Erev Pesach That Falls out on Shabbat
Infrequently Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat. It will next occur in 2025 and then not again until 2045. When this happens, the mitzvot of the days before Pesach are rescheduled so that it is possible to prepare for Pesach, while at the same time properly observe and respect Shabbat. The specific halachic issues at play are how to have Shabbat meals while juggling the prohibition to have matzah on Erev Pesach and the prohibition to have chametz after the fourth day on Erev Pesach. Seuda Shelishit presents a unique challenge since it is ideally a hamotzei meal in the afternoon but both chametz and matzah are forbidden. Another topic is when to fulfill bedika and biur considering that they can not be done on Shabbat. Lastly, selling the chametz can occur but the mechanism of the sale have to be altered to either take place before Shabbat or complete the acts of acquisition before Shabbat and stipulate that the sale goes into effect on Shabbat.
Shabbat Hagadol Drasha
- If Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, some say that one is not obligated to fast, while others say that one should fast on Thursday. The minhag follows the latter opinion. The minhag is to do a Siyum on Thursday and exempt oneself from the fast, even those who fast Tanit Bechorot regular years. Some say it’s preferable to make a Siyum on Friday in addition to the one on Thursday.
- When Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, bedikat chametz is done Thursday night with a candle and bracha. Bitul is recited afterwards.
Friday Morning: Biur Chametz
- A person should destroy all of his chametz besides food for two meals before Shabbat. There is nothing wrong with eating more chametz sides those two meals as long as it is before the fifth hour on Shabbat. The chametz set aside for Shabbat should be stored in a safe place so that it isn't dispersed.
- It is proper to burn the chametz that one is not leaving over before the sixth hour on Friday morning. If it is done later next year someone might get confused.
- The first bitul is made after bedikat chametz on all chametz that one does not know about.
- The final bitul is made on Shabbat itself before the sixth halachic hour and it is unnecessary to make one on Friday while burning the chametz.
Friday Night and Shabbat Morning Meals
Method 1: Chametz
- One should leave over just enough chametz for two meals.
Method 2: Variations of Matzah
- For Friday night, some poskim hold that it is permitted to eat regular matzah. Sephardim hold this and can eat matzah for the hamotzei Friday night. Others hold that one should not eat matzah on Friday since it is part of Erev Pesach when it is forbidden to eat matzah.
- It is forbidden to eat regular matzah the morning of Erev Pesach for the morning meal.
- If someone is very worried about not being able to get rid of the extra chametz they can get rid of all of their chametz before Shabbat and use matzah ashira, egg matzah, for the hamotzei of Friday night and Shabbat lunch. One should still be careful to eat it before the beginning of the fifth halachic hour. Some say that one shouldn't egg matzah's for the meals on Shabbat.
- According to Sephardim, eating egg matzah is mezonot unless one eats 216 grams of egg matzah.
- It is permitted to eat cooked matzah for Friday night and Shabbat morning meals and the bracha is hamotzei.
- For lechem mishneh, besides the challah that one is going to eat, it is possible to use matzah stored safely inside a plastic bag for the lechem mishna which one should not eat.
- If someone is concerned for eating chametz in one’s house one may eat the challah on the porch or the backyard if it is within the eruv or has a fence and then eat the rest of the meal inside. The crumbs of chametz on the porch or backyard should be swept off the porch or table if there is an eruv. The birkas hamazon should be said where the bread was eaten.
Two Meals in the Morning
- In order to start finish chametz by the proper time, it is recommended to start davening early and some even suggest skipping the piytum for Shabbat Hagadol or saying them in advance on the previous Shabbat.
- Some recommend starting davening earlier, and then having two meals with bread before the fifth halachic hour. In order to do this and not have a concern of making unnecessary brachot, bracha sheino tzaricha, one should break up the meals with a little walk out of the house and a short break of 15 to 30 minutes.
- Sephardim do not have the minhag to have two meals in the morning since they hold that seuda shelishit must be in the afternoon.
- Generally the Ashkenazic minhag is to have seuda shelishit with matzah balls or another dish of cooked matza meal.
Meat, Fish, or Fruit
- A less ideal solution is to eat meat, fish, or fruit for the seuda shelishit.
- Some Sephardim have the minhag to eat seuda shelishit with egg matzah and recite mezonot. Ashkenazim generally do not have this minhag as they do not eat egg matzah for all of Pesach out of a concern that it is chametz. However, others hold that it is permitted and even recommended to eat egg matzah for seuda shelishit.
