Brachot On Foods That Start With The Letter B

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Foods that start with the letter B

Food Bracha Rishona Bracha Achrona
Bagel HaMotzei Birkat Ha'mazon[1]
Bagel Chips Mezonot Al Ha'michya[2]
Baked Beans HaAdama Borei Nefashos[3]
Bamba Sephardim: HaAdama Boreh Nefashot[4]
Bamboo Shoots HaAdama Borei Nefashos[5]
Banana HaAdama Borei Nefashos[6]
Banana bread Mezonot Al Ha'michya[7]
Banana Chips HaAdama Borei Nefashos[8]
Banana Mousse HaAdama [9]
Banana Split
If ice cream and banana eaten on same spoonful Shehakol (see footnote) Borei Nefashos
If ice cream and banana eaten separately
On Banana HaAdama Borei Nefashos
On Ice Cream Shehakol Borei Nefashos[10]
Barley (pearl barley cooked) Mezonot Al Ha'michya[11]
Barley (whole barley cooked) HaAdama Borei Nefashos[12]
Barley (raw or roasted) Shehakol Borei Nefashos[13]
Barley Soup
If one’s primary intent is for the barley (and soup) Mezonot Al Hamichya[14]
If there is a very small amount of barley
On soup (see footnote) Shehakol Borei Nefashos
On barley Mezonot Al Hamichya[15]
If one only has the broth Shehakol* (see footnote) Borei Nefashos[16]
If majority is barley Mezonot Al Hamichya[17]
Bean Soup HaAdama Borei Nefashos[18]
Bean Sprouts Some say: HaAdama Borei Nefashos[19]
Some say: Shehakol Borei Nefashos[20]
Beans (All) HaAdama Borei Nefashos[21]
Beef Stew
With Small Pieces
If the beef is in the majority Shehakol Borei Nefashos
If the potatoes are in the majority HaAdama Borei Nefashos
With Larger Pieces
On Potatoes HaAdama Borei Nefashos
On Meat Shehakol Borei Nefashos[22]
Beer Shehakol [23] Borei Nefashos[24]
Beet HaAdama Borei Nefashos[25]
Bialy roll HaMotzei Bircas Hamazon[26]
Biscuit
Without Kvias Sudah Mezonot Al Hamichaya
With Kvias Sudah HaMotzei Bircas Hamazon[27]
Bisli Mezonot Al Hamichya[28]
Blackberry HaEtz Borei Nefashos[29]
Blintzes (All) Mezonot Al Hamichya[30]
Blueberry (With/Without Cream) HaEtz Borei Nefashos[31]
Bologna Shehakol Borei Nefashos[32]
Borekas Mezonot Al Hamichya [33]
Borscht
Clear Some say Shehakol
Some say HaAdama
No Bracha[34]
With Small Beet Particles Some say Shehakol
Some say HaAdama
Borei Nefashos[35]
With Larger Pieces Of Beet HaAdama Borei Nefashos[36]
With Potatoes See note[37]
Boston Cream Pie Mezonot Al Hamichya[38]
Bourbon Shehakol No Bracha[39]
Bran Shehakol Borei Nefashos[40]
Bran Chex (Cereal) Shehakol Borei Nefashos[41]
Bran Flakes (Cereal) Mezonot Al Hamichya[42]
Bran Muffins
Without Kvias Sudah Mezonot Al Hamichaya
With Kvias Sudah HaMotzei Bircas Hamazon[43]
Brandy (Even Wine Brandy) Shehakol No Bracha[44]
Brazil Nut HaEtz Borei Nefashos[45]
Bread HaMotzei Bircas Ha'mazon[46]
Bread Crumbs (made from bread) HaMotzei Bircas Ha'mazon[47]
Breaded chicken, fish, meat (shnitzel)
Ashkenazim
Thin coating (as is common) Shehakol Borei Nefashos
Thick coating Mezonot Al Hamichya[48]
Sephardim Shehakol Borei Nefashos[49]
Bread Sticks
Without Kvias Sudah Mezonot Al Hamichaya
With Kvias Sudah HaMotzei Bircas Hamazon[50]
Bread Stuffing Mezonot Al Hamichaya[51]
Broccoli HaAdama Borei Nefashos[52]
Broccoli kugel
If pieces are recognizable HaAdama Borei Nefashos
If broccoli is mashed Shehakol Borei Nefashos[53]
Brownies
Without Kvias Sudah Mezonot Al Hamichaya
With Kvias Sudah HaMotzei Bircas Hamazon[54]
Brussels Sprouts HaAdama Borei Nefashos[55]
Bubble Gum Shehakol No Bracha[56]
Buckwheat (Kasha) HaAdama Borei Nefashos[57]
Butter (when eaten separately) Shehakol No Bracha[58]
Buttermilk Shehakol Borei Nefashos[59]

Sources

