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The four cups of wine

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Amount to Drink
There is a Rabbinic mitzvah to drink four cups of wine at [[the Seder]]. <ref> Chazon Ovadia ([[pesach ]] page 1). However, Rav Shlomo Kluger in Sh"t Kinat Sofrim 95 holds that the obligation of the four cups of wine is from the Torah. </ref> ==Amount to Drink==# See the [[Required Amount of Matzah and Wine for the Seder]] page.
==What type of wine==
# It's preferable to use red wine. <ref> S"A Shulchan Aruch 472:11. Mishna Berura Brurah (472:38 says ) explains that this the idea of having red wine either reflects the verse “Do not look at wine when it is red” (Mishlei 23:31) or serves as a symbol to remember Pharaoh slaughtering the babies of Bnei Yisrael and bathing in commemoration of the Jewish their blood that was spilled in Mitzrayim. </ref> If there's white wine that's better than the red wine, Ashenazim say that one should have the white wine, while Sephardic practice is to have red wine anyway. <Ref> Rama 472:11 writes that if the white wine is better one can have that instead of the red wine. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 118:1 concurs. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 118:1 adds that in countries where there is a fear of a blood libel, the minhag is not to use red wine. However, Chazon Ovadyah ([[Pesach ]] vol 2 pg 11) writes that the Sephardic custom is to use red wine anyway. Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (cited by Mikrei Kodesh (4:15, n. 52) says that the "tirosh" grape juice in [[Israel]] that has a yellowish color is considered red wine in this regard.</ref> There is a dispute if it is permissible to mix red wine into white wine to color it. <ref> Mishna Brurah (320:56) cites a dispute whether it is permissible to mix red wine into white wine to color it or one should avoid this. </ref> # If one hates wine or if it gives him a headache (but not if it's going to make him sick in bed), nonetheless, he should try to have the wine to fulfill the mitzvah of [[the four cups of wine]]. <ref> Shulchan Aruch 472:10 says that even if one hates wine or it is harmful to his health one should push himself to have the wine to fulfill the mitzvah. Mishna Brurah 472:35 explains that one only has to have it if it gives one a headache but not if makes one sick in bed. Is the case where it is difficult for him to have wine an obligation to have it anyway or is it just the proper practice? Chazon Ovadia v.1 p. 53 discusses this and entertains the possibility that it is just a middah chasidut. However, the Orchot Chaim (Hilchot Leil Seder n. 5) holds that it is an obligation. Aruch Hashulchan 472:14 holds like the Orchot Chaim. </ref># If there are no options and having wine or grape juice would make a person sick in bed he is exempt from drinking the four cups. <ref>Chazon Ovadia 1:4, Mishna Brurah 472:35, Aruch Hashulchan 472:14</ref># Many authorities say that one may not use grape juice for [[the Seder]], however, if one hates wine or will become ill, then there's is what to rely on to have grape juice. <ref> Mikrei Kodesh 2:35 (pg 130), Sh"t Chazon Ovadyah (in the note on pg 99-100), Halachos of [[Pesach]] (chapter 20, Sec B 5, pg 222) quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein rule that one doesn't fulfill חירות- having wine as a free man by having grape juice. However, Halachos of [[Pesach]] concludes that if one is unable to have wine one should have grape juice. Teshuvot Vihanhagot 2:243 writes that the Chazon Ish, Brisker Rav, and other Gedolim used grape juice at the end of their lives when they were unable to drink wine. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach and the Chazon Ish held that one could use grape juice (Haggadah of Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach). </ref> Others, however, permit having grape juice and adds that lechatchila women and children can use grape juice. <ref> Sh"t Mishneh Halachot 10:87, Nefesh HaRav pg (p. 185 ) in name of Rav Soloveitchik </ref>===Diluting Wine===# Rav Heinemann holds that one may dilute wine with grape juice or water down to the point where the wine will be 4% alcohol.<ref></ref>
==Making Brachat Birchat HaGafen==# The Ashkenazi minhag is to make HaGen HaGafen on each cup of wine and a [[Bracha Achrona ]] only on the last one. <Ref>Rama 474:1 </ref> # The Sephardi minhag is to make HaGen HaGefen on the first and third cup of wine and a [[Bracha Achrona ]] only on the last one. <Ref>S”A 474:1 </ref># There’s no [[Bracha Achrona ]] on the first cup even if one knows that one will take longer than Shuir Shiur Ikul in explaining the Haggadah. <Ref>Halichot Shlomo 9:24 </ref>
