Difference between revisions of "Pesukei DeZimrah"
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== Ashrei ==
== Ashrei ==
# One needs
# One needs that Hashem provides for all in “Pote’ach Et Yadecha”. If one have kavanah one should say the pasuk again. If one finished the mizmor one should repeat from Pote’ach until the end, and if one only remembers later, should say Pote’ach between mizmorim. If one finished all the mizmorim one should have in Ashrei after [[Tachanun]] or in Ashrei of [[Mincha]]. <Ref> 51:7 based on Talmidei Rabbeinu Yonah 23a s.v. Kol HaOmer. Orchot Chaim (Tachanot Vemizmorim sh’acher shema esreh 3), Sefer Eshkol (Mehuderet Rav Aurbach 24:53), Birkei Yosef 51:5, Siddur Rav Amram Goan 103 say we Ashrei is said 3 times so that if one have the first timecan have kavana the next time. However the Levush 51:8 says when one remembers one must repeat the whole mizmor, on which many achronim (Eliyah 51:6, Magen Avraham 51:6, Pri Megadim A”A 51:6, Mor UKesia, Solet Belula 51:5, Yeshuot Yacov 51:1, Shulchan Aruch Harav 51:8, Birkei Yosef 51:1, Siddur Bet Ovad 51:3 and Kaf Hachaim Sofer 51:32, Halacha Bruah 51:33) disagree based on the Talmidei Rabbenu Yonah that one just repeats Pote’ach. Still, Chaye Adam 18:2 and Mishna Brurah 51:16 hold when one remembers one should repeat from Pote’ach until the end. The Kaf Hachaim Sofer 51:33 says one interrupt to repeat Pote’ach in Pesukei DeZimrah since one can say it with after [[Shmoneh Esrei]] and repeat it there if needed. However many allow one to repeat it even in Pesukei DeZimrah. This is also the opinion of Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 12 and is implied from many posikim. Therefore Sh”t Yabia Omer 5:6 says one should preferably say it between mizmorim </ref>
# Sephardim have the custom to open their hands during Pote’ach. <Ref> Rov Dagan (Ot Letova 24:2), Chaim LeRosh (
# Sephardim have the custom to open their hands during Pote’ach. <Ref> Rov Dagan (Ot Letova 24:2), Chaim LeRosh (Birkat HaMazon 8 pg 78b). See further in Sh”t Torat Lishma 31, Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 12, Pekudat Elazar 51e, Sh”t Kiryat Chana David O”C 1:13, Tzitz Eliezer 12:8, Milta Betama 72, Sh”t Shaarei Tzedek Chirari 2:20. </ref>
# Ashrei is composed of two pesukim “Ashrei Yoshvei” and “Ashrei HaAm” before “Tehilat
# Ashrei is composed of two pesukim “Ashrei Yoshvei” and “Ashrei HaAm” before “Tehilat and concludes with “VaAnachnu” <Ref> Tur 51 writes of the practice of the introductory pasuk Ashrei from Tosfot Brachot 32b s.v. Kodem. The Bach 51 brings the second introductory pasuk of Ashrei against the Rokeach. Magen Avraham 51:7 agrees. Bet Yosef 51 and Rama 51:7 bring the ending verse VaAnachnu. </ref>
===Importance of Ashrei===
===Importance of Ashrei===
# One who recites ashrei three times a day is guaranteed life in the world to come. <ref> Gemara Berachot 4b </ref>
# One who recites ashrei three times a day is guaranteed life in the world to come. <ref> Gemara Berachot 4b </ref>
Revision as of 22:06, 31 December 2015
- 1 Basics
- 2 The Time of Pesukei DeZimrah
- 3 Women Saying Pesukei DeZimrah
- 4 Amen after Baruch Sh'amar and Yishtabach
- 5 Interruptions in Baruch Sh’amar and Yishtabach
- 6 Interruptions in Middle of Pesukei DeZimrah
- 7 Interruptions between Yishtabach and Brachot Yotzer
- 8 Hodu
- 9 Baruch She’amar
- 10 Mizmor Letodah
- 11 Ashrei
- 12 The Mizmorim
- 13 Az Yashir
- 14 When to stand during Pesuke DeZimra
- 15 Sources
- The Rabbis instituted to say Pesukei DeZimrah starting with the blessing Baruch Sh'amar and ending with the blessing Yishtabach. 
- In Nusach Sefard, Hodu, Hod V'Hadar, V'hu Rachum, Hoshiah, Mizmor Shir, Hashem Melech, Hoshieinu, and Lamnatzeach come before Baruch Sh'amar. Hodu is put first since it is related to Korbanot. Part of Hodu was sung in the Mishkan during the Tamid service every day until the inauguration of the Beit Hamikdash from 43 years before. 
- One should not add to the mizmorim or repeat them unless one wants to repeat something for which he did not have Kavanah the first time. 
- One should stand for Baruch Sh'amar and Vayevarech David until and including Atta Hu Hashem Elokim and Ashkenazim also stand for Yishtabach. 
- Someone sick or old can say it seated. 
The Time of Pesukei DeZimrah
- The time to say Pesukei DeZimrah is from Olot Hashachar (72 before sunrise) until the 4th hour in Shaot Zmaniot. 
- If one missed the time unintentionally or unwillingly one can say it after 4 hours until Chatzot (when one cannot say Birchot Shema but can say Shmoneh Esrei. However it one missed the time intentionally one can only say Baruch Sh'amar and Yishtabach without Hashem’s name in the bracha (and Shmoneh Esrei should be said with a stipulation that it should be voluntary if it is unnecessary). 
- If it is after Chatzot, or one said Shmoneh Esrei before one said Pesukei DeZimrah, one should only say Baruch Sh'amar and Yishtabach without Hashem’s name in the bracha. 
Women Saying Pesukei DeZimrah
- The practice of Sephardic women is that if women want to say it, since there is no obligation for them to do so, they may only say Pesukei DeZimrah without Hashem’s name in the bracha. The practice of Ashkenazi women is to say the bracha with Hashem’s name. 
Amen after Baruch Sh'amar and Yishtabach
- If one finished Baruch Sh'amar before the Shaliach Tzibbur one can answer amen after the Shaliach Tzibbur finishes Baruch Sh'amar. 
- If one finished Baruch Sh'amar with the Shaliach Tzibbur one may not answer amen after the Shaliach Tzibbur finishes Baruch Sh'amar, since it would look like one is answering amen to one’s own bracha. 
- The Sephardic custom is to say amen after one’s own bracha when it concludes a significant section such as saying amen after Yishtabach. Ashkenazim have the minhag not to say amen after one’s own bracha as after Yishtabach, but if one finishes Yishtabach with the Shaliach Tzibbur one can answer amen. 
Interruptions in Baruch Sh’amar and Yishtabach
- When one is saying the beginning of Baruch Sh’amar or Yishtabach before the words Baruch Atta Hashem, one can answer Kaddish, Kedusha, and Barchu. 
- When one is saying the Bracha of Baruch Sh’amar or Yishtabach after Baruch Atta Hashem, one may not answer amen to a bracha. 
- When one is saying the bracha of Baruch Sh’amar or Yishtabach after Baruch Atta Hashem, one can answer Kedusha, Barchu, and the first five amen’s of a Sephardic Kaddish and three amen’s of an Ashkenazic Kaddish. One should not answer Barich Hu. When one answers Amen Yehe Shem Raba one should only answer up to Ulmiya Yitbarach and not until De’amiran Be’alma. 
Interruptions in Middle of Pesukei DeZimrah
- After the fact, if one did interrupt during Pesukei DeZimrah with talking unrelated to prayer, according to Sephardim, one does not repeat the bracha (Baruch Sh’amar) again. [According to Ashkenazim, one has what to rely on to repeat Baruch Sh’amar.] 
- When one is saying Pesukei DeZimrah, even right after Baruch Sh’amar before the zemirot, and even during Baruch Sh’amar before the bracha part, one can answer amen after a bracha one hears from one's friend. 
- When one is in between the zemirot, one can interrupt according to the same principles as in between the brachot of Birchot Kriyat Shema, meaning one can answer anyone’s greeting or greet a person who demands respect. When one is in the middle of one of the zemirot, one can greet someone who one has to fear such as one’s parents or rabbi and one can answer the greeting of one who demands respect. Yet some hold, nowadays, when generally no one gets offended by not being greeted one should not interrupt. 
