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Revision as of 02:24, 18 July 2018 by Ezralevy (I added a few halachot and sources)
The fast of Tisha B’av is to commemorate five tragedies which occurred to the Jewish nation:
- The Jews of the desert were told that they would not enter Eretz Yisrael following the sin of the spies.
- The first Bet HaMikdash was destroyed.
- The second Bet HaMikdash was destroyed.
- Beitar, a city filled with over 10,000 Jews was captured and destroyed by the Romans during the Bar Kochva rebellion.
- Turnus Rufus plowed the area of the heichal. 
This article is specifically about the fast of the ninth of Av. To learn about any of the other fast days click here.
- 1 Fasting
- 2 Who Should Fast?
- 3 Seuda Hamafseket
- 4 Brushing Teeth
- 5 Washing and Bathing
- 6 Wearing Leather
- 7 Anointing
- 8 Marital Relations
- 9 Learning on Erev Tisha BeAv
- 10 What one may learn on Tisha BeAv
- 11 Prayer
- 12 Sitting on the Floor
- 13 Saying Hello
- 14 Smoking
- 15 Mourning Practices on the Tenth of Av
- 16 When Tisha BeAv falls out on Shabbat
- 17 When Tisha BeAv falls out on Sunday
- 18 Links
- 19 Sources
- It is forbidden for all men of bar mitzvah age and women of bat mitzvah age to partake in eating or drinking on the Tisha BeAv. The fast begins at shkiat hachamah of the 8th of Av and ends at Tzet Hakochavim of the 9th of Av. 
- It is not necessary to wait until the tzet hakochavim according to Rabbeinu Tam to begin eating. 
Who Should Fast?
- A pregnant or nursing woman must fast on Tisha BeAv.If the woman has a sickness which is Choleh Shein Bo Sakana, she doesn't have to fast. Yet, in these situations one should always ask an Orthodox Rabbi to assess the situation.
- Some poskim say that if one is exempt from fasting on Tisha B'av, he need not eat in increments.  However, one should not overindulge. 
- Some have the practice to declare "“This is the Tisha B'Av meal” when they eat the seuda hamafseket. 
- If one said explicitly that he will not be eating after the seuda hamefseket, he cannot continue eating even if it is before sunset. However, if he only had that in mind but didn't say it, he may continue eating.  Since some poskim disagree, some suggest that one say explicitly that he will continue eating. 
- Three men should not eat together in order to avoid being obligated in a zimun.  If they do sit together they should still not recite the zimmun. 
- One should refrain from brushing his teeth on Tisha B'av, unless not doing so causes tremendous distress. 
- It is forbidden for one to rinse out his/her mouth on Tisha BeAv; although, if one must they may rinse out their mouth with less than a Reviit of water. 
Washing and Bathing
- It is forbidden to wash or bathe oneself in cold or hot water. Even sticking one's finger in water is forbidden.
- One should not go to the Mikveh on Tisha BeAv. 
- If one's hands got dirty one may clean the dirty area. 
- It is prohibited to wear leather shoes on Tisha B'av. 
- Even those who are more lenient on Yom Kippur and wear comfortable non leather shoes, should be more stringent on Tisha B’Av as we try to minimize comforts on Tisha B’Av as much as possible. 
- Some poskim permit wearing crocs, while others prohibit them. 
- It is prohibited to anoint oneself for pleasure on Tisha B'av. 
- Although it is forbidden to anoint oneself on Tisha B'av, one may use deodorant. 
- Women should not wear make-up on Tisha B'av 
- It is prohibited to have marital relations on Tisha B'av. 
- Some poskim say that a husband and wife should be careful not to touch each other. 
Learning on Erev Tisha BeAv
- Some Ashkenazim have the minhag not to learn after mid-day on Erev Tisha BeAv (except for the things which one can learn on Tisha BeAv itself), while others allow learning all day.  For Sephardim, it is permissible to learn the entire day of Erev Tisha BeAv. 