- Ashkenazim do not have the minhag to eat cooked matzah for seuda shelishit. Sephardim have the minhag to have seuda shelishit with cooked matza.
Deep Fried Matzah
- Sephardim have the minhag to have seuda shelishit with deep fried matza. Some are concerned that deep fried matzah is forbidden on Erev Pesach.
Matzah Meal Cakes
- A person should not eat baked matzah meal cakes for seuda shelishit. Some are lenient to eat matzah meal cakes on Erev Pesach since when the batter was made the matzah meal lost its form and appearance of matzah. Nonetheless, it isn't an ideal solution for seuda shelishit even according to this opinion since it is mezonot.
Shabbat Menu Restrictions
- A person should not make hot chametz, such as chullent, for Shabbat Erev Pesach because in doing so the leftovers on the pot will be chametz and one can't clean them on Shabbat since it isn't necessary for Shabbat. After the fact, if one made a hot chametz food in a pot, that pot can be cleaned to remove the chametz on Shabbat morning. When cleaning that pot, one should do the minimum possible; if the chametz can be removed by being wiped that should be done, if it needs to be cleaned with water that measure should be taken.
- It is preferable to make all of one's food in kosher for pesach or new pots. If one does, one should be careful not to pour the hot kosher for pesach food from the pots into chametz bowls or plates. To avoid this it is possible to pour the hot pesach food into a kosher lpesach kli sheni and then from there into the chametz bowls or plates.
Preparing for the Seder
- Lettuce leaves being checked for Maror should be checked on Friday before Shabbat. They should not be left soaking in water for more than 24 hours.
- It is forbidden to prepare for the seder on Shabbat because on Shabbat one may not prepare for after Shabbat (hachana). Therefore, one should not take food for the seder out of the freezer until after Shabbat. If one absolutely must defrost food for the seder, such as soft matzah, and it won't be ready in time to eat it, such as for old people who are going to have an early and short seder, can defrost it on Shabbat itself. To avoid muktzeh one could take the matzah with the maror on top of the matzah.
- It is permitted to sleep on Shabbat in order to be well rested for the seder. It is preferable not to say that one is going to sleep in order to stay up for the seder.
Getting Rid of Chametz
- After the morning chametz meal(s) one should gently wipe off the plates with one's hand and put them away with the other chametz dishes.
Giving to a Non-Jew
- If someone has extra chametz on pesach one should give it to a non-Jew. It isn't a concern if they carry it into the street since one didn't instruct the non-Jew to do so. Even if it is a lot of chametz and it is obvious that the non-Jew is going to carry it into the street, according to those who hold that our streets are only a karmelit, and certainly if there is an eruv, one doesn't have to be concerned.
- If someone forgot to sell chametz before Shabbat, there is a dispute if they're allowed to sell it on Shabbat. Instead they should give it as a gift to a non-Jew who they know and will likely give it back to them after pesach. In order to perform this transaction he should either give the non-Jew the chametz to pick up or drag it. If it is too much to pick up or drag, it is possible to legally transfer ownership to the non-Jew by giving him the key to access the room where the chametz is located.
- Some poskim are concerned with making an acquisition effective on Shabbat and therefore specify that the sell must be arranged earlier such that it is effective a short period of time before Shabbat. However, one should include all the chametz one has before Shabbat and even the chametz that you plan to eat on Shabbat. Others argue that there is what to rely upon to arrange the acquisition on Friday so that it is effective on Shabbat and it'll help someone who doesn't get rid of his leftover chametz after the meal on Shabbat.
Throwing in the Garbage
- Any leftover chametz on Shabbat may not just be thrown in one's private garbage because it is still in one's property. If one could throw it in a public garbage dump that is permissible since it is considered ownerless.
Giving to a Dog
- It is permitted to feed the extra chametz one has to a dog before the sixth halachic hour.
Flushing down the Toilet
- A good solution of how to get rid of one's extra chametz on Shabbat is to flush it down the toilet.
After the Fifth Hour
- One should get of one's chametz before the end of the fifth halachic hour. If one failed to do so, the chametz is now muktzeh for a Jew, but one should ask a non-Jew to get rid of it by flushing it down the toilet.
- From the beginning of the fifth halachic hour, chametz is forbidden to eat. One should brush his teeth before the prohibited time for chametz arrives, even on Shabbat. It is sufficient to clean one's mouth out with water.