- If the Rabbi or Gabbay needs to announce the page number in the middle of Pesukei Dezimrah, it is preferable that he not announce it but rather indicate the page number by having page number cards at the front of the shul to display the page number. If that is not possible and it is a great need, one may announce it in between paragraphs. 
- Sephardim should answer only the first five amen’s of a Sephardic Kaddish and Ashkenazim the first three amen’s of an Ashkenazic Kaddish. Barich Hu should not be answered. Amen Yehe Sheme Raba can be answered up to De’amiran Be’alma. 
- One may not answer Baruch Hu U’Baruch Shemo. 
- One can answer the following in Kedusha: “Kadosh Kadosh…”, “Baruch Kavod…”, and “Yimloch Hashem…”, but not the entire Kedusha. 
- One cannot answer the Kedusha of Brachat Yotzer or Uva Letzion. 
- One cannot interrupt Pesukei DeZimrah to answer the 13 midot, but those who have the Minhag to answer it even in the middle of Pesukei DeZimrah, have what to rely on. 
- One should answer only the first three words of Modim Derabanan, “Modim Anachnu Lach” and the rest one should just recite mentally. However, those who have the minhag to answer the entire paragraph may answer it. 
- Sephardim should not say the first pasuk of Shema with the tzibbur, rather one should cover one’s eyes and continue to read Pesukei DeZimrah. Ashkenazim should answer the first pasuk of Shema. 
- One must stand up for a Torah scholar or elderly person (70 years old) during Pesukei DeZimrah.See the standing for elders page.
- One who hears thunder or sees a rainbow, can interrupt Pesukei DeZimrah to make these brachot, because they are a passing mitzvah. 
- One can put on Tallit and Tefillin between mizmors and if one is up to Yishtabach one should first say Yishtabach and then put on Tallit and Tefillin. 
- If the Zman Kriyat Shema (even if it is just the Magen Avraham’s time) is about to end within minutes and it is not possible to skip zemirot, finish Pesukei DeZimrah, Birchot Kriyat Shema and Shema, one may interrupt Pesukei DeZimrah to say all 3 paragraphs of Shema. 
- One who went to the bathroom, should say Asher Yatzar, put on their Tallit without a bracha and put on Tefillin with a bracha between mizmorim and if he was in between Pesukei DeZimrah and Yishtabach he should wait until after Yishtabach.  Between Barchu and the Amida, one should wait until after the Amida. 
- A mourner within 12 months of the death of one of his parents, can interrupt with “Kaddish Al Israel” but should be careful to only interrupt when between mizmorim. Those who want to say the other kaddishim that one has the minhag to say as a mourner has what to rely on. One has what to rely on to say “Kaddish Yatom” between “perakim” of Birchot Kriyat Shema. 
- One can not answer the Vezot Hatorah of Hagbah or Barich Sheme when the Aron is opened. 
- One should not interrupt to listen to Kriyat HaTorah if he can hear it later from another minyan. If not, he should listen between the mizmorim. 
- If one was called for an aliyah by name one should make the brachot and read along with the bal koreh as usual. If one wasn’t called by name he should refuse the aliyah by signaling. If one’s the only Cohen or levi there he can take the aliyah even if not called by name. One should finish the pasuk he’s in but not the paragraph unless one is close to the end. One shouldn’t ask the shaliach Tzibbur to say a mesheberach. 
- If one gets the maftir Aliyah, he should say the Haftorah with Brachot. 
- If there is no one else who know how to read the Torah with the tune and correct pronunciation, he may interrupt (even in Shema), but shouldn’t say misheberach’s. One can interrupt to correct the Torah reading if the mistake changes the meaning. 
- The tzibbur shouldn’t add piutim in Pesukei DeZimrah or Brachot Kriyat Shema, but should be said after the Kaddish Titkabel after Shema Esreh. Ashkenazim allow the tzibbur to add classical piutim even in Brachot Kriyat Shema, but shouldn’t add new piutim. 
- Even though one isn’t obligated to interrupt even for the Dvarim Shebekedusha that are permitted to answer it’s proper to interrupt for them; initially one should place oneself in a place that he can’t hear the Dvarim Shebekedusha so won’t have to answer. 
- One shouldn’t smell Besamim and make a bracha since it can wait until after davening. 
Interruptions between Yishtabach and Brachot Yotzer
- One can answer any dvar sh’bekedusha, including Baruch Hu UBaruch Shemo. 
- One can answer the Kedusha with the entire passage of “nakdishach” or “nekadesh” 
- One can answer the entire Modim Derabanan 
- One can answer the first pasuk of Shema with the Tzibbur 
- One can answer Vezot Hatorah of Hagbah and Barich Sheme when the Aron is opened. 
- In Hodu, one should pause between the words “Ki Kol Elohe HaAmim Elilim” and “VeHashem Shamayim Assa” 
- Baruch She'amar should be sung. 
- Baruch She'amar should be said standing. 
- There is a practice for men to hold the two front Tzitzit during Baruch She’amar and kiss them at the end. 
- One who forgot Baruch She’amar can say it when they remember, even if that happens to be in middle of Az Yashir, but once one finishes Az Yashir one is no longer allowed to say Baruch She’amar or Yishtabach. Ashkenazim have what to rely on if after the fact they forgot Baruch She’amar to still say Yishtabach. 
- One should answer Amen while saying Baruch She'amar before reaching the bracha part of it. During the bracha half one could answer Amen to any bracha except for hearing someone finish Baruch She'amar, however, during the conclusion, Baruch Atta Hashem Melech MeHulal BaTishbachot one should not answer Amen at all. The same is true of Yishtabach. 
- If one finished Baruch She'amar together with the Shaliach Tzibbur one should not say Amen because it looks like one is saying Amen to one’s own Bracha, however, if one finishes Yishtabach with the Shaliach Tzibbur one may answer Amen. 
- Ashkenazim stand during Mizmor Letodah, but Sephardim do not stand for Mizmor Letodah. 
- On Shabbat and Yom tov we replace Mizmor Letodah with Mizmor Shir leYom haShabbat and Hashem Malach. Many have the minhag to also say the first pasuk even on Yom tov. 
- On Rosh Hashana the majority minhag is not to say it, though some have the minhag to say it. Ashkenazim have the minhag not to say it on Erev Yom Kippur, but Sephardim do say it on Erev Yom Kippur. 
- Ashkenazim do not say it on Erev or Chol Hamoed Pesach, whereas Sephardim do. 
- It is to be said on Erev Tisha BaAv or Tisha BaAv. 
- One needs kavanah that Hashem provides for all in “Pote’ach Et Yadecha”. If one did not have kavanah one should say the pasuk again. If one finished the mizmor one should repeat from Pote’ach until the end, and if one only remembers later, ome should say Pote’ach between mizmorim. If one finished all the mizmorim one should have kavanah in Ashrei after Tachanun or in Ashrei of Mincha. 
- Sephardim have the custom to open their hands during Pote’ach. 
- Ashrei is composed of two pesukim “Ashrei Yoshvei” and “Ashrei HaAm” before “Tehilat LeDavid” and it concludes with “VaAnachnu” 
Importance of Ashrei
- One who recites ashrei three times a day is guaranteed life in the world to come. 
- The pasuk of “Kol Hanishma tihalelya” and “Hashem Yimloch leolom va’ed” are repeated. The Targum of Yimloch is also read, followed by “Ki Ba Sus”. 
- Sephardim have the custom to give three coins to tzedaka during “atta moshel bekol” in Vayevarech David, two coins first and then the third coin. 
- Az Yashir is said even on Tisha BaAv. 
- In the pasuk “Mi Chamocha BaElim Hashem Mi Kamocha Nedar Bakodesh” the first kamocha has a soft kaf and the second one has a dagesh. Similarly, “Yidamu KaAven” has a kaf with a dagesh and “Am Zu Ga’alta” has a gimmel with a dagesh. 
- One should pause between the words “Tzalelu KaOferet Bemayim” and “Adirim”, however some say not to pause. 
When to stand during Pesuke DeZimra
- Sephardim are accustomed to stand during the zemirot of "Hashem Melech", "Baruch SheAmar," and from "Vayvarech David" until "Asher Bacharta BeAvram." Additionally, one can stand during any part that he wishes with the exception of "Mizmor LeToda." 