What one may learn on Tisha BeAv
- One should not learn Torah on Tisha BeAv whether it’s Tanach, Midrash, Mishna, Gemara, Halacha, or Aggadata because Torah brings happiness to a person.  This applies to women as well. 
- Nevertheless, the obligation to set some time in the day for learning torah still exists.  It is permissible to read Iyov, an explanation of Iyov, the sad parts of Yirmiyahu (prophesy about destruction and rebuke but not consolation or about destruction of the other nations), Midrash Eicha, an explanation of Eicha, the Gemara in the third perek of Moed Katan (which deals with the laws of mourning, excluding the happy parts),  the Gemara in Gittin and Sanhedrin which deal with the destruction of the Bet HaMikdash. 
- When learning the laws of mourning one may not go into the depth of halacha (with questions and answers). 
- One may not even think of how to answer a serious difficulty in learning because one will feel satisfied when the matter is settled. 
- It is permitted to pray the normal prayers even though it contains torah such as az yashir, eizehu mikoman, the korbanot etc. 
- Although leather is not worn, some have the custom to say the beracha in birkot hashachar of "sheasa li ko tzorki."  Some say to omit it. 
- Tachanun is not recited on Tisha B'av. 
- One may recite keriat shema al hamita on Tisha B'av
- The custom is to read the megilla of Eicha, Lamentations, on Tisha B'av.  Most recite it without a beracha.
- Even one who cannot attend shul, should read Eicha and the kinot alone. 
- Women are required to read the megilla of eicha as well. 
- According to Sephardim, one recites aneinu at night on tisha b’av. 
- On Tisha B’Av, we add in the Shemoneh Esreh a prayer for the rebuilding of Jerusalem, which begins with the word nachem. Some have the custom to insert the beracha of nachem into the beracha of tishkon bitoch yerushalayim (v'lyerushalayim ircha for ashkenazim) only during mincha.  The minhag in Yerushalayim is to recite Nachem in all the prayers of Tisha B'av. 
- If one forgot to recite nachem during the amida and only remembered after finishing, he should not go back and recite the amida again. 
- Despite the continued construction of the city of Yerushalayim, the text of Nachem may not be changed because the Makom Hamikdash is still in ruins and the spirituality of the city is still lacking 
- Some have the minhag not to put on Tefillin for Shacharit of Tisha BeAv and only put it on for Mincha 
- One who normally wears tefillin of rabbeinu tam in addition to Rashi, must do so on Tisha B'av as well 
- Tefillin are worn during mincha on Tisha B'av. 
- There is a discussion if one should recite keriat shema during mincha with tefillin. 
Sitting on the Floor
- During the evening of Tisha B'Av and the morning until chatzot (midday) sitting on a bench or chair is prohibited if it is three tefachim or higher.  One may sit on a cushion or a low bench or chair. 
- After midday, one should not sit on the floor unless he is reciting kinnot in which case he would still be permitted to sit on the floor.
- The elderly and pregnant women who have a difficult time sitting on the ground may sit on a regular chair. Since sitting on the chair for these people is not due to pleasure but rather avoiding pain. 
- Though normally one should refrain from sitting in a normal chair on Tisha B'av until midday, one who is driving may sit normally in the seat. 
- Although we sit on the floor like mourners, one must nevertheless stand for his parents or for a talmid chacham. 
- When Tisha B'Av begins on Motzaei Shabbat, the prohibition of sitting on chairs begins after nightfall, not sunset. If one is praying with a minyan and they are starting a few minutes after nightfall, one may still sit on the chairs until Arvit. 
- As part of the mourning of Tisha B'av, one should refrain from greeting others on Tisha B'av.  If someone else says hello to you, you may respond, but should do so with a lower voice and your head bent downward.
- Mazal Tov for a recent Simcha may be said on Tisha B’Av since it is considered a blessing and not a greeting . However, if at all possible, one should wait for a different day to express this Mazal Tov
- It is permitted on Tisha B’Av to wish a “Refuah Shleima” to a person who is ill.
