Muktzeh on Yom Tov

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Muktzeh on Yom Tov

  1. All the restrictions of Muktzeh of Shabbat apply to Yom Tov and furthermore Yom Tov has some added restrictions. [1]
  2. According to Sephardim, more categories of Muktzeh are forbidden on Yom Tov including:
    1. peels and shells that used to be edible for a person and now are edible for an animal (Nolad),
    2. something that is disgusting (Muktzeh Machmat Miyus),
    3. and something that is for sale (karchei d'zuzei).
  3. According to Ashkenazim only the category of Nolad applies to Yom Tov even though it doesn't apply to Shabbat. [2]
  4. If Yom Tov falls out on Shabbat, some say that it is treated stringently like a regular Yom Tov[3] while others say that it has the same restrictions as Shabbat and not the regular Yom Tov. [4]

Nolad

  1. On Shabbat if meat is removed from a bone the bones aren’t Muktzeh if they could be given to dogs (assuming that there are dogs in the city) to chew on. [5]However, on Yom Tov bones from which meat was removed on Yom Tov may not be moved as they are Muktzeh. [6]
  2. If the meat was removed from the bones before Yom Tov, the bones aren’t Muktzeh. [7]
  3. If a piece of the meat is attached to the meat the bones aren’t Muktzeh. [8]
  4. If the presence of the bones is disgusting (to the one who uses that room) one may remove them. [9]
  5. One should put the bones down on the plate where there is a little bit of food and then one would be able to move the bones. [10]

Regular Muktzeh

  1. Food which was designated to be sold, on Shabbat isn’t Muktzeh unless he’s concerned about using it for something other than for merchandise [11], however, on Yom Tov it is Muktzeh according to Sephardim. [12]
  2. According to Sephardim, in order to designate Muktzeh, such as fruit that was put in storage, prior to Yom Tov it is sufficient to designate it for use and it isn't necessary to write which items one is going to use.[13]
  3. A lit candle isn't muktzeh on Yom Tov.[14]

Ochel Nefesh

  1. For Ochel Nefesh (preparing food to be eaten on Yom Tov) purposes it’s permissible to move muktzeh. [15] For example, if there’s bones from which meat was separated on the table one may remove them in order to eat on the table. [16]
  2. Some say that this doesn’t apply to Muktzeh Machmat Chisaron Kis while others argue. [17]

Kli Sh’Melachto LeIssur

  1. One may move Kli Sh’Melachto LeIssur for a need of the object or for the place that it is taking up just like Shabbat. [18]
  2. Electronics are Kli Sh’Melachto LeIssur on Yom Tov. [19]

Sources

  1. Shulchan Aruch OC 495:4
  2. Shulchan Aruch OC 495:4 writes that muktzeh on Yom Tov is more strict than Shabbat. The Rama writes that some hold that Yom Tov is just like Shabbat. Mishna Brurah 495:16 and Nitai Gavriel (Yom Tov vol. 1 24:1-2) seem to hold that Ashkenazim hold like the Rama. The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 99:1 writes the opinion of the Rama as primary but also quotes the opinion of Shulchan Aruch. Yalkut Yosef 495:4:1 holds like Shulchan Aruch.
  3. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 21:22
  4. Sh”t Rav Poalim 1:30, Yalkut Yosef 495:4:3, Natai Gavriel (Yom Tov, vol 1, 24:4)
  5. Mishna Brurah 308:110
  6. Mishna Brurah 495:17
  7. Kaf HaChaim 495:36, Natai Gavriel (Yom Tov, vol 1, 24:2)
  8. S”A 501:7, Mishna Brurah 501:30
  9. S”A 308:34, Natai Gavriel (Yom Tov, vol 1, 24:2)
  10. Natai Gavriel (Yom Tov, vol 1, 24:2) based on S”A 310:6
  11. Mishna Brurah 308:6-7
  12. Rama 495:4, Magen Avraham 495:9
  13. The Mishna Beitzah 34a cites a dispute between Rabbi Eliezer and Chachamim if a person needs to write which fruit he is going to use on Yom Tov; Rabbi Eliezer held you can just designate it mentally and Chachamim hold that you need to write it down. What exactly was their dispute about?
    • Rashi and Ran understood the dispute between Rabbi Eliezer and Chachamim as discussing berierah. Rabbi Eliezer doesn't hold of berierah and Chachamim do. Meiri (Beitzah 34b) also understands the dispute in this light.
    • Tosfot according to Magen Avraham and Sfat Emet understood the dispute about muktzeh. Rabbi Eliezer holds mental preparation is enough to prepare muktzeh, whereas the Chachamim hold that
    • Pri Chadash 495:4 argues that the Rambam, Rif, and Rosh hold like Chachamim since otherwise why would the Rif quote the mishna. He explains that their dispute is about whether we're concerned that a person would pick up a fruit and if it wasn't to his liking put it done and end up moving muktzeh unnecessarily (see Beitzah 10b). The Peni Yehoshua 34b agrees with this interpretation of the gemara. Magen Avraham 495:10 mentions this concern though not in explaining the gemara.
    • The Yerushalmi Beitzah 1:4 asks that this seems to be at odds with the Mishna Beitzah 10a that Bet Shamay, the teacher of Rabbi Eliezer, hold that an action is necessary to prepare animals so as not to be muktzeh, whereas Rabbi Eliezer holds that it is enough to just verbally prepare it. The Yerushalmi answers that preparing animals is unique and requires an action. Then the Yerushalmi asks why Chachamim hold an action is necessary if Bet Hillel holds an action isn't necessary to prepare muktzeh. Tosfot Beitzah 34b answers that the Mishna 34b was discussing dried fruit which was actively designated not to be eaten on Yom Tov.
    • The Rambam (Yom Tov 2:9, Pirush Mishnayot) holds like the Chachamim in the mishna, whereas Rabbenu Yerucham (cited by Bet Yosef 518:9) holds like Rabbi Eliezer. The Bet Yosef 518:9 asks on the Rambam if understood like Rashi he doesn't understand why he was strict if we are lenient on bereirah on derabbanan's. The Rama 495:4 rules like Rabbenu Yerucham that it isn't necessary to designate muktzeh with an action and it is enough to prepare it verbally. Magen Avraham 495:10 questions the Rama because the Tosfot would be strict on muktzeh that was designated not to be used.
    • See Korban Ha'edah and Peni Moshe on Yerushalmi (Beitzah 1:4) and Peni Yehoshua (Beitzah 34b) understand the Yerushalmi and Tosfot as discussing bereirah unlike the Magen Avraham.
    • In any event, the Mishna Brurah 495:22 writes that we should be strict for the Magen Avraham at least by dried fruit and there is what to rely upon for dried put away for storage. Kaf Hachaim 495:37 is initially strict for the Magen Avraham.
  14. Gemara Shabbat 45a, Shulchan Aruch OC 514:6, Mishna Brurah 514:36
  15. Tosfot Beitzah 8a s.v. amar, Rama 518:3 and Rama 509:7, Mishna Brurah 518:23, Yalkut Yosef 495:4:4. Magen Avraham 509:15 explains that only moving muktzeh is permitted for the needs of Ochel Nefesh but not to use muktzeh such using non-prepared ashes for covering blood.
  16. Natai Gavriel (Yom Tov, vol 1, 24:3)
  17. Natai Gavriel (Yom Tov, vol 1, 24:10)
  18. Natai Gavriel (Yom Tov, vol 1, 24:20) quoting Pri Megadim (M”Z 500:1)
  19. Sh”t Igrot Moshe 3:49, Natai Gavriel (Yom Tov, vol 1, 24:25)