- Shulchan Aruch 51:1. Rambam (tefilah 7:12) bases it on Shabbat 118b that one should say tehilim of Hashem’s praise daily. Rif and Rosh Brachot 5, learn it from Brachot 32a that a person should prepare praise before his requests. Tosfot Brachot 46a, Pesachim 104b state that since there is a bracha it must ben established by rabbis and not is not just a minhag. The Pri Chadash 51 writes that it is an establishment of the Geonim against the Birkei Yosef 51:1 who quotes Tur who quotes Sefer Hayecholet that Yishmael ben Elisha Cohen Gadol wrote Baruch Sh'amar and the mentioning of it in the Yerushalmi and Zohar.
- Beis Yosef, Orach Chaim 50
- Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:1 proves it from Siddur Bet Ovad (Hilchot Pesukei DeZimrah 66b) who says adding unnecessary verses or repeating unnecessarily would be an interruption based on Rama 51:9. Similarly, Sefer HaEshkol says that since parts of Vayevarech David and Az Yashir are not part of David’s works they should be said after davening to avoid an interruption. However Yaavetz in Mor Ukesiah says one can add praises from Tehilim and so the Chaye Adam 20:1 uses this to challenge Shulchan Aruh 65:2. Yet, since Shulchan Aruch is strict not to say the pasuk of Shema during Pesukei DeZimrah, Shulchan Aruch must hold that verses not established in Pesukei DeZimrah can not be added. This is also the opinion of the Chida (Moreh Etzba 3:74) and Petach Dvir 65:3. Interestingly, Yeshuot Yacov 51:1 says that it may even be an interruption to repeat the verse “Poteach et Yadecha” without Kavanah in the middle of Pesukei DeZimrah. Kaf Hachaim 51:33, however, holds that one should not repeat “Poteach et Yadecha” in Pesukei DeZimrah if one didn't have kavanah. On this topic, see further in Yabia Omer 6:5.
- Concerning Baruch Sh'amar, Darkei Moshe 51:1, Rama 51:7, Bach 53 argue that one should stand during Baruch Sh'amar. Taz 51:1, Eliyah Raba 51:1, Solet Belula 51:1, Shalmei Tzibbur pg 66(4), Mishna Brurah 51:1, Kaf Hachaim 51:1. Magen Avraham 51:1 says one must stand even one praying privately. Concerning Vayivarech David, Darkei Moshe 51:8 records the minhag to stand not like the Maharil, Arizal (Shaar Kavanot Tefilat Shachar 18c), Pri Etz Chaim (shaar zemirot 6), Magen Avraham 51:9, Eliyah Raba 51:9, Yad Aharon (hagot tur), Shalmei Tzibbur 69d, Kesher Gudal 7:43, Siddur Bet Ovad 1, Mishna Brurah 51:19, Kaf Hachaim 51:43.
- Rama 51:7 writes that Ashkenazim have the minhag to stand during Yishtabach. Bet Yosef 53 quotes Hagahot Maymoniyot and Kol Bo citing Rav Amram Goan that such was the practice. Sephardim do not have this minhag as noted by the Bach 53, Shaarei Knesset Gedolah 53, Chesed LeAlafim 53:1, Ikrei Hadaat O”C 4:15, Yafeh Lev 53:1, and Kaf Hachaim 53:42.
- Mishpatei Tzedek 70 and Rav Ovadia Yosef in Halichot Olam (Vayigash v. 1 p. 75) write that an old or sick person may stay seated. Additionally, Biur HaGra 51:12 says standing altogether is a stringency.
- Elyah Raba 664:3 in name of Maharil, Mekor Chaim 18:3, Torat Chaim Sofer 51:1, Yechva Daat 2:8. The Yosef Ometz Uzfa is strict that it should not be done until closer to sunrise. However, Teshuva MeAhava 2 pg 6(3) and Meharsham BeDaat Torah 664, in name of Rashi, say that it can be said before Olot Hashachar.
- Mishna Brurah 89:6, and Yalkut Yosef (Tefilah 1 pg 140, Sherit Yosef 2 pg 256) say that by Shmoneh Esrei after 4 hours one can still pray only if one unintentionally missed the time as stated in Shulchan Aruch 89:1. Whether one can say Shmoneh Esrei if one intentionally missed the time is a dispute of the achronim and so one can pray with a stipulation. Halacha Brurah 51:6 writes, however, for Pesukei DeZimrah, since it is a dispute and no stipulation is valid, we do not say the bracha as it is a Safek Bracha.
- Shulchan Aruch 52:1, Aruch (Erech Tefilah), Machsor Vitri 23, Or Zaruha 1:100, Smak 12:77, Hagahot Maimon Tefilah 7:50, Rashba 1:589 in name of Ramban, Shibolei HaLeket 7, against the Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 23a who say you can still say it after Shmoneh Esrei. Halacha Brurah 51:6 extends this also to where the Chatzot passed.
- Halacha Brurah 51:7 from his teshuva Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:3. Shulchan Aruch 589:6 says women may not make brachot that are on time bound positive mitzvot and Rama says women may make these brachot. Whether women are obligated in Pesukei DeZimrah is a dispute in the achronim. The dispute is based on the dispute in the rishonim where women are exempt from time bound mitzvot that are derabanan. (Tosfot Brachot 20b holds they are exempt and Orchot Chaim (Hilchot Tzitzit 31) in name of Rabbenu Tam holds they are obligated.) Since Pesukei DeZimrah is a time bound derabanan mitzvah seemingly it would be dependant on the dispute of the rishonim. In Siman 47, the Taz and Magen Avraham imply from Bet Yosef that women are patur from Pesukei DeZimrah; however the Maharil haChadashot 45:2 pg 53, holds women are chayav and when Bet Yosef quotes the Maharil he leaves out that women are chayav. Mishna Brurah 70:1 implies from Rabbi Akiva Eiger that women are obligated. Or Letzion 2, 5:3 pg 44-5, holds they are not obligated but can still make the bracha since it is praise of Hashem, but Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 2:165, 8:8 argues that one should not make unnecessary brachot.
- Shulchan Aruch 51:2, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 11, laaws of tefila from baruch she'amar until yishtabach, seif 3, Tur 51:2 based on the Rosh in a Teshuva (Klal 4:19), Bet Yosef (51:2) compares this to a dispute of Rishonim of answering Amen after HaBocher B’Amo Israel BeAhava before Shema and then concludes by Pesukei DeZimrah we can be lenient since amen is a praise of Hashem(fitting with theme of Pesukei DeZimrah). Magen Avraham 51:3. Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 6:4, 7:8(3), Yavetz in Mor Ukesia 65, Kiseh Eliyahu 51:3, Chida in Kesher Gadol 7:21,34, Pri Megadim A”A 51:3, Chaye Adam 2:3, Kesot HaShulchan in Badeh Shulchan 18:5 in name of Siddur Rav Zalman, Shalmei Tzibbur pg 67b, Sh”t Zechur L’Yitzchak Hareri 7:6, Rav Shlomo Kluger in Sefer HaChaim 59, Minchat Aharon 12(4). However the Tevuot Shemesh O”C 12 and Aruch Hashulchan do not allow one to answer amen during Pesukei DeZimrah.
- Teshuvat Harosh (klal 4:19), Magen Avrham 51:2, Birkei Yosef 51:2, Kesher Gudal 7:26, Shalmei Tzibbor 67:1 Shulchan Aruch Harav51:3, Siddur Bet Ovad 11, Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 8, Mishna Brurah 51:8, Kaf haChaim 51:3.
- Shulchan Aruch 51:3,215:1 and Rama 215:1. It is permitted to answer the Shaliach Tzibbur’s bracha if one finishes at the same time and it is not an issue of looking like you are answering your own bracha. Bach 54, Magen Avrham 51:2, Beir Hetev 51:2, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 51:3, Mishna Brurah 51:3 and other Achronim agree.
- Halacha Brurah 51:12, Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 9, Kaf HaChaim of Rabbi Chaim Palagi 18:4, Mishna Brurah 51:2, Kesher Gudal 7:29,30 see footnote 17.