- One should not smoke on Tisha b'av. However, if someone really needs to and it will cause them great pain if they don't then they may smoke at home in private, but shouldn't do so in public.  Regarding the permissibility of smoking in general, see Smoking
Mourning Practices on the Tenth of Av
- Some of the mourning for the beit hamikdash extends beyond tisha b'av until the tenth of av because although the fires started burning on tisha b'av, most of the burning actually took place on the tenth 
- According to Ashkenazim one may not eat meat, launder clothing, bathe, take haircuts until mid-day of the tenth of Av.  According to Sephardim one may not eat meat or drink wine until sunset of the tenth of Av  It is permitted though to shower, do laundry, or take haircuts. 
- If Tisha b'av falls out on shabbat and is pushed to Sunday everything is permitted right after the fast except for eating meat and drinking wine 
When Tisha BeAv falls out on Shabbat
- If Tisha B'av falls out on Shabbat, it is pushed off until Sunday and everything that would be forbidden on Tisha B'av is permitted on Shabbat. According to Ashkenazim, some hold that relations are forbidden on Shabbat which is Tisha B'av unless it is her tevilah night. On the other hand, according to Sepharadim, relations are permitted on Shabbat.
- If Tisha BeAv falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off to Sunday, the bracha of Boreh Meorei HaEsh upon a fire is made on Motzei Shabbat before the reading of Eicha (while Boreh Mineh/Isbeh/Atzeh Besamim is omitted), however, the bracha of Havdalah on a cup of wine is delayed until after Tisha BeAv, Sunday night.  An adult who is exempt from fasting should recite Havdalah on Motzei Shabbat before eating.
- If Tisha B'av falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off to Sunday, one may eat meat or drink wine on Monday.  According to some poskim, one may even eat meat on Sunday night.  One may, get a haircut or do laundry immediately on Sunday night. 
- If Tisha BeAv falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off until Sunday, according to Sephardim, a pregnant woman or woman who is nursing may eat on the fast day. Nonetheless, they should not eat for pleasure.
- Someone who is sick and is therefore permitted to eati on Tisha BeAv that was pushed off to Sunday must recite Havdalah with the regular procedure prior to eating. One may fulfill his/her obligation to recite Havdalah even through someone who is permitted to eat on Tisha BeAv.
- If Tisha Beav falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off to Sunday then there is a dispute among the poskim as to whether or not a boy who becomes Bar Mitzvah on the 10th of Av is required to fast.
When Tisha BeAv falls out on Sunday
- If Tisha BeAv falls out on Sunday, one doesn't say Tzidkatcha at mincha of Shabbat.
- If Tisha BeAv falls out on Sunday, one may learn Torah on Shabbat after Chatzot but it's preferable to learn the halachot of Tisha BeAv.
- Even if one forgot to recite havdala in the shemoneh esrei, he doesn't repeat it but rather recites the words baruch hamavdil bein kodesh lichol. 
- Although seudat shlishit is the seudat hamafseket before the fast, one should eat a regular meal.  The meal must be finished before sunset.  One may sit on chairs and a zimmun can be made.
- One may leave on one's leather shoes until right after Barchu at the beginning of Arvit of Motzei Shabbat. If one is taking off one's shoes after Barchu one should take them off with one's feet or by only touching the shoelaces so that one doesn't have to wash Netilat Yadayim. It's proper to have Arvit of Motzei Shabbat 30 minutes after sunset giving people time to change from their Shabbat clothing which they should do 20 minutes after sunset.
- If Tisha BeAv falls on Motzae Shabbat then "tzidkatecha tzedek" should not be recited in Mincha of Shabbat.
- Hilchos Tisha b'Av (Shoes, Washing, Tashmish, Eating etc) by Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz
- Hilchos Tisha B'av by Rabbi Mordechai Willig
- Mishna Taanit 26b, Rambam Hilchot Taaniyot 5:3, Chayei Adam 133:5, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 121:5, Mishna Brurah 549:2
- Mishna Brurah 554:1, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim p. 577), Halachot and History of The Three Weeks, The Akkad Edition, Congregation Shaare Rahamim Halachot Series.
