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Kashering the Kitchen for Pesach

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When preparing the kitchen for Pesach Klal Yisrael are very careful to meticulously clean for Pesach and kosher the kitchen. In the process, the pots, pans, plates, silverware, ovens, and other utensils that were used for chametz need to be koshered if they are to be used for Pesach. The rishonim debate whether according to the strict law, the laws of kosher for pesach mimic those of koshering a kitchen from non-kosher or are more lenient.<ref>The Rishonim argue whether the absorption of chametz is considered a permitted absorption and as such it is sufficient to kosher with hagalah, or it is like a forbidden absorption and needs libun if the utensil was used on the fire. Ramban Avoda Zara 76a, Rashba Avoda Zara 76a, Meiri Pesachim 30b all hold that chametz is considered a forbidden absorption. The Ran Pesachim 8b explains that this is the case since the title of chametz is relevant all year even though it is only forbidden on Pesach. Bet Yosef 451:4 explains that this is the opinion of the Rif and Rosh. However, the Rambam (according to Maggid Mishna 5:23), Hagahot Maimoniyot Chametz 5:23:1, Rashi and Raavad cited by Ran Pesachim 30b all hold that chametz is considered a permitted absorption. Shulchan Aruch 451 assumes that it is a forbidden absorption but in 452:1 he seems to contradict himself. See Biur Halacha there.</ref>
==Which materials can be kashered?==
# It is possible kasher wooden, metal, or stone utensils. It is impossible to kasher earthenware utensils. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 116:1-2</ref>
# Hagalah includes cleaning the pot well from all Chametz, then immersing it in (boiling) hot water in a pot that’s on the fire (or an electric heating source) or a pot that was just removed from the fire. <ref>Chazon Ovadyah (pg 136) </ref>
# The minhag is to wash the utensils in cold water after performing Hagalah. <ref>Kitzur S”A 116:17</ref>
# If one is koshering utensils before the beginning of the fifth hour on Erev Pesach one can do hagalah with the following leniencies:
## even with pots that were used within 24 hours.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 452:1</ref>
## to ensure that there's sixty times the utensil in the water.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 452:1</ref>
## one can do hagalah on multiple utensils at the same time.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 452:1, Mishna Brurah 432:3</ref>
## the pot used for hagalah doesn't need to be koshered itself.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 452:1</ref>
# The minhag is to be strict even when koshering before the fifth hour to only kosher utensils that weren't used within 24 hours.<ref>Magen Avraham 452:6, Mishna Brurah 452:13</ref>
# If one is do hagalah after the fourth hour needs to be careful only to kosher a utensil that wasn't used within 24 hours or to have sixty times the utensil in the water. Some add that if is doing hagalah after the sixth hour they need to be careful about both conditions.<ref>Mishna Brurah 452:13</ref>
# Some say that it is critical to make sure to have the utensils to be not used within 24 hours before doing hagalah or to have sixty times the utensil in the water even when doing hagalah prior to the fifth hour.<ref>Mishna Brurah 452:13 quotes some achronim who are concerned for the opinions of isura baala.</ref>
# If a utensil is used over the fire a majority of its uses such as the oven racks it is cleansed through making it red hot. <Ref>Chazon Ovadyah (pg 124) </ref>
# Grills and skewers need Libun since it probably touched meat that was mixed with Chametz and should be heated until it sparks. <Ref>Chazon Ovadyah (pg 126) </ref>
# An electric or gas oven should be cleaned from all specks of Chametz and left 24 hours unused. If it has a self-cleaning mode, it should be put on self-clean and that is sufficient.<ref>Rabbi Jachter (Gray Matter vol. 2, p. 221) quoting Rabbi Elazar Teitz, [ CRC Pesach Guide 2016 (p. 19)], Yesodei Yeshurun v. 6 p. 156-160, OU Pesach Guide 2016 p. 24, Halachos of Pesach by Rabbi Ribiat p. 354.</ref> However, if it doesn't have self-clean, many hold that the oven can be heated to the highest temperature it reaches for one hour or two and that is sufficient. <Ref>Rav Ovadia Yosef (Chazon Ovadyah pg 73, Sh”t Yechave Daat 2:63), Rav Aharon Kotler (quoted by Rabbi Eider in Halachos of Pesach 1:180), and Rav Soloveitchik (quoted by Gray Matter vol. 2, p. 219) hold that conventional ovens which don't have a self-cleaning setting can be koshered by raising them to the highest temperature that they can reach for an hour or two. Chut Shani Pesach 10:2 writes that the minhag isn't to kosher such an oven but after the fact the koshering is effective.