- The Magen Avraham (51:3) holds one can answer amen during the bracha of Baruch Sh’amar since it is a bracha not mentioned in Talmud, so holds the Pri Chadash 51, Imri David Padir 51, Sh”t Levushei David Tanina O”C 16, Sh”t Hayshiv Moshe Titelbaum O”C 3, Mishna Brurah 51:2. However, Birkei Yosef 51:1 quotes Tur who quotes Sefer Hayecholet that Yishmael ben Elisha Cohen Gadol wrote Baruch She’amar and the mentioning of it in the Yerushalmi and Zohar. Thus, in the bracha itself one may not answer amen, so holds Mishkenot Yacov O”C 64, Chida in Kesher Gadol 7:29, Mishna Brurah 51:2 in name of Chaye Adam 5:13, Igrot Moshe O”C 4:13, Shalmei Tzibbur pg 67b, Sh”t Zechur LeAvraham 3 pg 5b, Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Palagi 18:5, Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 9, Tehilah LeDavid 51:1, Me’ain Ganim O”C 13:4, Torat Chaim Sofer 51:1, Beiur Halacha D”H Im Siyem, Sh”t Meshiv Halacha 1:438, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 5:7(5), 6:6(3), Sh”t Yacheva Daat 6:3 pg 18.
- Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Palagi (18:5) says one may not answer any Dvar Sh’bekedusha during the bracha. Yet Taharat HaMayim (Shuirei Tahara Ma’arechet 5:19, pg 54b) argues one should be allowed just as during brachot of Shema. This is also the opinion of Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 9, Kaf HaChaim of Rabbi Chaim Sofer 53:2, 54:7, Chesed LeAlafim 54:2, and Halacha Brurah 51:12. Mishna Brurah 54:3 quotes Chaye Adam 5:13 who forbids any interruption in the actual bracha, but the Mishna Brurah says one could argue with this and leaves it as a tzarich iyun. Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 9 says one should say Amen Yehe Sheme Raba until Da’Amiran Be’alma and Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 1:5, 6:8, Halichot Olam Vayigash 3 quotes achronim who say one should only say up to Ulmiya. Concerning Barich Hu see footnote 23.
- Sh”t Ginat Veradim O”C klal 1:52, Sh”t Pardes HaGadol 5, Sh”t Zechur L’Yitchak O”C pg 11d, Pri Megadim A”A 51:3 concludes with a Tzarich Iyun, Mishna Brurah 51:4 all hold an interruption forfeits the bracha of Baruch Sh’amar and one should repeat it, Halacha Brurah in Birur Halacha 51:3 brings the Rashbetz in name of the Geonim that speech is not an interruption to answer a greeting of anyone or to greet someone who demands respect during Pesukei DeZimrah even between Baruch Sh’amar and the zemirot; and does not effect the bracha, so holds Perach Soshan O”C klal 1:15, Korban Esheh O”C 2, Taharat HaMayim (Shuri Tahara Merechet 40:47), Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 6:5(3). Minchat Aharon 12:3e, Kaf Hachaim 51:7 implied from Shulchan Aruch 51:4. On the other hand, Mishna Brurah 51:4 holds one should repeat, as do several other achronim. However, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 6:5(3) says that had those achronim seen the Rashbetz in the name of the geonim they would have retracted their positions.
- See footnote 12 regarding amen during Pesukei DeZimrah. One may answer amen during the beginning of Baruch Sh’amar, since one still has not begun the bracha with Hashem’s name; so holds Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Palagi 18:4, Kesher Gudal 7:29,30, Mishna Brurah 51:2, Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 9 allows one to answer but afterwards one should begin Baruch Sh’amar again. Yet Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Sofer (51:11) and Halichot Olam (Vayigash 4) say one should not repeat the beginning of Baruch Sh’amar.
- Shulchan Aruch 51:5 based on Tashbetz 204, Orchot Chaim (Meah Brachot 22), Kolbo 4, and Avudraham (Tefilah shel Chol) rules that the laws of greeting that apply to Kriyat Shema (Shulchan Aruch 66:1) also apply to Pesukei DeZimrah. Nonetheless, Sefer Chinuch (42) says since nowadays no one is concerned with being greeted for respect and it is sufficient that one stands for them, one should not interrupt at all. This is also the opinion of Mishna Brurah 51:12 and Halacha Brurah 61:4 against the Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 2:1(3). Additionally, Kennest Gedola (66 Hagahot HaTur) limits the permision to greet, to someone one has not seen recently and not greeting him will cause hatred; another limition is that it is only permitted to interrupt outside of shul. Many achronim bring this as halacha including Magen Avrham 66:1, Eliyah Rabba 66:2, Solet Belula 66:2, Shalmei Tzibbur 97b, Mishna Brurah 66:2, Kaf HaChaim 66:3, yet, Halacha Brurah (Shar Tzion 51:26) argues since Shulchan Aruch quotes the Mishna without limiting the permit to a shul, it seems that he does not hold of this chiluk.
- Sht”t Igrot Moshe 1:22
- Halacha Brurah 51:14 and Piskei Teshuva 51:14 define the part of Kaddish that one can answer as the first five amen’s however, the amen’s of titkabal, yehe shlama, al Yisrael, and oseh shalom should not be answered based on Magen Avraham 66:36 who says these amen’s are not an obligation but a minhag. This is also the opinion of the Ben Ish Chai (Vayigash 10, Shemot 6), Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Sofer 66:23, Dvar Yehoshua 2:7, and Sh”t Yabia Omer 1:5, 6:8. However there is what to rely on to answer these amen’s as in Sh”t Igrot Moshe 4:14, and Sh”t Shoel VeNishal 4:26 that all amen’s can be answered during Pesukei DeZimrah. Concerning answering Amen Yehe Sheme Raba, Mishna Brurah 56:15 holds Ashkenazim should only answer up to U’lmiya, while, Halacha Brurah (Birur Halacha 51:7) quotes Me’at Mayim 19e, Shuiri Tahara 70:44, Minchat Aharon, Ben Ish Chai Shemot 6, Rabbu Eliyahu Mani in Yarchon Hameasef 3:36, Kaf HaChaim of Rabbi Chaim Sofer 56:33, and Sh”t Yabia Omer 1,5(10 and on), and Shulchan Aruch Harav 66:5 who permit one to answer until DeAmiran BeAlma. Concerning the 2nd amen of Kaddish Meorer Yishenim 21, Sh”t Igrot Moshe 4:14 say is just a minhag and should not be said, but Dvar Yehoshua 2:7 in name of Arizal maintains this amen is of great importance, so holds Sh”t Yabia Omer 5:7(3). Concerning answering Barich Hu, Piskei Teshuva 51:14, Yalkut Yosef (Kriyat Shema U’Birchoteha footnote 18 pg 116-7) hold one should not say Barich Hu in name of Sh”t Levushei Mordechi 2:10, Sh”t Igrot Moshe 2:16, Sh”t Dvar Yeshua 2:7, Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 11:3, Sh”t Az Nidabru 4:37.
- Magen Avraham 124:9 says any time one is not allowed to talk one may not answer Baruch Hu UBaruch Shemo, consequently one may not do so during Pesukei DeZimrah, Sh”t Yabia Omer 2:4(6), Sh”t Yechave Daat 4:9, Mishna Brurah 51:8, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 14:1, Chida in Tov Ayin 18:35, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 124:8,Sh”t Zechur Leyitzchak Hareri 7, Pekudat Elazar (beginning of 51), Siddur Bet Ovad (Pesukei DeZimrah 9) Aruch HaShulchan 51:5, Sh”t Afarkasta DeAniya 9, Peni Yitzchak Abulafiya (Brachot 1:43), Sh”t Ish Matzliach 22:2, Sh”t Lechem Shlomo O”C 36 against the Kaf HaChaim 18:13, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, Volume 1, Page 111, and Rav Frankel in his comments on Shulchan Aruch 51.
- Shulchan Aruch 66:3 says that in Kriyat Shema one can interrupt for Kaddish, Kedusha and Baruchu. Shulchan Aruch 125:1 holds one does not say this even in a place where you can interrupt, even though the minhag is like the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot 3 of Chazarat Amida pg 39a) to say the entire passage regularly, yet in a place where one cannot interrupt one should not say the entire passage, so holds Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Sofer 66:18 in name of some achronim. Whether one should say Yimloch by the brachot of Kriyat Shema is a dispute of the achronim and the majority opinion is that one should not say it. (see Hilchot Kriyat Shema Section II, Halacha _). Seemingly, the same law should apply to Pesukei DeZimrah since the Poskim compare the two for interruptions even though Pesukei DeZimrah is different in that one can answer amen on brachot. Nonetheless, Birur Halacha 51:8 argues that Yimloch can be said since it is a pasuk of praise that is already instituted in Pesukei DeZimrah in the first Halelluya. Imri David Padir 51 allows one to answer the entire passage of Kedusha when one is in the middle of Pesukei DeZimrah, since it is praise, but the Birur Halacha rejects this since the basic obligation to say it is a dispute between the Shulchan Aruch and Arizal. This is also the opinion of Halichot Shlomo 6:11 in the name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach, Sh”t Yabia Omer 1:5 in name of Sh”t Kiryat Chana David 2:41, but Rav Po’alim 4:4 is strict
- Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:4. There is a dispute in the rishonim if the kedusha in Yotzer and Uva Letzion is a Dvar Sh’bekedusha.