- Tosfot (Megillah 5b s.v. vebikesh) and Ritva (Megillah 5b) imply that Tisha B'av is only derabbanan or a minhag. See, however, the Taz 554:4 who implies that it is Divrei Kabbalah, from the authority of the navi.
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 586
- Shulchan Aruch OC 554:5
- Yalkut Yosef 554 (HaChayvim VeHitanot #1)
- Sh”t Maharam Shick 289 says that just like on Yom Kippur we say that if it will not increase the danger by eating in small increments (S”A 618:7), the same applies to Tisha B’av. However, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Nishmat Avraham 4 554:1), Shevet Halevi 4:46, and Tzitz Eliezer 10:25:16 disagree and say this isn’t necessary for Tisha B’av.
- Shulchan Aruch OC 554:5, Haghot Maimaniot Hilchot Taaniyot 1:8
- The Mishna Brurah 552:16 suggests doing so based upon the practice of Rav in the Yerushalmi in Taanit 4:6
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 577, Shulchan Aruch 553:1.
- Mishna Brura 553:2 writes that the Bach and Gra hold that a mental acceptance is enough and he therefore recommends stating explicitly that one intends to eat or drink until sunset.
- Shulchan Aruch 552:8, Haghot Maimaniyot Hilchot Taaniyot 5:7:30
- Mishna Brura 552:19
- Sh"t Minchat Yitzchak 4:109, Mikraei Kodesh by Rabbi Moshe Harari 4:4, Mishna Brura 567:11
- Halachot and History of The Three Weeks, The Akkad Edition, Congregation Shaare Rahamim Halachot Series. see also Rav Shimon Eider’s Halachos of the Three Weeks pg. 19 where he suggests in the name of Rav Moshe Feinstein that on Tisha B'Av it is forbidden to wash out one's mouth because of rechitza.
- Shulchan Aruch 544:7
- Shulchan Aruch 544:8
- Shulchan Aruch 544:9
- Shulchan Aruch 554:1 and 554:16, Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 577. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 124:11, Aruch Hashulchan 554:16, Mishna Brurah 554:30 say that although shoes made of other materials cover and protect the feet, they are not called a "minal" and therefore aren't part of the prohibition.
- Halichot Shlomo (ch. 15 no. 5) quoting the Shaare Teshuva 554:11
- Rav shlomo aviner says that since crocs are comfortable shoes even though they aren’t leather some, it is better not to wear them, but whoever does has on who to rely. http://matzav.com/rav-elyashiv-crocs-not-permitted-footwear-on-tisha-bav quotes that this is the ruling of Rav Moshe Shternbuch, Rav Nissim Karelitz as well. However, it also quotes Rav Elyashiv that it Is prohibited to wear them.
- Shulchan Aruch 554:15
- Rabbi Eider (Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 22) and Rabbi Gil Student based on Biur Halachah 554:15 sv. sicha are lenient. See, however, Piskei Hahalachot (by R' Yair Yanay, 555:16) quotes Rav Elyashiv as forbidding deodorant on Tisha Be'av. [Rabbi Willig https://www.yutorah.org/sidebar/lecture.cfm/880737/rabbi-mordechai-i-willig/aveilut-shiur-26-kibus-rechisa-sicha-seudat-havrah/] is strict.
- Rav Mordachi Eliyahu quoted in Mikraei Kodesh Hilchot Tisha B’av 9:note 13
- Shulchan Aruch 554.1, Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 577.
- Mishna Brurah 554:37 raises this possibility but allows for one to be lenient at least during the day, Aruch Hashulchan 554:17 and Taz 615:16 say that one need not be stringent in this at all. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 124:12 forbids physical contact both in the day and at night. Halichot Olam 2: page 153 permits handing items to your wife as long as she isn't a nidda as well as any of the other harchakot for a nidda as long as your wife isn't actually a nidda and even permits touching your wife.