* Rav Ovadia Yosef explains that according to many rishonim chametz is considered something which is permitted that was absorbed in a utensil that only becomes forbidden over time and as such even items which normally would require libun can suffice with hagalah. Even though Shulchan Aruch O.C. 451:4 holds like the rishonim who hold that chametz is considered like a forbdiden taste all year since on Pesach it will be forbidden and as such libun is necessary on utensils used over the fire, nonetheless, for utensils which can't be koshered any other way and it is difficult not to use the oven all of Pesach, one can rely on the lenient opinion. See Rav Ovadia's responsa for his lengthy explanation.
* Rabbi Soloveitchik offered another reason to be lenient. Since chametz only got absorbed through a certain temperature, those absorptions can be removed in the same way that they went in, which is certainly less than the maximum temperature that the oven can reach. This seems to be at odds with the Pri Megadim E"A 451:30 who holds that libun needs to be a certain temperature to burn out the forbidden tastes, but it is supported by the Arugot Bosem 119. Igrot Moshe YD 1:60 s.v. aval and Or Letzion 3:10:2 agree with Pri Megadim.
* [ CRC Pesach Guide 2016 (p. 19)] writes that for non-self cleaning ovens one should heat it to the highest temperature it could reach for one hour after waiting 24 hours. Additionally, the racks and grates should be covered with aluminum foil perforated for air circulation and no food should touch the side bottom or top of the oven on Pesach.</ref> Some hold that ovens which don't have a self-clean setting can't be koshered for Pesach.<ref>Rav Jachter (Gray Matter vol. 2, p. 218) and OU Pesach Guide 2016 p. 26 quoting Rav Mohe Feinstein.* Rav Aharon Felder (Yesodei Yeshurun v. 6 p. 158) writes that even though the oven walls only absorb taste through steam since we're concerned that they absorb taste from something solid spilling on it, it needs libun. Ashkenazim can't follow the majority of uses (Rama 451:6). * However, the Or Letzion is concerned even though the absorption is through steam. One proof of the Or Letzion is Shulchan Aruch 451:15 which is a cover of chametz foods on the fire requires libun. One of the reasons of the Tur and Magen Avraham 451:30 because of the steam and the same is relevant to ovens.</ref> Some hold Minchat Shlomo 2:51 writes that ovens which don't have a self-clean setting even steam can't be koshered with hagalah and the reason that the Shulchan Aruch 451:15 required libun for Pesach.<ref>Rav Jachter (Gray Matter volthe cover of chametz is because it is a close cover. 2, p. 218) and OU Pesach Guide 2016 p. 26 quoting Rav Mohe Feinstein</ref> In practice, one should consult one's rabbi.<ref>Rabbi Ribiat in Halachos of Pesach p. 354 cites both opinions and advises being strict not to use an oven that doesn't have a self-clean option or to get an oven insert.</ref># Racks of electric ovens should be cleansed with Libun and if one does it with Hagalah according to Sephardim one has to what to rely on. <Ref>Chazon Ovadyah (pg 132-4) </ref>For a detailed discussion of the halachic issues of koshering an oven for Pesach see the [[Koshering an Oven for Pesach]] page.
* Kaf HaChaim 451:233 notes that wooden tables which one always eats on with a tablecloth don’t need to be kashered and one should simply remove the actual chametz and wipe down the surface. Rav Mordechai Willig (“Shiur 64 – Pesachim” min 80-82) says that strictly speaking this is also true for countertops on which people don’t put chametz directly. Rav Hershel Schachter [ (OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5769, min 11-13)] adds that one could either kasher the counters or cover them, but if one isn’t going to put any hot food on the counters on [[Pesach]] one could simply clean the counters well.
* Thus, Rav Moshe Feinstein (quoted by Halachos of [[Pesach]] p. 140) maintains that one should not kasher Formica countertops, which are made out of hardened plastic, rather these should be washed and covered.</ref>
# One should kosher one's table by pouring on it boiling water or cover it.<ref>Shulchan Aruch OC 451:20 writes that one should kosher one's tables since often one spills soup on it. Isn't the majority of use of a table for cold?
* Rav Yitzchak Yosef Marechet Hashulchan v. 2 p. 310 answers that really this is a chumra and that's why the language of Shulchan Aruch is that it is something people usually did but not that it is necessary.
* Megilat Sefer Tarovet p. 271-2 writes that the majority use is defined by whatever the utensil is designated for and potentially it could be designated for multiple uses. Regarding tables since the spills happen because you are using the table to hold food that is also part of the use of the table. Binat Tzvi p. 78 and Rav Azriel Auerbach in Bnetivot Hahalacha 342:292 agree that spills are including in the majority use since they come because of the regular use.