[The following hold it is a Dvar Shebekedusha: Rav Amram Goan hashalem 1:15 pg 33) in name of Rav Tzemach Goan by Kedushat Uva Letzion and Rav Saadiah Goan by Kedushat Yotzer, Shibolei HaLeket Brachot 13 in name of many Goenim, Piskei Riaz (Megilah 3:3), Sh”t Rashba (1:7,5:9),Rabbenu Avraham Ben HaRambam testifies that his father retracted from his ruling (Tefilah 7:17) and held one can say it privately, while the following hold it can be said by an individual: Ravya 1:2,66, Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah 13a in the name of some geonim, Hagahot Maymonit Tefilah 7:90 in name of Rashi, Sh”t Maharam 143, Mordechai Brachot 69, Rosh (Brachot 3:18, Megilah 3:7), Tur 59, Orchot Chaim (Din Kedusha Meyushav 1), Ritva Megilah 23b. The Shulchan Aruch 59:3 writes that some say an individual can say it, yet some say not to and one should be concerned for this opinion and say it with the Torah reading tune. The Rama adds that the minhag is to say it as an individual.]
Therefore, says the Otzot Yosef, since it remains a matter of safek we do not interrupt in order to say it, just as the Bet Yosef 56 says in Pesukei DeZimrah one should not say the entire line of Yehe Sheme Raba because of the dispute.
- Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:4. There is a dispute in the rishonim if Vayavor is a Dvar Sh’bekedusha and needs to be said with a minyan.
- Siddur of Rav Amram Goan 2 pg 79b, Sh”t Rabbenu Yosef Ibn Magash 193, Siddur of Rashi 545, Machsor Vitri 271, Or Zaruh 2:416, Hagahot Ashuri (end of Taanit), Sh”t Mahariv 132, Orchot Chaim (Hilchot Sheni VeChamishi 2) hold it requires a minyan, but the Tur 565 holds it can be said without a minyan. (That is the explanation of the Tur according to Avudraham (siddur tefilat taaniot pg 88a) and Bet Yosef, against the Taz 565:5.) The Shulchan Aruch 131:6 rules that one may not say it without a minyan unless it is said with the tune.
- Therefore, it seems that Vayavor is a Dvar Sh’bekedusha and just like Kaddish it could be answered in Pesukei DeZimrah. However, says Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:4, because of the opinions that say it is not a Dvar Sh'bekedusha (such as the Tur and Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah) and the opinion that even divrei kedusha can not be answered in Pesukei DeZimrah (Maharam), as well as the fact that the 13 midot are in the topic of praise but request, and that it may be an obligation but just a minhag the 13 midot are not to be answered in Pesukei DeZimrah. This is also the opinion of Sh”t Shevet Halevi 9:1 and Sh”t Kinyan Torah 4:9. Yet the Mateh Efraim 619:37, Sh”t Besel Hachochma 5:1, and Halichot Shlomo 6:17 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach are lenient.
- Halacha Brurah 51:18. Bet Yosef (beginning of 66) quotes Rabbeinu Yonah 13b who says one should wait and not answer Modim Derabanan which would be a big interruption, so holds the Rabbi Avraham Aleshivli (father of the Ritva) 13b pg 298, Trumat HaDeshen 2, Avurdraham brings a dispute whether one should say just “Modim” or the entire paragraph. The Shulchan Aruch 66:3 says concerning Birchot Kriyat Shema to answer just “Modim” even in the middle of a paragraph. The achronim explain the Shulchan Aruch as meaning one should answer the first three words. So comments Levush 66, Lechem Chamudot, Taz 66:3, Olat Tamid 66:8, Magen Avraham 66:6, Kaf Hachaim 66:22, Mishna Brurah 66:20.
- Seemingly the same should apply to Pesukei DeZimrah. Even though regarding amen Pesukei DeZimrah is more lenient than Birchot Kriyat Shema (Bet Yosef beginning of 51), nonetheless, the Madeni Yacov (Brachot 3:18:70), Tzlach Ibid., Yeshuot Yacov 109:4, and Yabia Omer O”C 4:21:4 all hold that Modim is just a minhag unlike amen. Yet, the Eliyah Rabba 66:5 infers from the Trumat Hadeshen 13 who says one can answer the first pasuk of Shema with the tzibbur during Pesukei DeZimrah and that one can answer Modim Derabanan during Pesukei DeZimrah.
- However, Rav Ovadya Yosef in Yabia Omer 6:4:4 argues that since Rav Yosef Karo quotes the Trumat Hadeshen in the Bet Yosef 65:2 and still rules in Shulchan Aruch 65:2 that one can not interrupt Pesukei DeZimrah with Shema. The only reason the Eliyah Rabbah holds one can say Modim Derabanan during Pesukei DeZimrah is because he disagrees with Shulchan Aruch regarding the first pasuk of Shema (end of 65). Thus, Yabia Omer 6:4 holds since we hold like Shulchan Aruch regarding the first pasuk of Shema, here too we should hold not to say Modim Derabanan. Like the Eliyah Rabbah so Aruch HaShulchan 51:6, Kesot HaShulchan (Badei Shulchan 18:8 implied from Shulchan Aruch HaRav 66:5), Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 9:8, and Mishna Brurah 51:8 hold one can answer the entire Modim Derabanan. However, Yabia Omer 6:4:4 explains that these achronim are following their opinion that one can interrupt Pesukei DeZimrah to say the first pasuk of Shema. Siddur Bet Ovad (Dinei Pesukei DeZimrah 8), Sh”t Zechur LeYitchak Harari 7:5, Darchei Chaim 45a, Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:4 say to only say the first three words.
- The Rosh 20b writes that one should say the first pasuk when the tzibbur says Shema. The Trumat HaDeshen 13 says one should not interrupt for Shema since one is not sitting idly, but then concludes that one can interrupt Pesukei DeZimrah (and birchot Shema) to accept the yoke of heaven. The Bet Yosef (65e) quotes this and in Shulchan Aruch 65:2 rules one can not interrupt to say Shema from Baruch Sh’amar and on. The Eliyah Rabbah asks on the Shulchan Aruch from the Trumat HaDeshen that one should be allowed in Pesukei DeZimrah to say Shema. But the Bach and Taz explain that the Trumat HaDeshen’s conclusion was just a possible rejection. However the Bach says that the Minhag Ashkenaz was to say Shema, and the Taz says it is only not allowed in Birchot Shema [In line with the Taz, Meorei Or Bear Sheva 22b say the acronym “Bet Shin” in Shulchan Aruch really meant Birchot Shema not Baruch Sh’amar] Ashkenazic achronim rule like the Taz, including the Perisha 51:6, Atret Zekenim 65:2, Magen Avraham 51:4, Mor Ukesiah 65:3, Chaye Adam in Nishmat Adam 20:1, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 65e, Aruch HaShulchan 65:6, Mishna Brurah 51:8, Derech HaChaim, Kesot HaShulchan 18:2, Shevet Halevi 1:40(2) However the simple ruling of Shulchan Aruch, that one may not interrupt Pesukei DeZimrah is explained and held by Sephardic achronim including Mamar Mordechi 65e, Chida in Kesher Gadol 7:32, Zechur LeYitchak Harari 7, Yafa Lelev 1:132(7), Siddur Bet Ovad (Pesukei DeZimrah 2), Chesed LeAlafim 51:2, Kaf HaChaim 51:6 ,Halacha Brurah 51:19.
- Birkei Yosef 244:1 quotes an anonymous sage who says one does not need to show respect to a Talmid Chacham when one is currently involved in respecting of Hashem, yet he rules against the anonymous sage because it is honoring Hashem to keep His mitzvah of “Mipneh Seva Takum”. Rokeach 369, Sh”t Peni Mabin O”C 234, Sh”t Shlomo Chaim Zonenfeld O”C 48, and Yalkut Yosef 1:77-8 agree.