  1. Bet Yosef 168:14 learns from the Gemara Yevamot 40a that dough which was first boiled in water and then baked in the oven is HaMotzei. He codifies it in Shulchan Aruch 168:14. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 260) writes that bagels are made in this way of boiling dough and then baking it in an oven and so it should be HaMotzei. Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 26, pg 467) agrees. See also Pri Megadim (E"A 168:39), Kaf HaChaim 168:119, Chazon Ish OC 26:9, and Shoneh Halachot 168:21 who write that bagels are HaMotzei based on the above Shulchan Aruch 168:14.
  2. Halachos of Brachos Handbook (Rabbi Bodner, pg 12)
  3. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos Handbook (Rabbi Bodner, pg 12)
  4. Yalkut Yosef (Klalei Sefer Brachot pg 208-214)
  5. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359)
  6. Gemara Brachot 40a-b defines a tree in Halacha as a plant which is capable of giving fruit more than once (after picking the fruit, the tree doesn't die). Tosfot (Brachot 40a s.v. Itah) understands that as the plant can produce fruit for more than one year even if the branches and trunk of the plant wither in the winter if it comes back because of the roots it's still HaEtz. However, the Rosh (Brachot 6:23) argues that only if the trunk stays intact during the winter in order to produce fruit another year does the fruit require HaEtz. Shulchan Aruch 203:2 rules like the Rosh that any plant of which the trunk withers during the winter and doesn't produce fruit the next year the bracha is HaAdama. Additionally, Shulchan Aruch 203:3 rules that bananas which fit into this halachic category is HaAdama. Chazon Ovadia Brachot p. 147, The Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 383), and Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 22, pg 393) concur that the bracha is HaAdama.
  7. Halachos of Brachos Handbook (Rabbi Bodner, pg 12)
  8. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359)
  9. Yalkut Yosef (Klalei Sefer Brachot pg 208-214)
  10. Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 4, pg 61-8) writes that in order for one to make one Bracha on a mixture of two foods it must be considered a single physical mass (by having small pieces mixed together so that the ingredients would be eaten together in a single spoonful) or be cooked or baked together. He continues, that when determining the bracha on a mixture of food, if there is grain flour that was cooke dit's automatically Mezonot, if there's one food that's primary and the others enhance it, the bracha is made on the primary food, and if there's no grain flour or primary ingredient, the bracha is made upon the majority ingredient. Laws of Brachos (pg 207-227) seems to agree on the above set of laws. Therefore, in his Halachos of Brachos Handbook (pg 13) he writes that in general banana split is eaten primarily for the ice cream and the fruit is only meant as an enhancer and so the bracha would be Shehakol. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359) writes simply that on banana split one should make two brachos, HaAdama on the banana and Shehakol on the ice cream.
  11. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) and Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 27, pg 482) write that pearl barley that's cooked is Mezonot because pearl barley has the shell and a part of the grain removed.
  12. The Mishna Brurah 208:16 adds that if the barley was cooked it is considered HaAdama like the other raw grains. The Laws of Brachos (pg 271) agrees.