* Chut Shani Pesach p. 125-6 based on Gra answers that it is a utensil that is designated to be used for iruy. The fact that is used for cold doesn't relate to the use of spills since when it is used for cold or to hold a plate it doesn't absorb anything. Therefore, its use in terms of absorptions is only for spills and as such its majority of use requires it to have hagalah with iruy. However, he is troubled by Shulchan Aruch 451:25 who says that cups can just be cleaned since they are used for a majority of cold. He simply posits that if they were ever used for hot they couldn't be used without koshering.
* Darkei Chachma 74:3 has another theory. Since spills aren't part of the use of the table they can't be judged as part of the majority or minority use.
# Frying pans which one uses with a little oil should be cleansed koshered with Libun <ref>Shulchan Aruch Y.D. 121:4 writes that a frying pan can be koshered with hagalah for Pesach. He repeats this in 451:11. Also, Shach YD 121:8 is lenient to allow hagalah for a frying pan for Pesach and cites the Rama Mpano 96 to support this. Although in YD the Rama doesn't comment, in O.C. 451:11 he quote some rishonim who require libun. He concludes that there's a minhag to do libun but the strict halacha is that hagalah is enough. Biur Halacha 451:11 s.v. muteret defends the position of the majority of rishonim that hagalah is sufficient and concludes that after the fact certainly hagalah works. * The Rosh Pesachim 3:7 quotes a dispute between the Raavan and his grandson the Ravyah whether a frying pan needs hagalah or libun. The Ravyah held hagalah since it is used with oil and quotes the Tosefta Avoda Zara 9:2 to this effect. The Rosh, Mordechai Pesachim 577, Hagahot Maimoniyot 5:23:1, and Tur 451:11 accept the Ravyah. [ Rashba Torat Habayit 35a] held like the Raavan that libun is necessary.</ref> but according to Sephardim one has what to rely on to cleanse kosher it with Hagalah. <Ref>Yechave Daat 1:7 , Chazon Ovadyah (pg 134) </ref> # However, frying pans used without any oil need libun.<ref>Bet Yosef 451:11</ref># Pans used to bake cakes with a little oil should not be used on [[Pesach]] because doing Libun on it will break it and but still according to Sephardim one has what to rely on to do Hagalah. <Ref>Yechave Daat 1:7, Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 451:13) </ref>
# If a liquid mixture absorbed chametz and it was nullified one in sixty it is still forbidden since chametz makes something forbidden in any amount. Even if a bit of that mixture then mixes into another liquid mixture that second mixture is completely forbidden.<ref>Taz YD 92:16 explains that even though we generally don't have two mixtures made forbidden in any amount (תרי משהוין לא אמרינן) for liquid mixtures even the second one is forbidden since part of the first mixture is mixed into the second one. Nekudat Hakesef agrees. Mishna Brurah 467:38 codifies this.</ref>
# If a food absorbed a taste of chametz on Pesach and there was sixty times the volume of the chametz in the permitted food, the whole piece is forbidden. If that piece was cooked with other pieces, according to some poskim, if there's sixty times that original piece it wouldn't render them forbidden. According to most other poskim all of them are forbidden.<ref>Taz 92:16 is lenient since the first piece was only forbidden in a minuscule amount it wouldn't render the cooked mixture forbidden (תרי משהוין לא אמרינן). Dirshu quotes two reasons for the Taz. Either the minuscule amount in the first piece physically can't come out (Rabbi Akiva Eiger 92:3, Pri Megadim YD 92:16) or there's halachically not enough strength in a minuscule amount to forbid the second mixture (Yad Yehuda 92:17, Chazon Ish 34:1). Shach in Nenukdat Hakesef YD 92 argues. Birkei Yosef 447:1 and Mekor Chaim 447:17 are strict.</ref>
==Noten Taam Lifgam==
# If someone cooks kosher for Pesach food in a Chametz pot that wasn't used within 24 hours, according to Sephardim is permitted, while according to Ashkenazim is forbidden.<ref>Shulchan Aruch OC 447:10 holds noten taam lifgam on pesach is permitted, while the Rama argues. Ravyah 2:464 s.v. upeliya holds that noten taam lifgam is forbidden for chametz.</ref>
===Chametz on Erev Pesach===
# Chametz on the Erev Pesach if it is a solid mixture it is nullified one in two and if it is a liquid mixture it is nullified one in sixty.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 447:2, Mishna Brurah 447:93. However, Shach YD 92 in Nekudat Hakesef argues that chametz on Erev Pesach isn't nullified at all since it is a dvar sheyesh lo matirin like the Rambam.</ref>

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