Aveilut on Shabbat

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How does Aveilut apply on Shabbat? (Regarding Aveilut on Yom Tov please the specific page.)

General

  1. The private practices of shiva continue on Shabbat include the prohibition of tashmish, learning Torah, and bathing. [1]
  2. Since learning Torah is private one shouldn't learn Torah on Shabbat if one is in mourning but one may learn the Shenayim Mikra and Echad Targum.[2]
  3. Public practices of aveilut don't apply on Shabbat and these including wearing leather shoes and wearing a torn garment. Two others which aren't applicable today are removing a head-covering that covers one's face partially and turning the beds right-side up.[3] If the practice is for a mourner to turn his hat downward during shiva then on Shabbat he shouldn't do so.[4]
  4. Ashkenazim switch their seat in Shul for all of shloshim and twelve months of mourning for a parent even on Shabbat and it isn't considered a blatant observance of mourning on Shabbat.[5] Sephardim hold that technically it is considered an act of mourning on Shabbat and so one shouldn't change their seat on Shabbat. That is the minhag in Yerushalayim. Elsewhere the minhag is like Ashkenazim as well.[6] But either way, the Sephardic minhag isn't to change one's seat after 30 days even for a parent even during the week and certainly on Shabbat.[7]

Preparing for Shabbat

  1. The avel may not sit on a chair until Shabbat begins.[8]
  2. Some say that an avel should not change his clothing before his accept himself Shabbat[9], while others hold that he can change beforehand.[10]

Motzei Shabbat

  1. Some say that an avel should change out of his Shabbat clothing immediately after Shabbat such as twenty minutes after shekiya[11], while others are lenient up to an hour or two.[12]

Leaving the House

  1. The minhag is that the mourner goes to shul on Shabbat.[13]

Learning Torah and Getting Aliyot

  1. An avel shouldn't get an aliyah even on Shabbat.[14] On Shabbat if they already called him up for an aliyah he should take it since refraining from taking it would be a public sign of mourning on Shabbat.[15]
  2. If he is the mourner is the only kohen in shul he should take the kohen aliyah.[16]
  3. Where the minhag is to give an aliyah to a person for a certain occasion but that person is in aveilut on Shabbat, some poskim hold that he can take the aliyah since turning it down would be considered a public display of mourning, while other poskim forbid it. These minhagim including giving an aliyah to someone who had a baby that week or he has a Yehrzeit for a parent.[17]
  4. It is permitted for an avel during shiva to learn Shenayim Mikra on Shabbat since it is like kriyat shema since it is an obligation upon him.[18] If he doesn't do targum he can do Rashi instead.[19]

Davening

  1. It is permitted for the avel to say kabbalat shabbat normally including lechu niranena, shir hashirim, kegavna, mizmor ldovid hashem roey, each community according to its minhag, besides for bameh madlikin which the avel should skip and say tehillim instead.[20]
  2. It is permitted for an avel to say shalom aleichem and eshet chayil on Friday night.[21]

Sources

  1. Shulchan Aruch YD 400:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 219:1
  2. Shulchan Aruch YD 400:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 219:1
  3. Shulchan Aruch YD 400:1
  4. Shach 400:2
  5. Nemukei Yosef, Rama YD 393:3
  6. Bet Yosef 393:3 explicitly argues with the Nemukei Yosef being that switching one's seat is an act of mourning and it shouldn't be done on Shabbat. He praises those who had the minhag not to change their seat on Shabbat. That is his ruling in Shulchan Aruch YD 393:4 as well. Chaim Vchesed English Edition p. 162 writes that the minhag Yerushalayim is like the Bet Yosef, but elsewhere the Sephardic minhag is like the Rama.
  7. Yalkut Yosef Aveilut 38:5 p. 569 cites the Ben Ish Chai in Rav Poalim OC 4:33 who writes that the Sephardic minhag isn't to change their place after 30 days even for a parent as the minhag to extend it further has no basis whatsoever.
  8. Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 3 p. 84)
  9. Chazon Ovadia v. 3 p. 82)
  10. Minchat Shlomo 2:96:16 writes that one doesn't have to tear kiryah on the Shabbat clothing he puts on before Shabbat since it is known that he is wearing these clothing for Shabbat.
  11. Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 3 p. 81)
  12. Minchat Shlomo 2:96:16 writes that it isn't necessary to change out of Shabbat clothing immediately up to an hour or two. Since it is known that he put them on earlier he doesn't have to tear kriyah.
  13. The Raavad (cited by Tur 393:3) and Kol Bo (114, cited by Bet Yosef 393:4) held that a mourner doesn't leave his house the week of shiva including Shabbat. The Ramban (p. 217, cited by Bet Yosef) and Rosh (Moed Katan 3:46) disagree and write that the minhag was to go to shul on Shabbat. Shulchan Aruch 393:3 follows the Ramban and Rosh that an avel can leave the house on Shabbat. Rama agrees.
  14. Shulchan Aruch 400:1, Badei Hashulchan biurim 400:1 s.v. sh'im
  15. Shulchan Aruch YD 400:1
  16. Rama YD 400:1 writes that if the mourner is the only kohen in the shul he should take the kohan aliyah on Shabbat otherwise it would be a public sign of mourning on Shabbat. The Pitchei Teshuva 400:4 quotes the Chatom Sofer 352 as holding that if it is common for the kohan to step out of the shul in order to give the first aliyah to a yisrael and this situation arises then he should step out of the shul so that a yisrael can take his aliyah.
  17. The Taz 400:1 quotes the Maharshal who says that it is forbidden for an avel to get an aliyah even if there is a minhag to give an aliyah to someone who just had a baby. The Pitchei Teshuva 400:5 quotes the Daat Esh who argues with the Maharshal since doing so would be considered a public sign of mourning on Shabbat. Chazon Ovadia (Aveilut v. 2, p. 232) agrees.
  18. Shulchan Aruch YD 400:1
  19. Badei Hashulchan 400:15
  20. Badei Hashulchan 400:16
  21. Badei Hashulchan 400:16. He has a doubt if it is permitted for them to sing it or any other zemer.