  13. Bet Yosef 208:4 infered from the Tur that any grain which is raw is HaAdama including barley. Even though he quotes the Kol Bo who says that raw barley is Shehakol because it's not very edible, in Shulchan Aruch 208:4 he rules that all raw grain is HaAdama including barley (Kaf HaChaim 208:24). However, the Rama 208:4 rules like the Kol Bo that for raw barley or barley which was roasted is Shehakol. This is also the opinion of the laws of Brachos (pg 271). Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 271) rules like the Rama. Even the Kaf HaChaim 208:25 who understands that Shulchan Aruch holds that it is HaAdama, because of the opinion of the Avudraham who says that raw barley requires no Bracha it's preferable to avoid all doubt and make a bracha on something else and have in mind to exempt the barley.
  14. The Chaye Adam 54:16 writes that the discussion of the Magen Avraham whether or not to make Mezonot or Shehakol on the liquid in barley soup that is only where one only drank the water and not the barley but if one ate the barley certainly one makes Mezonot on the barley and that covers the water. The Mishna Brurah 205:11 and Kaf HaChaim 205:11 agree. Therefore, Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 23, pg 436) writes that on barley vegetable soup one should make Mezonot even if there are more vegetables than barley. Similarly, Laws of Brachos (chap 7, pg 220) writes that if one’s primary intent is for the barley one should make Mezonot.
  15. * The Magen Avraham 205:6 concludes that if one only added a little barley and the water is almost clear then certainly the water isn’t mezonot and so one should make Shehakol on the water and Mezonot on the barley. The Netiv Chaim and Yad Efrayim (on the Magen Avraham 205:6) edit the text of the Magen Avraham and write that one should make Mezonot on the barley and then Shehakol on the water because Mezonot always precedes Shehakol. However, the Chaye Adam 54:16 copies the language of the Magen Avraham and in Nishmat Avraham (at the end of Siman 54) he explains that perhaps it’s based on a doubt that perhaps the Mezonot on the barley would cover the water and so one should switch the usual order. Nonetheless, the Chaye Adam concludes that it’s preferable to make Mezonot on the barley and then Shehakol on something else (in order to maintain the correct order and avoid all doubt). The Mishna Brurah 205:11 quotes the Chaye Adam that one should make Mezonot on the barley and then Shehakol on the soup, but it’s preferable to make Shehakol on something else. [Mishna Brurah in 208:23 writes the same halacha.] Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 220, and 385, note 4) agrees with the Mishna Brurah.
    * However, Sh”t Igrot Moshe 1:69 agrees with the Netiv Chaim and Yad Efraim that one should make Mezonot first and then Shehakol on the soup but it’s preferable to make Shehakol on something else like the Chaye Adam. Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 23, pg 436, note k) writes like the Chaye Adam that one should make Mezonot on the barley and then Shehakol on another item.
    • According to many opinions (see below) one should make Mezonot on a barley and then Shehakol on a food which is Shehakol.
    • In Gemara Brachot 39a, Rav Papa says that water of cooked vegetables is HaAdama just like the Bracha of the cooked vegetables itself. The Bet Yosef 205:2 quotes the Sh”t HaRosh 4:15 who says that the water is only the same Bracha as the vegetable when one’s primary intent is to cook the vegetables. The Darkei Moshe 205:2 explains that the Rambam (Brachot 8:4) holds that in order to recite the bracha of the original vegetable upon the soup, the water must be cooked such that the water is normally drunk.
    • The Magen Avraham 205:6 says that according to the Rambam since mezonot grain (for example pearl barley) isn’t usually cooked in water in order to drink the water the Bracha on the water would be Shehakol, however, according to the Rosh since one’s primary intent is to cook the barley, the Bracha on the water would be Mezonot. The Chaye Adam 54:16 writes that because of this dispute one should make Mezonot on the barley and Shehakol on another food and eat enough of the barley and enough of the other food in order that one could make Al Hamichya and Borei Nefashot. The Mishna Brurah 205:11 concurs. However, the Kaf HaChaim 205:11 writes that because of the dispute one should simply make Shehakol.
