A Delayed Hearing of a Relative's Passing

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Hearing about a Relative's Passing Recently

  1. If someone hears about a relative who died within thirty days or on the thirtieth day from the day of death[1] it is considered as though he is included in the aveilut and begins shiva and shloshim from when he heard about it. This is called in halacha 'shemuah krova'.[2]
  2. The first day after hearing about a relative within thirty days or on the thirtieth day from the day of the death one shouldn't wear Tefillin.[3]
  3. If someone hears about a shemuah krova on Shabbat, he observes private aveilut on Shabbat and that Shabbat counts as the first day of shiva.[4]
  4. If someone hears about the death of a relative who passed away thirty days ago and it is a Shabbat then on Shabbat he observes aveilut privately and after Shabbat he observes it for one hour like a shemuah rechoka.[5] However, if that Shabbat would have been the twenty ninth day after the death then on Shabbat there is private aveilut and after Shabbat there is public aveilut of shiva and shloshim.[6]
  5. The thirty days of shemuah krova are counted from the day of the death even if a Yom Tov has passed it doesn't hasten the termination of this thirty day period.[7]
  6. If someone has a shemuah krova on Shabbat which is on Erev Yom Tov passively observing aveilut on that Shabbat counts towards shiva and then Yom Tov cancels the shiva.[8]

A Delayed Hearing about a Relative's Passing

  1. If someone hears about a relative who died more than thirty days ago he doesn't observe regular aveilut. He only has to observe aveilut for a short period of time in which he does some positive action to demonstrate that he is in aveilut, such as removing his shoes. This is called in halacha 'shemuah rechoka'.[9]
  2. Additionally, when he hears about it until he completes his observance of aveilut he has to stop learning, doing working, bathing, or anointing himself if he was involved in one of these. If he was wearing Tefillin he doesn't have to remove them. [10]
  3. Even though there is no shiva or shloshim in this case, for a parent there is a prohibition of cutting hair, shaving, and wearing ironed clothing until his friends tell him that he needs to shave or wear ironed clothing. [11]
  4. There is no seudat havrah for a shemuah rechoka. [12]
  5. One doesn't tear keriya for a shemuah rechoka except for a parent.[13]
  6. If one hears about a shemuah rechoka on Shabbat or Yom Tov he doesn't observe any aveilut on that Shabbat or Yom Tov but right after Shabbat or Yom Tov he does observe aveilut for a short period of time.[14]

Sources

  1. Taz 402:6 points out that the counting of thirty days of shemuah krova begins from death and not the day of the burial.
  2. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:1
  3. Taz 402:1, Nekudat Hakesef 402:1
  4. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:7
  5. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:5
  6. Taz 402:4
  7. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:8
  8. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:10
  9. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:1
  10. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:2
  11. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:1
  12. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:3
  13. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:4
  14. Shulchan Aruch YD 402:6