- Young Israel of Woodmere Halachipedia Guide
- Star-K Guide to Erev Pesach on Shabbat
- Rav Moshe Shulman's Guide for Young Israel of St. Louis to Erev Pesach on Shabbat
- Mishna Brurah 430:2, Chazon Ovadia page 32, Yalkut Yosef 444:1
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama O.C. 470:2
- Sh”t Igrot Moshe 4:69 writes that it’s sufficient to make a Siyum on Thursday and Piskei Teshuvot 470:4 writes that such is the minhag. Rabbi Dovid Heber agrees. Sh"t Yechave Daat 1:91, Chazon Ovadyah Pesach pg 100, and Or Letzion 3:12(2) write that even though the strict law is that the firstborns are exempt it's preferable that they join in a Siyum. See Birkei Yosef 470:2 who quotes the Meiri who says that if Erev Pesach is on Shabbat, one should fast Tanit Bechorot on Friday.
- Sh”t Elef Lecha Shlomo 1:386
- Sh”t Teshuvot Vehanhagot 2:111, Sh”t Mishneh Halachot 7:65, Orchot Rabbenu (vol 2 pg 57), Rav Hershel Schachter ("Inyanei Erev Pesach She'chal BeShabbat", min 71-72). Rav Hershel Schachter (YIW Packet) thought that it was only a stringency and according to the halacha is sufficient to listen to a siyum on Thursday.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 444:1, Mishna Brurah 444:1, Yalkut Yosef 444:2
- Mishna Brurah 444:1-2. There is a discussion why bedikat chametz can't take place on Shabbat. The Bet Yosef suggests that the reason is that you can't carry a candle on Shabbat for a mitzvah of bedikat chametz.
- Yalkut Yosef 444:2, Rav Schachter
- Gemara Pesachim 13a, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 444:1
- Rav Hershel Schachter ("Inyanei Erev Pesach She'chal BeShabbat", min 74-5)
- Mishna Brurah 444:3, Yalkut Yosef 444:2
- Mordechai, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 444:2
- Yalkut Yosef 444:2
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 444:6, Mishna Brurah 444:22
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 444:1
- Rav Schachter in Young Israel of Woodmere Guide quoting Rav Yosef Dov Soloveitchik and Rav Chaim Soloveitchik
- Rav Ovadia Yosef in Chazon Ovadia Pesach p. 259, Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Vayakel Pekudei 5781 min 33)
- Igrot Moshe 1:155. The Baal Hameor Pesachim 15b holds it is only forbidden to eat matzah from the time it is forbidden to have chametz, while the Ramban holds it is forbidden all day and seemingly even at night. The Ran 16a (as well in the Chidushim 49a), Ritva Psachim 50a s.v. amru, and Rosh 3:7 agree with the Baal Hameor. Maharam Chalavah 49a s.v. yerushalami and Rabbenu Dovid Pesachim 49a agree with the Ramban. The Rif 16a and Rambam Chametz Umatzah 6:12 (as interpreted by the Maggid Mishna) hold it is only forbidden all day. Magen Avraham 471:6 is strict and Igrot Moshe is concerned for the Magen Avraham. Rav Ovadia and Rav Schachter follow the Chok Yaakov 471:6 who permits it at night.
- Yerushalmi 10:1, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 444:1, Igrot Moshe 1:155, Chazon Ovadia p. 259
- Igrot Moshe 1:155
- Rav Schachter (min 50-57) quotes Rav Soloveitchik that we're concerned about the Rambam's opinion that egg matzah is considered like matzah to fulfill your mitzvah and so it is forbidden to eat it on Erev Pesach.
- Kaf Hachaim 444:11 cites the Birkei Yosef who thinks that the bracha for egg matzah during seuda shelishit is hamotzei since that is the only permissible form of matzah. However, the Maamar Mordechai disagrees and thinks it is mezonot. Kaf Hachaim agrees.
- Chazon Ovadia Pesach p. 260 explains that cooked matzah is hamotzei and permitted for all the meals of Shabbat. Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Vayakel Pekudei 5781 min 33) explained that it is hamotzei for Sephardim since on that Shabbat many already got rid of their chametz so it is like matzah on Pesach which is hamotzei. Or Letzion 3:14:1 considers it mezonot unless one eats 8 kezaytim like matzah the rest of the year.