- Rama 553:2 records the custom to stop learning torah at midday of erev tisha b'av. Magen Avraham 553:7 agrees. However, Mishna Brura 553:8 and Aruch Hashulchan 553:4 challenge this custom
- Chazon Ovadyah (Arba Taniyot pg 248)
- S”A 554:1-2 based on the pasuk in tehillim 19:9 פִּקּוּדֵי ה יְשָׁרִים, מְשַׂמְּחֵי-לֵב
- Sh"t Rivivot Ephraim 2:155:14
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 580
- S”A 554:1-2, Mishna Brurah 554:2
- Mishna Brurah 554:3
- Mishna Brurah 554:4. On the other hand, Aruch Hashulchan 554:4 permits going into it deeply.
- Mishna Brurah 554:4
- Sh"t Yabia Omer YD 4:32
- Mishna Brurah 554:31, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 320), Rabbi Eli Mansour
- Halachot and History of The Three Weeks, The Akkad Edition, Congregation Shaare Rahamim Halachot Series page 62; Ben Ish Hai Vayeshev: 9; Kaf Hachaim 46:17
- Shulchan Aruch 559:4 since Tisha B'Av is considered like a moed. Mishna Brurah 559:17 points out that this is based on the pasuk in Lamentations 1:15 קָרָא עָלַי מוֹעֵד
- Rivivos Ephraim 1:380:4
- Shulchan Aruch 559:2, Masechet Sofrim 18:5, and Eicha Rabbah Parsha 3. Mishna Brurah 559:2 notes that although the prevalent tradition is read to Eicha at night, it is preferable to read Eicha privately during the daytime as well.
- Rama 490:9, Teshuvot Harama 35. Beit Yosef 559, notes that common practice is to refrain from reciting the beracha of Al Mikra Megillah on all of the megillot with the exception of Megillat Esther. Magen Avraham 490:9, rules that one should recite a beracha on the reading any of the megillot (except Kohelet). Mishna Berurah 490:19 however, sides with the opinion of Rama that one should not recite a beracha on the megillot. However, he notes that one can justify the practice of reciting a beracha if the megillah is read from parchment. Maaseh Rav 175 records that the practice of the Gra was to read all of the megillot from parchment and to recite a beracha. see See Piskei Teshuvot 559:1
- Chayei Adam 135:19; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 124:1; Mishna Berura 559:5.
- Masechet Soferim 18:5. Teshuvot Vihanhagot 2:250 says that since women are obligated in all other halachot of mourning on tisha b'av, they are also obligated halachos of aveilus of Tisha B'Av, they are also required to hear Eicha. He says that if they cannot make it to shul, they may read it on the floor in their own homes.
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 536, Rabbi Eli Mansour
- Rabbi Eli Mansour
- Sh"T Yechave Daat 1:44
- Rabbi Eli Mansour
- Sh"t Yechave Daat 1:43
- Shulchan Aruch 555:1.
- Interestingly, Maharam quoted by the Tur OC 555 and Rabbenu Yerucham quoted by the Beit Yosef 555 hold that it is forbidden to wear tefillin on Tisha B'av because mourning the loss of the beit hamikdash is greater than the usual first day of mourning over a deceased.
- However, the Rosh quoted by the Tur holds that one must wear tefillin because mourning for the beit hamikdash is not as stringent as the first day of mourning.
- Sh"t Yechave Daat 2:16 and 6:2, Halichot Olam 2: page 158
- Shulchan Aruch 555:1
- Mishna Brura 555:5 says that one should not. However, Rabbi Soloveitchik (Quoted by Rabbi Menachem Genack in Gan Shoshanim Chelek 1, 1:3) thought one should.
- Rav Shimon Eider (Halachos of The Three Weeks) pg. 24.