- Rosh in Brachot 2:5 agrees with Rabbenu Yonah who holds that during Birchot Shema one can interrupt for Dvar Sh'bekedusha. The Maharam (quoted by the Rosh) does not allow one to interrupt praise of Hashem with a different praise. The Tur and Shulchan Aruch 66:3 hold like the Rosh. Magen Avraham (66:5) explains since one can interrupt in order to respect a person, how much more so should one be able to interrupt for respecting Hashem, thus one can interrupt for the bracha of thunder. Erech Hashulchan 66e, Magen Giborim 66, Bear Heitev 66, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 66:4, Yeshuot Yacov 66, Tosfot Rabbi Akiva Eiger (Brachot 2 beginning), Mamar Mordechai 66:2, Solet Belulah 66:3, Aruch Hashulchan 66:6, Tiferet Yisrael Brachot 2:8, Sh”t Machat Yado O”C 1:7, Darchei Chaim 49a, Torat Yekutiel 35, Sh”t Yabia Omer 8:6(3), Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:5. However, Bechor Shor argues it is only permitted when needing to respect people, because they would feel degraded, but for Hashem’s respect one would not interrupt since it is not degrading as one is in middle of saying Hashem’s praise. This is also the opinion of Mateh Yehuda 59:1, Chida in Machzik Bracha 66:3, Kesher Gadol 9:15, Shalmei Tzibbur 86a, Nahar Shalom 66:2, Minchat Aharon 12:4, 13:30, Sh”t Zechur LeYitchak 7:3, Siddur Bet Ovad Brachat Kriyat Shema 6, Meorei Or (Bear Sheva) 26b, Kaf Hachaim Palagi 18:8. See further Mishna Brurah 66:19, Chaye Adam 20:4, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 6:6(1). Even those who are strict not to interrupt Birchot Kriyat Shema can be lenient in Pesukei DeZimrah since it is a praise, therefore the same idea and similar in nature to Pesukei DeZimrah (as Bet Yosef 51 about amen).
- The Rambam in Sh”t Pear Hadar 147 says one can interrupt to put on Tallit and Tefillin with a bracha. However, Bet Yosef 53 quotes the Kol Bo 5, who allowed the shaliach tzibbur to make a bracha on Tallit before Yishtabach, and rejects this ruling in Shulchan Aruch 53:3 one can not interrupt between Pesukei DeZimrah and Yishtabach. Ginat Veradim O”C 1:52 understood Shulchan Aruch to mean one may not interrupt even between the mizmorim but quotes Rabbenu Yishaya who understood Shuchan Aruch to mean that only between Pesukei DeZimrah and Yishtabach one can not interrupt. Divrei Mordechai 53, Kesei Eliyahu 53:3, Erech Hashulchan 53:1, Siddur Bet Ovad 9 pg 80a, Yafeh Lelev 53:3, Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Sofer 53:7, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 53:3 agree with the Ginat Veradim’s understanding. Birkei Yosef 53:4 argues on the Ginat Veradim’s understanding because of the letter of Rambam. This is also the opinion of Rabbi Akiva Eiger 53:1 (he finishes off with a Tzarich Iyun),Sharei Kennest Gedola 53:4, Sh”t Korban Eshe O”C 2, Aruch hashulchan 51:6, 53:2, Mishna Brurah 53:5, Sh”t Shoel VeNishal 2:36, Netivei Am 51:3, Mekor Chaim 66:3, Sh”t VeYosef Avraham 35, Minchat Aharon 12:4, Sh”t Mishiv Halacha 1:409, Badei Hashulchan 18:23, Halacha Brurah 51:22. Sh”t Zechur LeYitchak 8 says had the Shulchan Aruch seen the letter of the Rambam he would have retracted.
- Otzrot Yosef 4:5. Bet Yosef 63e brings a dispute in the rishonim about what part of Kriyat Shema is from the Torah; the majority of rishonim hold just the first pasuk is from the Torah. Pitchai Shearim 5, forbids one to interrupt Pesukei DeZimrah with Shema (more than the first pasuk) since Shema is not a praise. However, Otzrot Yosef argues that Shema is allowed just as Kaddish and Kedusha. Mishna Brurah 51:10 allows all three paragraphs (as he holds in 46:31). Even if it is just to make the time of the Magen Avraham it is allowed since it is a Safek Deoraita for the first line and once one has had to make a break one should continue. Sh”t Knesset Yisrael 13d allows one to even interrupt Shmoneh Esrei for saying Shema in time.
- See previous footnote for background. Ginat Veradim 1:51 quotes Rabbanu Yisheya who allows one to say Asher Yatzar, bracha on Tallit and Tefillin when he returns between mizmorim and between Pesukei DeZimrah and Yishtabach since once there was already an interruption anyway (to go to the bathroom) one can continue. The Korban Eshe O”C 2 argues that one should not interrupt between Pesukei DeZimrah and Yishtabach. Chaye Adam 2:1 writes similarly. Between mizmorim one can be lenient as holds Chida in Kesher Gudal 7:33, and Beiur Halacha 53:3 D”H Ein Levarech says on the Tallit one does not say a bracha at all since one had in mind to return. But between Pesukei DeZimrah and Yishtabach one should just wait. Yabia Omer 6:4(3), 8:6(7). Halacha Brurah 51:23
- Sh"t Rivivot Ephraim 1:50:4
- Halacha Brurah 51:24. Sh”t Yehuda Yaleh Kobo O”C 4 allows one to say Kaddish Yatom during Pesukei DeZimrah, Sh”t Rav Poalim O”C 2:14 allows those who have the minhag to say Chatzi Kaddish before Yishtabach between mizmorim, however Sh”t levushei mordechai (tanina O”C 36, Kama O”C 112) forbids Kaddish Yatom during Birchot Kriyat Shema. Siach Yitzchak 25b:13, and Kaf Hachaim sofer 53:13, 55:22 forbid it even in Pesukei DeZimrah but would perhaps agree by Kaddish Yatom. See further Sh”t Yabia Omer 7:10
- Sh”t Kennest Hagedolah O”C 51 says one can interrupt the end of Birchot Kriyat Shema for Vezot Hatorah. Emet LeYacov Elgazi (Dinei Hakamat Sefer Torah 2) agrees. However, the following are strict and do not allow one to interrupt: Sh”t Zechur LeYitzchak Harari 7 pg 7d, Siddur Bet Ovad (Dinei Semichut Geula LeTefilah 9, Chesed LeAlafim 60:4, Kaf Chaim Palagi 18:13, Sh”t Nishmat Kol Chai O”C 4 pg 9d, Sh”t VeYosef Avraham 35 pg 218a, Me’at Mayim 4, and Kaf Chaim Sofer 66:47, Sharei Halacha Uminhag 1:63. [The Chida’s opinion is unclear as he writes in Chaim Shal 68, Kissei Rachamim (Masechet Soferim 14:14), and Kesher Gudal 11:21 not to interrupt for Vezot HaTorah but in Birkei Yosef 134:4 he brings the Kennest Hagedolah; it seems that he disagrees with the Kennest Hagedolah but just is quoting the rishonim and achronim, yet in LeDavid Emet 4:4, it sounds like he agrees with the Kennest Hagedolah.] Concerning Barich Sheme, Sh”t Meharshag 1:52(2), Siddur Bet Ovad (kriyat Sefer Torah 5-6, pg 100a), Sh”t Zechur LeYitzchak 7:5, and Sh”t Mayim Chaim Mashosh 27, hold one may not say Barich Sheme. However, Shomer Emet 12:7, Vayismoch Moshe pg 5b, and Pri Sadeh 3:112 hold one can answer Barich Sheme. See further Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 5:8, 7:9(2), Halacha Brurah 51:25.
- Imrei Yosher 2:171 says one shouldn’t interrupt since Kriyat Torah isn’t a personal obligation but a obligation on the tzibbur (implied from the leniencies of S”A 146, and explicitly in Ramban (Milchamot Megilah 1:5)) [however Igrot Moshe 4:40(4), (Beiur Halacha 146 s.v. Veyesh Matirim leaves in a Tzarich Iyun) hold that it’s a personal obligation.] Similarly, Sh”t Mayim Chaim Mashash 27 forbids even listening during Pesukei DeZimrah. Shomer Emet 12:7 says one can listen between mizmorim in Pesukei DeZimrah and not in Brachot Kriyat Shema, and Leket Yosher 1:18 says that once the Trumat Hadeshen came late and listened to Kiyat Hatorah during Birchot Kriyat Shema. Similarly, Sh”t Yabia Omer 7:9(2) allows one to stop and listen if one can’t find another minyan to hear Kriyat Torah.