  16. Laws of Brachos (chap 7, pg 220) infers from Mishna Brurah 208:23 that that even if one’s primary intent is for the water if there’s a majority of barley then one should only make Mezonot and not Shehakol.
  17. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (pg 434), See Soups
  18. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384)
  19. Halachos of Brachos (chap 22, pg 419) writes that bean sproats are Shehakol because they don't grow in the ground.
  20. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 22, pg 396)
  21. Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 4, pg 61-8) writes that in order for one to make one Bracha on a mixture of two foods it must be considered a single physical mass (by having small pieces mixed together so that the ingredients would be eaten together in a single spoonful) or be cooked or baked together. He continues, that when determining the bracha on a mixture of food, if there is grain flour that was cooke dit's automatically Mezonot, if there's one food that's primary and the others enhance it, the bracha is made on the primary food, and if there's no grain flour or primary ingredient, the bracha is made upon the majority ingredient. Laws of Brachos (pg 207-227) seems to agree on the above set of laws. See Ikar and Tofel. Therefore, Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) and Halacha of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 4, pg 64 and Handbook pg 14) write that on beef stew if there are small pieces (such that one eats it the pieces in one soupful) then one should make a bracha on the majority ingredient, and if there are large pieces one should make a bracha on each ingredient.
  22. Shulchan Aruch 204:1 rules that beer is Shehakol and not Mezonot and the Mishna Brurah 204:16 explains that it is Shehakol becasue it is made into a drink (this is based on Tosfot Brachot 38a s.v. Haiy). This is also the opinion of the Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) and Halachos of Brachos (pg 450).
  23. Shulchan Aruch 204:1 rules that beer is Shehakol and not Mezonot and the Mishna Brurah 204:16 explains that it is Shehakol becasue it is made into a drink (this is based on Tosfot Brachot 38a s.v. Haiy). This is also the opinion of the Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) and Halachos of Brachos (pg 450).
  24. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 22, pg 396)
  25. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos Handbook (pg 14). Halachos of Brachos Handbook adds that one should make the Hamotzei on a whole roll and not a piece.
  26. See Pas Haba Bikisnin. Shulchan Aruch 168:7 rules that when one eats Pas HaBa BeKisnin as a snack the Bracha Rishona is Mezonot and Bracha Achrona is Al HaMichya, however, if one makes a meal out of it the bracha is HaMotzei and Birkat HaMazon. Shulchan Aruch 168:8 gives three definitions of Pas Haba BeKisnin and the last one is a hard dry baked goods. Therefore, Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (pg 484), and Vezot HaBracha (chap 3, pg 21) rule that if one eats crackers/biscuits as a snack the bracha is Mezonot and if one eats it as a meal the bracha is HaMotzei. As to what defines a meal see Pas Haba Bikisnin.
  27. Siddur Kol Eliyahu (pg 894) which is based on the rulings of Rav Modechai Eliyahu and Yalkut Yosef (Klalei Sefer Brachot pg 208-214)
  28. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachps (Rabbi Bodner, chap 22, pg 396)
  29. Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 27. pg 494) writes that since the dough of blintzes are made out from a thin batter that Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) writes that Blintzes are mezonot.
  30. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) writes that blueberries are HaEtz. Halachos of Brachos (chap 22, pg 394) writes that the common packaged blueberries are HaEtz but wild blueberries are commonly from bushes that grow shorter than 9 inches in which case the bracha would be HaAdama.
  31. Gemara Barchot 40b quotes the Briatta which states that any food that doesn't grow from the ground is Shehakol and gives meat as an example. Shulchan Aruch 204:1 rules this as halacha. Therefore, Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) rules that bologna is Shehakol.
  32. Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 27, pg 494) writes that borekas are Mezonot and if one has a meal out of them the Bracha is HaMotzei (like Pas HaBa BeKisnin). He adds that one shouldn't make Al HaMichya unless one ate a Kezayit of the crust, however, if one didn't but still had a Kezayit altogether the bracha would be Borei Nefashot.