==Drinking at other times in the seder==# One may drink wine in between the first , second, and third cups of wine but not between the third and fourth cups. <ref> The Mishna (Pesachim 117b) states that it is permitted to drink wine between the 4 cups of wine, except between the third and fourth cups. The Rashbam (108a s.v. Bein Shelishi) explains that one may drink wine between the first, second , and third cups because it serves as an appetizer for the [[Matzah]]. However, after [[Birkat HaMazon]], when there’s no more need to eat [[Matzah]], drinking an extra cup==appears as though one is adding on to the established 4 cups of wine. See Reshimot [[Shiurim]] ([[Sukkah]] p. 139) for an explanation of why it only appears as adding but does not violate Bal Tosif.* The Yerushalmi (Pesachim 10:6), however, explains that one should not drink between the third and fourth cups so as not to get drunk, which would prevent a person from saying [[Hallel]]. Drinking between the earlier cups is not an issue because during a meal, wine is not as intoxicating.* Rambam (Chametz U'[[Matza]] 7:10), Tur, and S”A 473:3 and 479:1 codify the Mishna. Mishna Brurah 479:5 writes that based on the Yerushalmi, one also may not drink any intoxicating drink, and as a stringency according to the Rashbam, one may not drink Chamar Medina (which is valid for the 4 cups). </ref> # One Even though one is permitted to drink between the first and second cup, however it one should be strict not to wine drink too much wine so as not to get drunk (and not be able to say the whole Haggadah). <ref> S”A Shulchan Aruch 473:3 writes that even though it’s permitted to drink but one should be careful not to drink too much wine so as not to become intoxicated and become unable to finish the Haggaddah. Darkei Moshe and Mishna Brurah 473:14 write that such is our minhag. The Baal Hameor (Pesachim 24a) contends that drinking between the first and second cup is permitted, while the Ramban (ad. loc) and Ran argue that once the second cup is poured it is forbidden to drink another cup. </ref>
# According to Ashkenazim, in order to be permitted to drink between the first and second cup one must have had in mind to drink anything that comes later or that the wine was in front of them when he made the bracha (as long one didn’t have in mind not to cover that drink) because in this case no new bracha is needed on the wine between the first and second cup. <ref> Mishna Brurah 473:13 writes that according to Ashkenazim that make a bracha on each cup of wine and making a bracha on wine unnecessarily is forbidden because it looks like one is adding to the established number of cups of the night. Therefore, if the wine was on the table as one made the bracha or one had intention to cover anything that comes later, it’s permitted to drink the cups. </ref>
# It’s totally permissible to drinks drink beverages other than wine or intoxicating beverages between the first and second cup. <ref> Mishna Brurah 473:16 </ref> ==Drinking between the second and third cup==
# It’s permissible to drink between the second and third cup. <ref> Mishna Brurah 473:12 </ref>
# After drinking the four cups, it is prohibited to drink any other beverages, besides water.<ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 119:9</ref>
==If four cups are drunk all at once==
# If all four cups are drunk at once and not dispersed throughout [[the Seder ]] in their proper place one doesn't fulfill his obligation. <ref> S"A Shulchan Aruch 472:8 </ref> ==Amount to Drink==# See the [[Required Amount of Matzah and Wine for the Seder]] page.# If someone spilled the cup before the bracha he should refill it so that it is full for the bracha. If he spilled after the bracha according to Ashkenazim he doesn't need to recite a new bracha since he can refill it with wine on the table that was in front of him and was in his mind.<ref>Kovetz Teshuvot Vpesakim Chodesh Nissan p. 72</ref> Some say that if the cup spilled one didn't fulfill the mitzvah and one needs to redo it. For example, if the cup spilled after the entire maggid he should refill it and repeat the maggid.<ref>Nefesh Harav p. 186 quoting Rav Moshe Soloveitchik as holding that the four cups were established as a way of having the haggadah recited over a cup of wine and if the wine spilled one doesn't fulfill that obligation.</ref># Everyone at the seder should pick up the cup of Birkat Hamazon during birkat hamazon.<ref>Chazon Ovadia v. 2 p. 182, Nitai Gavriel 99:9. Chazon Ovadia explains that since it is a mitzvah for everyone to drink it is considered birkat hamazon over a cup of wine for everyone.</ref> Some say that it is sufficient if the one making the zimmun picks up his cup.<ref>Chazon Ovadia citing Shiurei Tahara 80:16</ref> ==Obligation to Lean==# One must lean while drinking the four cups of wine. If for any of the cups one did not, according to Sephardim, one should drink the cup again. <ref> Shulchan Aruch 472:7, Yalkut Yosef 472:13 </ref> According to Ashkenazim, only for the second cup should one drink the cup again. <ref> Rama 472:7 writes that if one forgets to lean, he must only repeat for the first two cups. Mishna Brurah (472:21) notes that in general one should not repeat the first cup because doing so will require one to make another berakhah. Preferably, one should have in mind that one may drink in between the first and second cup and then if one drinks the first cup without leaning, one would be able to drink it again without a berakhah. </ref>
==ReferencesRelated Pages==# [[Kaddesh]]# [[Required Amount of Matzah and Wine for the Seder]]==Sources==

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