Conversion

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  1. The milah is done before the tevilah. If they did the tevilah before the milah there is a major dispute if the conversion is effective and therefore, they should repeat the tevilah.[1]
  2. A bet din of three is necessary for all parts of the conversion.[2]

Sources

  1. Rama YD 268:1 quotes a machloket between the Ramban and Raah whether the order is essential after the fact, the Ramban positing that it doesn't and the Raah holding it does. The Shach 268:2 adds that they should do the tevilah again because of this dispute.
  2. The Gemara Yevamot 46b establishes that conversion requires the supervision of a bet din of three members. Tosfot s.v. mishpat explains that everyone agrees to this halacha even those who say a bet din can sometimes consist of one member agree here. This is accepted by the Rambam (Isurei Biyah 13:6) and Shulchan Aruch YD 268:3. Shulchan Aruch YD 268:3 writes that after the fact the bet din is only necessary for the acceptance of mitzvot, while the Rambam and Rif hold it is necessary for the milah and tevilah as well.
    • Tosfot s.v. mishpat writes that even though we don’t have semicha we can still perform semicha based on the principle of shelichutyahu.