[Shabbat]] candle lighting obligations with them. While such an approach should never be relied upon in normal circumstances, it is permissible in extenuating ones. Some authorities suggest that when making use of electric lights for one's [[Shabbat]] candles the accompanying blessing should be omitted.<ref>Shraga Hameir 5:11. see also The Radiance of [[Shabbos]] (p. 12) who quotes Rav Moshe Feinstein as saying that one should not recite a bracha on an electric light. </ref>
# If one is forced to use the electric lights in one's home as the [[Shabbat]] candles they should be shut off momentarily and then turned back on in order for them to now be designated as the [[Shabbat]] "candles".<ref>Teshuvot V’hanhagot 2:157</ref> Indeed, every week before the lady of the house lights her [[Shabbat]] candles, she should momentarily turn off the household lights and then turn on them back on. When she makes her blessing over the candles she should have in mind that her blessing include the electric lights as well which will also be providing light over the course of [[Shabbat]].<ref>Az Nidberu 1:79, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kehilchata 43:N171 </ref> Those who are forced to use the electric lights instead of candles should endeavor to turn on even those lights which are not normally used in order for there to be some distinction that the electric lights are in honor of [[Shabbat]].<ref>Tzitz Eliezer 1:20</ref> Even a desktop light could be used for this purpose. Some say that this only includes incandescent bulbs and not fluorescent.<Ref>Rav Hershel Schachter (“Lighting [[Shabbos]] Candles,” min 36-7) holds that while one may light an incandescent bulb with a bracha, one may not light a fluorescent or neon bulb with a bracha. This opinion is repeated in [ this shiur on]. [ Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Parshat Chukat 5778 min 38)] held that any light even a florescent or LED light is effective for Shabbat candles. [ Rabbi Mordechai Willig (Halachipedia Article 5773 n. 4)] agrees.</ref>
# The issues are essentially the same with regards to [[Havdala]] and one may use an electric light in place of a [[Havdala]] candle in a time of need.<ref>Shaarim Metzuyanim Behalachah 96:6, Az Nidberu 8:2, Rivevot Ephraim 3:599</ref> In fact, it is reported that Rabbi Chaim Ozer Grodzinsky would always use an electric bulb for [[Havdala]] in order to demonstrate how strongly he felt that electricity is to be treated exactly like fire from the perspective of halacha.<ref>Shaarim Metzuyanim Behalachah 96:6. Nefesh Harav pg. 156</ref> Nevertheless, there are those authorities who discourage the use of an electric light for [[Havdala]]. Among their opposition to it is the fact that the blessing recited upon the [[Havdala]] candle includes the word "fire" which seems to imply the need for actual fire, not merely light. As such a light bulb would not be acceptable according to this view.<ref>Har Tzvi 2:114</ref> Even among the authorities who permit the use of electric lighting when needed many would disqualify the use of fluorescent bulbs as they work differently than standard light bulbs.<ref>Hachashmal L’or Hahalacha 3:88 </ref>
# Screen: Turning the screen on and off is similar to turning a regular light on and off - this can be an issur derabanon of making a fire (Mavir) according to some Poiskim. <ref>See Rabbi Shmuel Eliyahu in [ a shiur on] about using tablets on Shabbat for the Magen Dovid Adom and doctors in hospitals. He takes for granted that writing on tablets is forbidden for regular use but discusses its use for doctors.</ref>
# Charging: When you plug the wall charger into or out of the phone constitutes a violation of creating or breaking a circuit which is forbidden.<Ref>See above.</ref>
==Communication on Shabbat==
# It is forbidden to initiate a phone call on Shabbat.<ref>See [[#Phones]] above.</ref>
# Pressing a button on a phone on Shabbat is forbidden.<ref>See [[#Phones]] above.</ref>
# Similarly, even if a phone call is already placed and in process it is forbidden to speak into the phone on Shabbat.<ref>See [[#Phones]] above.</ref>
# It is forbidden to read text messages on Shabbat.<ref>Aseh Lecha Rav 1:35:4</ref>
# It is forbidden to send text messages on Shabbat.<ref>See [[#Phones]] and [[#The Shabbos App]]. Aseh Lecha Rav 1:35:4</ref>
# It is forbidden to watch TV on Shabbat.<ref>
* Aseh Lecha Rav 1:35 writes that it is forbidden to have a Television on during Shabbat even with a timer. He offers several reasons. 1) There's a marit ayin that you turned it on during Shabbat. 2) Listening to music on Shabbat is forbidden even if was set up before Shabbat lest a person come to fix the instrument (Aruch Hashulchan 338:5). 3) Avsha Milta and Uvda Dchol: Causing a noise to occur as a result of a melacha that happens automatically is forbidden as it desecrates Shabbat (Rama 252:5). 4) Daber Daver: It is forbidden to speak or listen to mundane words on Shabbat (Gemara Shabbat 113a, Shulchan Aruch 307:1).