  33. Halachos of Brachos (chap 23, pg 438) quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman saying that Borscht fulfills all the major opinions of what makes a soup HaAdama and should be HaAdama even if it is clear and has no pieces of beets. The OU also seems to hold that Borscht is HaAdama in all cases. However, Vezot HaBracha (Luach HaBrachot, pg 366) and Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, chap 11, pg 331-2) write that the Bracha is Shehakol unless there are big pieces of beets in the liquid. [The Laws of Brachos explains that it’s most people cook beets and spill out the water. Secondly, those who make borscht usually make it only for the liquid and not the vegetables. Thirdly, he argues that since it’s usually drunk and not eaten it’s not judged as a soup. When there are small pieces, Laws of Brachos writes that the soup is primary over those small pieces and the Bracha remains Shehakol.]
  34. Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 23, pg 438, note 29.1) rules that if there’s small pieces the Bracha is HaAdama and if it is clear liquid then there’s a doubt regarding the halacha. [The reason that Rabbi Bodner has a doubt about the case where the liquid is clear is because that most people cook beets to eat the actual beets and not the liquid.] However, Vezot HaBracha (Luach HaBrachot, pg 366) and Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, chap 11, pg 331-2) write that the Bracha is Shehakol unless there are big pieces of beets in the liquid. [The Laws of Brachos explains that it’s most people cook beets and spill out the water. Secondly, those who make borscht usually make it only for the liquid and not the vegetables. Thirdly, he argues that since it’s usually drunk and not eaten it’s not judged as a soup. When there are small pieces, Laws of Brachos writes that the soup is primary over those small pieces and the Bracha remains Shehakol.]
  35. Halachos of Brachos (chap 23, pg 438), Vezot HaBracha (Luach HaBrachot, pg 366) and Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, chap 11, pg 331-2)
  36. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) holds that borscht is Shehakol and so also holds that if there are potato pieces in the soup one should make HaAdama on the potatoe and Shehakol on the borscht. [If one made a HaAdama on the borscht (according to those who say that borscht is HaAdama) certainly the HaAdama on the soup will also cover the potatoes.]
  37. If one has the filling as an enhancer of the cake then the bracha is Mezonot, however, if the filling is considered a thick layer for which one has intent to eat (not merely as an enhancer), then make two brachot, mezonot on the cake, and Shehakol on the filling. (This is based on the last paragraph).
    * S”A 168:8 and 212:2 rules that if one eats jam/marmalade on a cracker one should only make a Bracha on the marmalade and it exempts the cracker. Magen Avraham 212:5 writes that one honey crackers are primary and one only makes a Bracha on that and it covers the marmalade.
    * Mishna Brurah 168:45 rules like the Magen Avraham but adds that it’s only one Bracha when it is baked together, however, if they’re baked separately it would require two Brachot, one for the cracker, one for the marmalade because one is not eaten as an enhancer of the other but rather one is eating it for both of the cracker and the jam. However, Mishna Brurah 212:6 rules that if one eats cheese on a cracker one only makes a Bracha on the cracker even if one likes the cheese because one is eating the cheese as a spread.
    **[It’s clear that the Mishna Brurah 212:6 is discussing where one didn’t bake it together, because if so, the Shaar HaTziyun 212:21 should have answered that the difference in cases between in 212:5 and 212:6 was that in 212:5 it wasn’t baked together and in 212:6 it was.] Similarly, Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 7:27(6) explains that Mishna Brurah 168:45 only meant to make two Brachot when there’s a thick layer of jam but if there’s a thin layer one should only make one Bracha.
    * To clarify this distinction: Vezot HaBracha (chap 11, pg 99) rules that if there’s a cake with a thick layer of whipped cream, cheese, or ice cream and the two were not baked together one should make two Brachot (similar to the case of Mishna Brurah 168:45). However, if one eats the cream or topping of fruit, chocolate, or nuts in order to enhance the cake one should only make a Bracha on the cake. [See Vezot HaBracha (Birur 42) where he explains the distinction at length.]
