Revision as of 16:58, 1 November 2009 by HachamD
Source of Requirement
- There is a positive Torah commandment to place Tzitzit strands on a four cornered garment that one wears. 
- There is, however, no obligation to wear such a garment in the first place. Nevertheless, our Rabbis have strongly promoted the observance of this relatively simple Mitzvah since it comes with great reward.
- The obligation applies to all Jewish men age 13 and up.
- A blind man is equally obligated, and he should recite a bracha. It would be best for him to first feel and check the validity of his Tzitzit or ask someone else to confirm it for him.
- Women are exempt, as Tzitzit is a positive time bound mitzvah.
- The earliest time to say a bracha on Tzitzit is from the time period that there is enough natural light so that one is able to distinguish between the white and blue strands within a clump of Tzitzit. This time period is also known as the time when one is able to recognize an acquaintance from 4 cubits away. Both descriptions are equivalent and commonly referred to as Misheyakir. There is a wide range of opinions precisely when Misheyakir occurs on a perfect day in Jerusalem: 35 minutes before sunrise, 60 minutes before sunrise, and 66 minutes before sunrise. The various opinions would then have to be extrapolated according to the region of the world and time of year. Thus, according to the commonly accepted opinion that Meshiyakir is between 50 and 60 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem - In New York, depending on the time of the year, it could be anywhere from 56-73 minutes before sunrise.
- If one is pressed for an earlier time for work or travel reasons, there are opinions that one may make a bracha on Tzitzit already from dawn. Dawn is 72 equivalent minutes, or 1.2 seasonal hours, before sunrise. However, most modern poskim qualify that one shouldn’t rely on these minority opinions unless under “extreme circumstances” and should rather wait at least until the most lenient interpretation of Misheyakir.
- One may wear Tzitzit before these times, however he should do so without making a bracha, and only when it becomes the time period known as Misheyakir may one make a bracha.
- If one inadvertently made a bracha before dawn, he should not repeat another bracha when the correct time arrives.
- In terms of nighttime wear, one may wear Tzitzit at night without a bracha and can even sleep in them. He wouldn’t have to be worried about violating Baal Tosef. In fact, according to kabbalistic sources, Tzitzit protect a person at night from destructive forces
- However, one should not wear a Tallit Gadol at night, unless one is the shliach tzibur (cantor) for Maariv and he isn’t wearing an appropriate outer garment (like a jacket).
- Another exception would be for Sephardim, where it is customary for a chatan (groom) to wear a Tallit Gadol at his wedding ceremony, he may do so even at nighttime. If it is before sunset he should make a bracha and if after sunset than without a bracha.
- Bamidbar 15:38; Devarim 22:12
- Rambam Hilchot Tzizit 3:11; Tur 24:1; Shulchan Aruch 24:1
- Rambam Hilchot Tzizit 3:11; Tur 24:1; Shulchan Aruch 24:1; Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igres Moshe 4:4; Rav Ovadya Yoseh in Yechaveh Daat 4:2
- Mishna Berura 17:10
- Shulchan Aruch 17:1
- Mishna Berura 17:1
- Rabbi Shimon in Gemara Menachot 43a; Shulchan Aruch 17:2. The Rema (ad loc.) comments even though women are exempt, if they want, they may rely upon the opinion of Tosofot on Kiddushin 31a who would allow a woman to wear and make a bracha on Tzitzit. The Rema continues, however, that women still should not do so, since it would appear as arrogant and further that Tzitzit is not a personal obligation anyway. The Mishna Berura (17:5) elaborates that although women may rely on Tosofot for Lulav and Sukkah, Tzitzit are different since even men aren’t required from the Torah except if they wear a four cornered garment. We treat Tzitzit both as and as not a personal obligation towards leniency. Hence, it is a personal obligation in the sense that only if one wears the garment does he need to attach Tzitzit and not just when he owns a garment. And, it is not a personal obligation that one would need to go out and buy a four cornered garment just to perform the mitzvah. Therefore, since men don’t really have to, women certainly shouldn’t do so. Lastly, there is a possible concern of violating Beged Ish as Targum Yonatan Ben Uziel raises on Devarim 22:5. The Levush (17:2) and Ben Ish Chai (Lech Lecha 3) use similar logic.
- Shulchan Aruch 18:3
- Meaning that there is exactly 12 daylight hours and every seasonal hour consists of 60 minutes.
- Rav Moshe Feinstein in Le-Torah ve-Hora'ah Vol. 3:7
- Rav Tukaczinsky in Eretz Yisrael 1:4
- Rav Ovadya Yoseh in Yechaveh Daat 2:8
- There are two factors at work here: First, the processes of daybreak and nightfall occur faster at places near the equator than places further away from the equator. Second, the speed of these processes are also affected by the seasons. A common solution would be to use seasonal minutes. In order to calculate a seasonal hour, one would need to add up all the daytime minutes and then divide by 12 to get the number of minutes that are in each seasonal hour. For instance, if there were 11 hours of daylight, each seasonal hour would consist of 55 minutes. To further complicate matters, there are two ways of counting the daytime minutes: The Magen Avraham counts from dawn until nightfall with the emergence of 3 stars, whereas the Gra counts from sunrise to sunset. Another means for calculation, which has only recently been implemented, is to compare the level of brightness by using the relative position of the sun. For instance, it has been determined that 60 minutes before sunrise on a perfect day in Jerusalem the sun is 12.9 degrees below the horizon. Therefore, if one wanted to find the equivalent time anywhere in the world during any season, he would simply determine at what time the sun will be 12.9 degrees below the horizon in that locale on that day and that would be the extrapolated Meshiyakir.
- MyZmanim.com. These figures are determined using MyZmanim’s earliest published position of 11.5 degrees below the horizon. Unfortunately, MyZmanim.com only offers calculations based upon 10.2 degrees, 11 degrees, and 11.5 degrees but not 12.9 degrees. It is unfortunate because 12.9 degrees correlates to Rav Tukaczinsky’s 60 minutes before sunrise which, although is a very lenient position is also well collaborated and accepted.
- Mordechai on Gemara Megilla 2; Rema 18:3
- Rambam in Peirush HaMishnaiyot Berachot 1:1; Shulchan Aruch 459:2
- Gra 18:5; Mishna Berura 18:10
- Rav Ovadya Yosef in Halacha Berura 2, 30:1.
- Rema 18:3
- Mishna Berura 18:10. He explains that we are cautious since perhaps the halacha follows the Rosh that daytime garments worn at night require Tzitzit and accordingly the bracha would have been correct; Kaf HaChaim 18:22; Halacha Berura 1, 18:6
- Tosfot Gemara Niddah 51b; Rambam Hilchot Tzizit 3:8; Rema 21:3; Mishna Berura ad loc; Yalkut Yosef Additions 1, 8:5
- Rambam Hilchot Tzizit 3:8; Kesef Mishna ad loc; Beit Yosef 8:13
- Shaar Kavanot Tefilat Arvit:1
- Bach 18; Magen Avraham 18:1; Mishna Berura 18:4; Birkay Yosef 18:1
- Pri Megadim in Ashel Avraham 18:1; Mishna Berura 18:4
- Halacha Berura 1, 18:2