* [ Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Parshat Chukat 5778 end)] explained that he never wrote that it is completely forbidden for a Sephardi to watch TV on Shabbat because Shulchan Aruch doesn't subscribe to the prohibition of Avsha Milta. However, he wrote that it is inappropriate and is forbidden because of the "fifth Shulchan Aruch," as he termed it, policies of the Gedolei Hador.</ref>
==The Shabbos App==
<font color=red>The Shabbos App was an idea of a smartphone app that would be permitted to use on Shabbos based on Grama and other factors. In reality it doesn''This piece is t exist but in the process of being written since many details about poskim explained why the app are undisclosedidea wasn't viable.''</font> Also, see the [[Talk:Electricity_on_Shabbat| discussion page]].* ''Rabbinic Approval'': Firstly, let us point out that they don't present any rabbinic approbations.<ref> As of 10/3/14 the [ Shabbat App site] does not have any rabbinic approvals.</ref> Saying it is muter before actually getting any approval is a big chutzpa to Orthodox Judaism which takes the rabbinic opinions very seriously. The rebellious elder who is unfit to legislate isn't considered "zaken mamreh" since he has no credibility, yet his audacity and disrespect to the rabbis is greater than the person who is fit to legislate and rebels.<ref>See [ Rabbi Hershel Schachter's letter] regarding women wearing Tefillin</ref>* ''[[Grama]]'': Having the app respond randomly in a delayed fashion is not permitted because of grama: 1) The grama is completely illusionary - immediately upon touching it sends signals to the phone and randomly it'll decide to respond, that's not grama at all. Internally, the input receivers and programming callbacks are triggered when the [ "soft keys"] are pressed. Immediately, those signals and processes go into motion even though you might not see any visible result.<ref>[ Rabbi Michael Siev] and [ Rabbi Yitzchak Rosen] from tzomet present this argument against the Shabbos App; the process is set in motion immediately even if the response is delayed. See details about touchscreen technology on [ wikipedia].</ref> 2) The entire idea of defining grama as a delay is very questionable. Rav Soloveitchik<ref>cited by Rav Schachter in Bikvei HaTzoan Siman 7</ref> holds that grama is only when something is completely disconnected physically and temporally from the initial action. However, if a delayed result is the product of a series of a chain reaction or a process, that is all considered your original action. Accordingly, this would be forbidden.<ref>See [ Rabbi Yitzchak Adlerstein's] argument against the Shabbos App which is similar to this approach in not defining grama as a delayed reaction. </ref> 3) Even if it is actually considered grama, grama is forbidden according to the Rama 334:22.
* ''Eino Kayama'': Having the data erased hourly is not a reason to permit writing on smartphone. 1) Writing in a non-permanent fashion is still asur m'derabbanan.<ref>Mishna (Shabbat 104b), Rambam (Shabbat 11:15), Shulchan Aruch 340:4</ref> 2) It is not temporary - anything which lasts as long as you need it to last even if it is erased afterwards isn't temporary.<ref>Rav Hershel Schachter ([,_Koseiv Gemara Shabbat Shiur #28 (min 32-3)]) explained that every writing in the world is temporary. Rather the Mishna considers anything that doesn't last as long as a person would normally need it for to be temporary. However, a camera system which is deleted after some time is considered permanent since it serves the intended purpose by being recorded and kept for as long as it is was necessary. He added that this is reasonable since this is how the industry makes such camera's and doesn't consider the recording to be flawed in that it doesn't last forever.</ref> 3) The quality of the writing is permanent. Even though when you write it you know that you'll erase it soon or you set up a system which will erase it soon, the writing in it of itself is permanent if not erased afterwards.<ref>Avnei Nezer OC 180</ref>
* ''Zilzul Shabbat'': The Gemara Sanhedrin 46a describes a case in which the supreme court in Yerushalayim condemned a person who rode a horse on Shabbat. Even though technically, riding a horse on Shabbat is only a rabbinic prohibition, it is considered a serious infraction upon the sanctity of Shabbat.<ref>Rambam (Sanhedrin 24:4) codifies this.</ref> According to Rav Moshe and many gedolim this would be considered zilzul Shabbat.<ref>Igrot Moshe OC 4:60</ref> The burden of proof is upon the one trying to deviate from the standard practice to show that this isn't zilzul.<ref>Mishna (Bava Kama 76a)</ref>* Bottom line - a person should not use this app on Shabbat.<ref>[ The Jewish Week] cites Rabbi Moshe Elefant (from the OU) as considering the Shabbos App to be "very distasteful and not permissible on Shabbos.” [ Rabbi Michael Siev] from Yeshivat Lev HaTorah explained how that the App is halachically problematic. Besides the issues above, he adds that the display changing is an issue.</ref> If someone wants to become non-Orthodox (and keep half-shabbos) they're don't need to ask anyone's permission or pervert halacha to do so, but please don't pretend that this is actually Orthodox. <ref>Rav Hershel Schachter (shiur on yutorah 10/3/14) merely mentioned the Shabbos App as a "chiddush" of our generation in a joking manner. He didn't go into any detail as he explained the he didn't know of its details.</ref>
==Electric Sensors==

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