- Dirshu 444:8 citing Igrot Chazon Ish 1:188, Orchot Rabbenu Pesach p. 11, Chut Shani Shabbat v. 4 p. 369, Rav Schachter in Young Israel of Woodmere Guide, Chazon Ovadia p. 266
- Mishna Brurah 178:33, Vezot Habracha ch. 6 n. 6
- It is ideal to do so gently so it isn’t scattered in the wind but most poskim permit that. Mishna Brurah 446:6, 319:67.
- Shulchan Aruch 178:4, Star-K Guide, Young Israel of Woodmere Guide
- Mishna Brurah 444:4
- Dirshu 444:7 quotes the Pri Magadim MZ 430:1 who says that the yotzrot are said as usual even on Erev Pesach that falls out on Shabbat, Rav Chaim Zonenfeld (Seder Erev Pesach Shchal Bshabbat n. 5) held that they should be skipped, and the Maharil Erev Pesach n. 10 would say them a week in advance.
- Mishna Brurah 444:8 based on the Gra
- Mishna Brurah 444:8 writes that one should make a short break. In the context of breaking up lunch and seuda shelishit on a regular Shabbat, Mishna Brurah 291:5 writes that one should walk around in between. Dirshu 444:14 quotes the Darkei Chayim Vshalom p. 401 as holding that a 15 minute is sufficient, while the Chazon Ish (Igrot Chazon Ish 1:188) would wait 30 minutes. Rav Willig (min 9-10) also did like that. Rav Schachter also held 30 minutes without necessitating leaving.
- Radvaz 1:489, Kaf Hachaim 444:8, Or Letzion 3:14:1. Tosfot Chachmei Angliya Pesachim 13a s.v. mazon says that those who have two meals in the morning of Erev Pesach on Shabbat are mistaken because seuda shelishit needs to be in the afternoon. Meiri 13a s.v. ulinyan also writes that the minhag to break up the morning meal in two is rejected and not reasonable according to the halacha. Tosfot Shabbat 118a, Rabbenu Peretz Pesachim 13a, and Maharam Chalavah Pesachim 13a all reject the approach that requires having two meals in the morning.
- Mishna Brurah 444:8
- Rama 444:1, Mishna Brurah 444:8. Meiri Pesachim 13a s.v. ulinyan quotes that some of the Baalei Hatosfot would have seuda selishit on Erev Pesach that fell out on Shabbat with fruit and explain that it fulfills the meal based on the Gemara Sukkah 27a. The Meiri disagrees that fruit is not a fulfillment of seuda shelishit.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 444:1 writes that this is the solution that he recommends to eat for seuda shelishit. Radvaz 1:489 personally practiced this and held it was the best solution. He in fact says he only would eat a kezayit so that he'd be hungry to eat matzah that night.
- Kaf Hachaim 444:11 quotes the Birkei Yosef who says that it is hamotzei and the maamar mordechai holds it is mezonot. Kaf Hachaim agrees with the Maamar Mordechai. Or Letzion 3:14:1 agrees with the Kaf Hachaim. Radvaz 1:489 writes that the bracha is hamotzei.
- Rama 444:1
- Rav Schachter Young Israel of Woodmere Halachipedia Guide permits egg matzah and recommends it as the best solution for seuda shelishit. This is also the opinion of the Aruch Hashulchan 444:5 and Rav Shlomo Wahrman's opinion in Orot Hapesach. Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Vayikra 5781 min 58) said that for Ashkenazim it is permitted to have egg matzah for seuda shelishit.
- Hagahot Maimoniot 6:12:9 writes that Rabbenu Tam would eat egg matzah for seuda shelishit on Erev Pesach that fell out on Shabbat. This practice is also quoted in Smag Asin 40, Talmid Harashba 35b s.v. isa, Rashba (Teshuvot Hameyuchasot LRamban 210), Avudraham (Dinei Shlosh Seudot), Agur 712, Rosh Pesachim 10:1, Tashbetz 3:260, Orchot Chaim (Chametz 79). [In Hagahot Maimoniyot and Avudraham it seems that Rabbenu Tam would eat egg matzah during seuda shelishitbut aren't clear if that was the main food to fulfill his obligation. However, in the other rishonim's presentationo of Rabbenu Tam it is clear that he was using the egg matzah in order to fulfill his obligation of seuda shelishit.] Tosfot Pesachim 35b s.v. vmey, Tosfot Rashba 35b s.v. umey, Rosh 2:13, and Ritva 35a s.v. dardeki all quote that Rabbenu Tam ate egg matzah after midday on Erev Pesach but don't specify that he would use it for seuda shelishit. Rabbenu Peretz 36a s.v. isa quotes that Rashi would eat egg matzah on Erev Pesach (it is possible that it should be emended to say Rabbenu Tam.)