- M.B. 559:11
- Nitei Gavriel pg. 393
- Nitei Gavriel pg. 391
- Mikraei Kodesh by Rabbi Moshe Harari 7:48
- Rabbi Eli Mansour, Yabea Omer YD 3:27:3
- Nitei Gavriel pg. 534 and Nechamat Yisrael pg. 126
- Shulchan Aruch 554:20, Mikraei Kodesh Hilchot Tisha B’av 7:38. see also Rabbi Ari Enkin
- Mikraei Kodesh by Rabbi Moshe Harari 7:40
- Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (cited in Dirshu M.B. Beiurim and Musofim 554:63 citing Halichos Shlomo Bein HaMitzorim Vol. 15 Orchos Halacha 30)
- Chut Shani Vol. 2 p. 327
- Dirshu M.B. Beiurim and Musofim 554:63
- Sh"t Yabia Omer 1:31, Yechave Daat 5:39
- gemara Taanit 29a, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 558:1
- Rama 558:1, Mishna Brurah 558:3 based on Shu"t Maharshal 92. Under extenuating circumstances, Shemirat Shabbat Kihilchata 42:16 and Piskei Teshuvot 558:2 allow one to do laundry immediately after the first. Additionally, Sh"t Teshuvot Vihanhagot 2:260 allows one to shower if necessary right after tisha b'av
- Shulchan Aruch 558:1, Kaf HaChaim 558:10, Shaare Teshuva 558:2.
- Halachot and History of The Three Weeks, The Akkad Edition, Congregation Shaare Rahamim Halachot Series page 66, Sh"t Yechave Daat 5:41. However, it is important to note that the Kaf HaChaim 558:6 quotes the stringent opinion without arguing. This opinion is cited by HaRav Mordechai Eliyahu in Hilchot Chagim 29:3. See also Peninei Halakha especially footnote 1 who makes the same observation that even among Sephardic poskim there are many different opinions.
- Rama OC 558:1. Mishna Brurah 558:3 and Kaf Hachaim OC 558:7 add that some refrain from marital relations on that night unless it is the night of tevila
- S”A 554:19, Kaf HaChaim 554:86, Yalkut Yosef 556:1
- Rama 554:19. Mishna Brurah 554:40 writes that one can rely on the achronim who hold it is permitted if it is her tevilah night.
- Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur S"A, Volume 2, 556:1
- Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur S"A, Volume 2, 556:6.
- Shulchan Aruch 556:1. Mishna Brurah 556:3 adds that an adult can drink this wine. Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur S"A, Volume 2, 556:8, Yabia Omer, Volume 6, 48:13.
- Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com quoting Yechave Daat 3:40, Birkei Yosef OC 556:2. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 62:45 writes that Birkei Yosef's ruling only applies to adults who are too ill to fast but a child should not recite havdala himself then, but should wait until after tisha b'av.
- Rama 558:1, Halachos of the Three Weeks page 32.
- Although the Rama writes that one should not eat meat on Sunday night in such a situation, Rabbi Meir Mazuz in the Ish Matzliach footnotes on the MB note 1, writes that some poskim are meikil.
- Mishna Berura 558:4, Nitei Gavriel pg. 553
- Chazon Ovadia (Arba Tzomot, p. 60)
- Chazon Ovadia (Arba Tzomot, p. 352), Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur S"A, Volume 2, 556:7. See also Az Nidbaru 6:53:4 and Rivevot Efraim 3:371.
- Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur S"A, Volume 2, 556:7.
- Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur S"A, Volume 2, 556:9.
- Shulchan Aruch 559:1, Yalkut Yosef 556:3
- Yalkut Yosef 556:2
- Mishna Brurah 556:2
- Shulchan Aruch 552:10 based on taanit 29b that says one may make a meal as extravagant as he pleases on the shabbat of the eighth or ninth of av. Mishna Brurah 552:23 adds though that although we cannot publicly display mourning on Shabbat one's mood should at least somewhat reflect the time.
- Rama 552:10
- Mikraei Kodesh Hilchot Tisha B'av 10:7
- Mikraei Kodesh Hilchot Tisha B'av 10:9
- Yalkut Yosef 556:4-5
- Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur S"A, Volume 2, 556:3