- S”A 66:4 rules that one can’t interrupt kiryat shema to get aliyah even if called by name or he’s the only cohen. Magen Avraham says by Pesukei DeZimrah a cohen can get the aliyah. This is also the opinion of Olat Tamid 66:13, Eliyah Raba 66:4, Kesher Gudal 11:23, Siddur Yavetz Siach Yitzchak 109b, Kaf Hachaim Palagi 15b:7, Sh”t Zechur LeYitzchak 7 pg 8d, Sh”t Veyosef Avraham 35 pg 220a, Tehila LeDavid 32b, Aruch Hashulchan 135:14, Sh”t Ish Matzliach 22. Siddur Bet Ovad(Pesukei DeZimrah 15) and Pri Megadim A”A 135:6 explain that this where he’s the only Cohen. Shaari Efraim 1:1 says not to ask for a misheberach. Yalkut Yosef 1 pg 73 says a Yisrael called by name is allowed just like an only cohen. Since someone who gets an Aliyah must read along with the bal koreh (S”A 141:2) so too in our case, so holds Shaari Efraim Ibid and Tehilah Ledavid 282:1, against Siddur Bet Ovad (Pesukei DeZimrah 16) and Kaf Chaim Sofer 66:27 who say not to read along. Since it’s a issue of Bracha Levatalah if one doesn’t read along one should read along. See Sh”t Yabia Omer 7:8(3), Yechave Daat 4:11(58)
- Rama 284:4 rules that the one who gets maftir must do haftorah unless he doesn’t know how to read it as the Rivash holds it’s necessary and not effective after the fact. Sh”t Yabia Omer 7:8(22-3), Tehila Ledavid 282:3 and Sh”t Ayin Eliezer O”C 29 hold one should read the hatorah in our case. However Sh”t Kinat Soferim 122 and Kesot Hashulchan (Badei Shulchan 81:1) say one shouldn’t say the Haftorah.
- S”A 144:3 forbids rolling the sefer Torah in front of the tzibbur because it’s not respectful to the tzibbur. Therefore it’s like one is answering to a person due respect for which it’s allowed to interrupt even in shema. This is also the opinion of Sh”t Teshurat Shy 1:128, Mishna Brurah 66:26, Sh”t Mahargash 1:48, Kesot Hashulchan (Badei Shulchan 19:7). If reading the Torah is okay where there’s no one else, so too it should be allowed for the same reason to correct a mistake. This is also the opinion of Sh”t Lev Chaim 3:5. see further, Sh”t Yabia Omer 7:9 s.v. Uleinyan pg 25
- There’s a dispute by Brichot Kriyat Shema whether one can add piutim brought in the Tur and Bet Yosef 68 between the Rambam, Rosh, and Ramah who don’t allow and the Raavad, Rabbeinu Tam and Rashba (Shu"t Vol. 1, Siman 469) defend the Minhag. See Ritva Shabbat 118b. S”A 68 rules some have the minhag to add piutim but it’s proper not to say them. Whether pituim are allowed in Pesukei DeZimrah is a dispute of the Achronim. The hold the tzibbur shouldn’t add piutim and should change their minhag so it’s not an interruption: Divrei Yosef 5e, Pri Chadash 68, Chida in Sh”t Tov Ayin 18:35, Mashcha Deravuta 112, Sh”t Divrei david meyeldola 24 pg 61c, Siddur Bet Ovad (Nishmat 7), Batei Kenisiot 124 pg 125b, Sh”t Yavikra Avraham (Makom Shenehagu 123c), Ikrei Hadat 4:21, Sh”t Mayim Chaim Mashosh 157. However others say the tzibbur shouldn’t change it’s minhag to take out the piutim such as the Sh”t Mahari kolon, Sh”t Adoni Paz 22c, and Pachad Yitzchak 136d. see further Sh”t Yechave Daat 2:7, Otzrot Yosef 4:6.
- Seemingly this should depend on the dispute of the rishonim whether Osek Min Hamitzvah Patur Min Hamitzvah applies if you are able to fulfill both mitzvoth. However one could argue here there’s more of a reason one’s chayav as the interruption is also a praise of Hashem and part of the mitzvah you’re involved in. On the other hand, one could argue that one should be exempt as it’s an interruption of his thought in Pesukei DeZimrah. Some hold it’s not an obligation and is just optional including Sh”t Mayim Rabim O”C 2, Torat Chaim Sofer 66:8, Sh”t Vayechi Yacov O”C 4 in name of Rav Chaim Berlin, Sh”t Yad Eliyahu Mekalish 9e, Sh”t Yabia Omer 5:13(5-6),6:21(3), Halacha Brurah 51:31. However Sh”t Nishmat Kol Chai 4 pg 9a, Sh”t Shalmat Chaim Zonenfeld O”C 49 holds one must answer not to be separating from the tzibbur but Sh”t Yabia Omer 1:5(7) argues on this.
- Magen Avraham 494:9 in name of SHlah, Eliya Rabba 494:12, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 494:17, Halacha Brurah 51:31 against the Chok Yacov 494:7.
- Halacha Brurah 51:16. In footnote 24, the overwhelming consensus of the achronim was not to say Baruch Hu UBaruch Shemo in Pesukei DeZimrah. However, the Tur 54 in name of Rav Amram Goan says that one can interrupt between Yishtabach and Yotzer for a public need or to distribute charity against the Hagahot Miymoni Tefilah 7:12 in name of the Yerushalmi that it is an Averah to speak in between Yishtabach and Yotzer. Shulchan Aruch 54:3 quotes both of the above opinions. The Rama ibid writes that one can interrupt for blessing the sick or accepting someone for a court case since they are tzorech mitzvah, so holds Sh”t Meharshal 64. Similarly, the minhag is to say Shir HaMaalot during Asert Yeme Teshuva based on the Arizal (Darush L’Rosh Hashana 90a). Therefore, one should be able to answer Baruch Hu Ubaruch Shemo so hold Sh”t Rabbi Eliyahu Hamway 167c D”H UMekol Makom, Taharat Mayim 70:90, Lechem Shlomo O”C 36, Halichot Olam 1 pg 81, Sh”t Yechave Daat 4:9, against the Sh”t Peni Yitzchak 5 pg 170d. See further in Sh”t Shuirei Tahara 2:36, Sh”t Lev Chaim 2:109, Sh”t Kinyan Torah 3:91(3)
- Halacha Brurah 51:15. Shulchan Aruch 66:3 says one in Kriyat Shema one can interrupt for Kaddish, Kedusha and Baruchu. Since whether one should say the entire passage is a dispute in a place where one can not interrupt one should not say the entire passage, so holds Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Sofer 66:18 in name of some achronim. However, interruptions between Yishtabach and Birchat Yotzer are treated leniently as in footnote 44 and so one can answer the entire passage.
- Halacha Brurah 51:18. Interruptions between Yishtabach and Birchat Yotzer are treated leniently as in footnote 44.
- Halacha Brurah 51:19. Interruptions between Yishtabach and Birchat Yotzer are treated leniently as in footnote 44.
- Halacha Brurah 51:25. Interruptions between Yishtabach and Birchat Yotzer are treated leniently as in footnote 44.
- So that it does not look like one is including Hashem in the statement about the other deities. Shulchan Aruch 51:6. Beir Gra 51:7 sources this in the Masechet Soferim 4:9. In the same pasuk, one should pause between Ki and Kol (so that the Kaf of kol has a dagesh), and Shamayim and Assa (so that the Mem is not swallowed). Thus, the pasuk should be read: Ki – Kol Elohei HaAmim Elilim – VeHashem Shamayim – Assa. Magen Avraham 51:5 in name of Shlah, Yad Efraim (Hagahot Tur), Bear Heteiv 51:4, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 51:7, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 14:2, Mishna Brurah 51:14, Kaf Hachaim 51:7, and Halacha Brurah 51:32 agree.
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 11, laws of tefila from baruch she'amar until yishtabach, seif 1
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 14:2, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 11, laws of tefila from baruch she'amar until yishtabach, seif 2, Mishna Brurah 51:1
- Magen Avraham 51:1 and Kaf Hachaim 51:1 write one should hold the Tzitzit during Baruch She’amar. Chesed LeAlafim 51:2, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 14:2, Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 7, Mishna Brurah 51:1 say that one should kiss them after Baruch She'amar.
- Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:5(2-4),Yaskil Avdi O”C 8:42. The Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:2 proves from Sefer Pardes Gadol 5 pg 10a, and Rashi quotes by Shibolei Haleket 7 (on Shabbat 118b), that Yishtabach is compared to the end bracha of Hallel and so one can say Baruch She’amar when one remembers since by Hallel one can say the bracha on Hallel when he remembers (Birkei Yosef 683:1, and Sh”t Kol Gadol 31). Shulchan Aruch 53:2 says one cannot say Yishtabach if he did not say Baruch She’amar and some Zemirot. Against Shulchan Aruch, the Pri Megadim says after the fact, one who skipped Baruch She’amar can still say Yishtabach, so quotes the Beiur Halacha 53 s.v. Amar Baruch She’amar.
- Mishna Brurah 51:2
- Mishna Brurah 51:3
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 14:2 writes that the Ashkenazic practice is to stand for Mizmor Letodah. Kaf Hachaim 48:1 quotes the Arizal as saying that one does not need to stand for Mizmor Letodah. Shalmei Tzibbur 68b, Keshur Gudal 7:38, Shaarei Teshuva 51:9, Kaf Hachaim Palagi 12:18, and Shulchan haTahor 7 agree. See further Minchat David 1:52, Rivivot Efraim 4:22. Yad Aharon (1 Hagahot Tur), Siddur Baet Ovad 3, Shulchan Aruch Harav 1:14, Siddur Yavetz, Derech Hachaim.
- Rama 51:9, bet Yosef 51 in name of Orchot Chaim (meah brachot 26) say the minhag is not to say Mizmor Letodah on Shabbat and Yom tov but the Tur disagrees. Instead we say Mizmor Letodah as mentioned by the Orchot Chaim (quoted by bet Yosef Ibid.). Concerning the first pasuk on Yom tov, the Orchot Chaim holds not to say it, so says in Siddur Rav Sadyah Goan 120, Sefer minhagim of Rabbi Yitzchak Madura says to say it even on Yom tov. This is also the opinion of Pri Chadash 51:9, Shaarei Knesset Gedolah (Hagahot bet Yosef 10), Olat Tamit 51:2, Eliyah Raba 51:12, Bear Heteiv 51:10, Shalmei Tzibbur 68c, Ruach Chaim 51:8, Mishna Brurah 51:21, Kaf Hachaim 51:49. see Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 8:11(14 s.v. Beshabbat)
- Knesset Gedola (Hagahot HaTur), Magen Avraham 51:10, Shaalmei Tzibbur 68b, Minchat Aharon 69c record the minhag to say it on Rosh Hashana and some would also say it on Yom Kippur. However, Pri Megadim (A”A 10), Sh”t Rav Poalim 3:38, Kaf Hachaim Sofer 51:50, Mishna Brua 51:21, Kaf HaChaim Palagi 12:19 in name of the Arizal. See Sh”t Benai Levi 3. Concerning Erev Yom Kippur, Rama 51:9 says not to say it, but Knesset Hagedolah(Hagahot HaTur), Shaarei Knesset Gedolah (604:5 Hagahot Bet Yosef) say the minhag is to say it. Pri Chadash 604, Shalmei Tzibbur 68b, Kaf Hachaim Palagi 12:19, and Kaf Hachaim Sofer 51:52 agree.
- Rama 51:9 based on Sefer minhagim (hilchot erev pesach pg 38), as well as Pri Chadash 429:2, Siddur Bet Ovad, Siach Yitzchak say not to say it. Bet Yosef in name of Tur, Shaarei Knesset Hagedolah (hagot bet Yosef 8-9), Sh”t bet david O”C 441, Sh”t Maaseh Avraham O”C 19, Shaalmei Tzibbur 68b, Rov Dagan 154b, Zecher LeAvraham 429, Kaf Hachaim Sofer 51:51, Kaf Hachaim Palagi 12:19, Chazon Ovadiah 2 pg 6, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 8:11(14)
- Sefer Minhagim of Rabbi Isaac Tirna 82 says not to say it, but Sh”t Maharil 64 says it is a mistake not to say it, it should be said. This is also the opinion of Olat Tamid 51:2, Knesset Gedola (Hagahot Tur), Magen Avraham 51:11, Bear Heteiv 51:10, Shalmei Tzibbur 68c, Kaf HaChaim Palagi 12:19, Mishna Brurah 51:21, Kaf Hachaim Sofer 51:53.
- Shulchan Aruch 51:7 based on Talmidei Rabbeinu Yonah 23a s.v. Kol HaOmer. Orchot Chaim (Tachanot Vemizmorim sh’acher shema esreh 3), Sefer Eshkol (Mehuderet Rav Aurbach 24:53), Birkei Yosef 51:5, Siddur Rav Amram Goan 103 say we Ashrei is said 3 times so that if one did not have kavanah the first time, one can have kavana the next time. However the Levush 51:8 says when one remembers one must repeat the whole mizmor, on which many achronim (Eliyah Rabbah 51:6, Magen Avraham 51:6, Pri Megadim A”A 51:6, Mor UKesia, Solet Belula 51:5, Yeshuot Yacov 51:1, Shulchan Aruch Harav 51:8, Birkei Yosef 51:1, Siddur Bet Ovad 51:3 and Kaf Hachaim Sofer 51:32, Halacha Bruah 51:33) disagree based on the Talmidei Rabbenu Yonah that one just repeats Pote’ach. Still, Chaye Adam 18:2 and Mishna Brurah 51:16 hold when one remembers one should repeat from Pote’ach until the end. The Kaf Hachaim Sofer 51:33 says one should not interrupt to repeat Pote’ach in Pesukei DeZimrah since one can say it with kavanah after Shmoneh Esrei and repeat it there if needed. However many allow one to repeat it even in Pesukei DeZimrah. This is also the opinion of Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 12 and is implied from many posikim. Therefore Sh”t Yabia Omer 5:6 says one should preferably say it between mizmorim
- Rov Dagan (Ot Letova 24:2), Chaim LeRosh (Birkat HaMazon 8 pg 78b). See further in Sh”t Torat Lishma 31, Ben Ish Chai Vayigash 12, Pekudat Elazar 51e, Sh”t Kiryat Chana David O”C 1:13, Tzitz Eliezer 12:8, Milta Betama 72, Sh”t Shaarei Tzedek Chirari 2:20.
- Tur 51 writes of the practice of the introductory pasuk Ashrei from Tosfot Brachot 32b s.v. Kodem. The Bach 51 brings the second introductory pasuk of Ashrei against the Rokeach. Magen Avraham 51:7 agrees. Bet Yosef 51 and Rama 51:7 bring the ending verse VaAnachnu.
- Gemara Berachot 4b
- Concerning repeating, Rama 51 brings the practice based on Machsor Vitri 1:6, against the Orchot chaim who says not to repeat Hashem yimloch. This is also the opinion of Magen Avraham 51:9. The source to read the targum of Hashem yimloch and ki bas Sus is the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot 31b), Ben Ish chai vayigash 14. however the Mishna brurah 51:17 quotes the Gra who says not to say ki ba sus.
- Shaar Kavanot (Tefilat Shachar 18c) Pri Etz Chaim (shaar zemirot 6), Magen Avraham 51: 7, Shalmei Tzibbur 70a, Keshur Gudal 7:43, Siddur Bet Ovad 1, Mishna Brurah 51:19, and Kaf Hachaim 51:44. See Sh”t Yagdil Torah 1:21.
- Tur 559 records the minhag not to say Az yashir on Tisha BaAv. Bet Yosef says the minhag was to say haazinu instead of az yashir, so records ben ish chai Devarim 26, but the Darkei Moshe 559:6 says the minhag is to say az yashir as usual, so records Chesed LeAlafim 51:11 so was the minhag of yerushalim according to the practice of the Arizal. See further Sh”t Olat Shmeul 79, Sh”t Yabia Omer Y”D 4:32(3)
- Orchot Chaim (Meah Brachot 32) quotes by Bet Yosef 51, Magen Avraham 51:7, Eliyah raba 51:7. see ketonet or vayechi d”h ve’amarti.
- Solet Belula 51:4 says one should pause since adirim isn’t referring to the water but the Egyptians, Pri Megadim M”Z 51:1, Shalmei Tzibbur 70b, Ben Ish Chai vayigash 14, Mishna Brurah 51:17, Kaf HaChaim 51:39. However, the Sansan Leyair 35 argues from Rav Yehuda Halevi, Rashi, and Mechilta on the pasuk. See Sh”t Levushei Michlol 4:41, Rivavot Efraim 2:34, 3:52, 4:23
- Kaf HaChaim 51:43, 48