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The Purification Process of Niddah

178 bytes added, 16 October
Bedikot
* The Rosh (Niddah 10:5) writes that a woman should do a bedika each day of the shiva nekiyim lechatchila. This is also the opinion of the Rashba ([http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=8922&st=&pgnum=385 Torat Habayit 24a]) and Ramban (Hilchot Niddah 9:23).
* The Mordechai (Niddah no. 737) quoting the Roke’ach (317 s.v. boel) as saying that the women should do a bedika twice a day. The Bet Yosef adds that it seems to be against many rishonim who hold once a day is sufficient. Nonetheless, S”A 196:4 writes that one should check daily twice a day.</ref> For a woman for whom checking twice a day is likely to cause her to see blood because of a wound may check only once on day one and once on day seven. A woman should only do so after checking with a rabbi.<ref>Taharat Habayit v. 2 p. 301 is lenient to allow a woman to only check on day one and seven once if that might cause her to see blood because of a wound on a ketem.</ref>
# After the fact, if a woman checked on days 1 and 7 twice a day, the woman may go to the mikveh the night of the 7th. In general if she missed bedikot she should consult a rabbi.<ref>The Tenayim in the Mishna Niddah 68b argue if a woman only checked days 1 and 7 if that works, Rabbi Eliezer says it does, Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Akiva hold that it doesn’t. Rav and Rabbi Chanina in 69a argue whether according to Rabbi Eliezer after the fact if it is enough to just check day 1 or 7 or both are necessary. The Rambam (Isurei Biyah 6:22), Rosh (Niddah 10:5) , and Rashba ([http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=8922&st=&pgnum=385 Torat Habayit 24a]) rule like Rav that after the fact day 1 or day 7 works. However, the Smag (Lavin 111 s.v. halacha lmaaseh) writes that one should be strict for Rabbi Chanina that since it isn't clear who the halacha follows and even after the fact day 1 and 7 is necessary. He concludes that there shouldn't be more than 5 days between bedikot. The Shulchan Aruch writes that one should be strict for the Smag.
* If she only checked one day one or seven, even though Shulchan Aruch 196:4 is strict even after the fact, Taharat Habayit v. 2 p. 311 writes that in an extenuating circumstance one could be lenient. See further Aruch Hashulchan 196:25-6.</ref>
# After the fact, if a woman only checked once a day and not twice a day, some poskim hold that is sufficient.<ref>Sidrei Tahara 196:16. Rav Mordechai Willig (Am Mordechai on Shulchan Aruch p. 125) and in [http://www.yutorah.org/sidebar/lecture.cfm/863353/rabbi-mordechai-i-willig/niddah-shiur-13-shivah-nekiim-continued-/ a shiur on yutorah.org (Niddah Shiur 13, min 40-50)] is even lenient initially to avoid a woman causing herself to bleed unnecessarily and also because of how difficult it often is to check before nighttime. He added that if one wanted to be strict one should check the 1st and 7th day twice. Also, the one bedika should be done in the morning.</ref>
# A woman who wants to perform more bedikot than are necessary whether she is in her shiva nekiyim or is tahor is praiseworthy.<ref>Mishna Niddah 13a, Shulchan Aruch YD 196:9</ref> However, if she has a bruise in that area and might bleed, she should not perform extra bedikot. Additionally, she should not perform extra bedikot before and after tashmish as described elsewhere. <Ref>Badei Hashulchan 196:132-3, Taharat Habayit v. 2 p. 370</ref>
# Ashkenazim are strict about how to treat a ketem (stain) during the first three days of shiva nekiyim, whereas in the last 4 days sometimes a ketem is tahor because we assume that it came from something else. However, a ketem that’s a k’gris or smaller is tahor even in the first three days of shiva nekiyim.<ref>Rama 196:10</ref> If a woman has a bruise in that area that is actively bleeding and stained during the first three days of shiva nekiyim needs to consult a posek.<ref>Rama 196:10 is lenient, but the Shach argues. Badei Hashulchan 196:146 is strict unless this bruise will bleed for a long time.</ref> Sephardim treat the ketem the same during the first 3 days as the last 4 days.<ref>Shulchan Aruch YD 196:10, Taharat Habayit v. 2 p. 372)</ref>
 
===Materials===
# It is ideal to use a soft white cotton, wool, or linen cloth for a bedika or hefsek tahara.<ref>Taharat Habayit v. 2 p. 338</ref> After the fact some other materials could be acceptable but one should consult their Orthodox rabbi.<ref>Taharat Habayit v. 2 p. 344 quotes those who are lenient (see Badei Hashulchan 97) to allow a bedika with a thick napkin that for example could be used to clean up a spill.</ref>

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