    * Boston crème pie is a cake and not a pie (like the name implies). It is made with two layers of sponge cake and is filled with a thick layer of custard or cream. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 360, pg 385, note 9) explains that one should make two Brachot on Boston crème pie because the filling is not merely an enhancer of the cake (and is similar to Mishna Brurah 168:45). However, Halachos of Brachos Handbook (Rabbi Bodner, pg 15) explains that Boston crème pie is simply a cake and the filling only enhances the cake and so the Bracha should be Mezonot (similar to Mishna Brurah 212:6). OU also writes Mezonot.
  38. Shulchan Aruch 204:1 rules that date beer and barley beer is Shehakol. The Mishna Brurah 204:16 explains that beer is Shehakol becasue it is made into a drink (this is based on Tosfot Brachot 38a s.v. Haiy). Bourbon is a whiskey made from aged corn mash. Also food made from corn flour is Shehakol (Shulchan Aruch 208:8). Therefore, Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) rules bourbon is Shehakol.
  39. Bran is the outer shell of the grain. Sh"t Igrot Moshe EH 1:114 rules that bran isn't a grain and would be Shehakol. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) and Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, addendum 5, pg 531) agree.
  40. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384)
  41. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (addendum 5, pg 531) write that the Bracha on bran flakes is mezonot because it is a mixture of bran with wheat and oat flour.
  42. Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 27, pg 502) writes that there is grain flour in bran muffins and some it would be Mezonot unless one had the amount of a meal in which case one would make HaMotzei. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) agrees.
  43. Brandy is made from stilled wine or fruit juice. Kaf HaChaim 202:15 quotes one opinion who says that the Bracha would be Hagefen but then quotes the Chida who says it's Shehakol because the taste, appearance, and smell has changed. Halachos of Brachos (chap 24, pg 447), Vezot HaBracha (Luach Brachot, pg 402, note 69) and Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384) write that brandy is Shehakol. Yalkut Yosef (Brachot (vol 3), pg 408) who writes that arac and cognac are Shehakol seems to agree.
  44. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (pg 396)
  45. Gemara Brachot 35a, Shulchan Aruch 167:2, Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (pg 467)
  46. Shulchan Aruch 168:10, Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384)
  47. See Ikar_and_Tofel#Shnitzel.
  48. Yalkut Yosef (vol 3, pg 426), Siddur Kol Eliyahu (pg 896) which is based on Rav Modechai Eliyahu's rulings
  49. Shulchan Aruch168:7 (third definition), Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 27, pg 468)
  50. Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 26, pg 474) quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman saying that stuffing made from bread would be mezonot because the bread is kneaded with egg and oil (where the Mishna Brurah 168:59 writes that the Bracha would be mezonot even if one rebaked it).
  51. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (pg 396)
  52. Halachos of Brachos (chap 22, pg 408) quoting Rav Shlomo Zalman (based on Mishna Brurah 202:42). For sephardim, see Processed fruits and vegetables.
  53. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos Handbook (pg 18), OU Guide to Brachos
  54. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (pg 396), OU Guide to Brachos, Vezot Habracha (p. 392)
  55. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (Rabbi Bodner, chap 25, pg 456), and Vezot HaBracha (Luach HaBrachot, pg 393 "Mastik") rule that gum is Shehakol. Yalkut Yosef (204:21) and Sh"t Yabia Omer 7:33 agree that it is Shehakol. See also Igrot Moshe 2:57 and Or Letsion (vol 2, 14:8). Sh"t Yitzchok Yeranen 37 and Sh"t Yaskil Avdi 54 rule that gum doesn't get a beracha before.
  56. Kasha isn't one of the five grains but rather is a legume. OU Guide to Brachos, Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (pg 402) agree that the Bracha is HaAdama.
  57. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 361), Shaarei Bracha (pg 720), Vezot HaBracha (Luach Brachot, pg 391) write that if one eats butter alone one should make Shehakol. Yalkut Yosef (Klalei Sefer Brachot pg 208-214) writes that if one eats butter separately and one gets benefit from it then one should make Shehakol.
  58. Laws of Brachos (Rabbi Forst, pg 359-384), Halachos of Brachos (pg 454)