- Additionally, Rashba (Meyuchasot 210) writes that the Maharam's practice was also to eat egg matzah for seuda shelishit but with matzah made with fruit juice and not eggs like Rabbenu Tam. Orchot Chaim (Chametz 79) records this practice as well.
- See also Nodeh Beyehuda 1:21. See Or Zaruah 2:256 s.v. lo yesev who implies that it is permitted to have egg matzah for seuda shelishit on Shabbat. Darkei Moshe Haaruch 444 cites the halacha in 471:2 and implies that it is only forbidden to eat egg matzah after the tenth hour and not after the fourth hour. Minhagim of Rav Isaac Tirna (Erev Pesach) records the practice of eating egg matzah and the practice of eating fruit.
- Magen Avraham 444:1
- Chazon Ovadia Pesach p. 260. Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Vayakel Pekudei 5781 min 52) said that sephardim can have cooked or deep fried matza for seuda shlishit.
- Chazon Ovadia Pesach p. 260. Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Vayakel Pekudei 5781 min 52) said that sephardim can have deep fried matza for seuda shlishit.
- Pri Megadim 471:8 has a doubt whether deep fried matzah is similar to cooked matzah and therefore it could be forbidden to eat on Erev Pesach. Therefore, Or Letzion 3:14:1 forbids eating deep fried matzah for seuda shelishit. However, Chazon Ovadia is not concerned for the Pri Megadim since the Shulchan Aruch Harav holds certainly deep frying is like cooking.
- Rama 471:2, Mishna Brurah 471:20, Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 8:117, Or Letzion 3:14:1, Piskei Teshuvot 471:3, Young Israel of Woodmere Guide
- Halichot Shlomo 8:4 writes that it’s permissible if in the kneading the dough lost its form as bread.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 444:3, Otzar Hageonim Pesachim 49a n. 163 quoting Rav Hai Goan
- Rama O.C. 444:3, Mishna Brurah 444:13
- Mishna Brurah 444:14
- Shaar Hatziyun 444:4
- Rav Hershel Schachter ("Inyanei Erev Pesach She'chal BeShabbat", min 73-75) explains that really a stream acting as a connection (transl. nisok chabur; Heb. נצוק חיבור) is a chumra because it only applies to tumah and not transfer of taste. Even though we're strict but a stream from a kli sheni it is permitted. Additionally, there is only a minute amount of taste transferred so it should be nullified before the fifth hour on Erev Pesach.
- Chazon Ovadia p. 256
- Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Vayikra 5781, min 28-30). In terms of the hachana he is lenient based on the Maharshag since it is impossible to arrange to do it after Shabbat, so it isn't hachana to do it on Shabbat. In terms of muktzeh he is lenient based on Rabbi Akiva Eiger that muktzeh machmat chisaron kis is permitted with a permitted item on top of it unlike the Taz.
- Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat 5781, min 21) said that technically if it is necessary, such as if one's child doesn't understand why they need to take a nap, it is permitted to say it since it is for a mitzvah.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 444:4
- Mishna Brurah 444:18-20
- Mishna Brurah 444:20
- Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach in Halichot Shlomo 8:8
- Rav Elyashiv (Dirshu 444:27 quoting Haggadah Shel Pesach of Rav Elyashiv p. 20). Rav Hershel Schachter ("Inyanei Erev Pesach She'chal Bshabbat", min 8-12) agrees and explains that most poskim disagree with Rabbi Akiva Eiger Siman 159 and it is permitted to have a acquisition effective on Shabbat. However, a sale that doesn't specify which chametz is included is an issue with bereirah.
- Halichot Shlomo 8:17, Dirshu 444:31 citing Rav Elyashiv (Mevakshei Torah v. 6 p. 230). Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Vayikra 5781 min 5) said that it is sufficient to throw the chametz crumbs in one's private garbage on Erev Pesach that falls out on Shabbat since one nullifies them and has no intention to acquire them afterwards.
- Mishna Brurah 444:21
- Mishna Brurah 444:21
- Mishna Brurah 444:21
- Nefesh Harav p. 168, Yachava Daat 1:91, Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Vayikra 5781, min 14) explained that it is permitted to brush one's teeth or wash one's mouth out with water and it is not considered hachana for Pesach since it is necessary for the middle of Shabbat itself.