Praying in a Shul with a Stone Floor

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  1. According to the Torah, it is prohibited to bow down and prostrate oneself on a stone floor[1] (otherwise known as Even Maskit), with exception to the Beit HaMikdash where one was allowed prostrate himself on its floors[2]. Bowing down onto a stone floor outside of the Beit HaMikdash, or in a fully prostrated position even if not on a stone floor is prohibited M’Derabanan (Rabbinically) lest a person think that it is permitted to fully prostrate on the stone floor.[3]
  2. An additional reason for the current practice to not bow down during Tefillah on any floor surfaces . Originally, fully prostrating oneself was the a fixture of Shacharit as it was the way Nefilat Apai’im (Tachanun) was accomplished.[4] Fully prostrating oneself with the expectation of being answered was reserved to those of great righteous stature. This practice was abolished, even when not on a stone surface, so as not to degrade people who would prostrate themselves and ultimately not be answered[5].
  3. In light of this, the custom for Nefilat Apa'aim is to tilt one’s head and rest it on his arm.[6] This is permitted even if one is resting his feet on a stone floor.[7]

On Which Surfaces Does the Issur Apply?

  1. This issue does not apply to floors made of brick.[8] Some are of the opinion that a marble floor would be halachically be considered like stone.[9] Others posit that concrete also has this status as it is comprised of many small stones.[10]

Practical Applications- The Yamim Noraim

  1. Today, after the upheaval of prostration during davening, it is only done during Avoda of Mussaf Yom Kippur and, in the case of Ashkenazim, during Aleinu in Chazarat HaShat”z for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. During these times, because of the above prohibition, one should be careful not to do so on a stone floor.
  2. If one is standing on a floor stone, one should cover the area where his/her knees and face will make contact.[11] This can be done with spreading one’s talit so that it will cover his face as he reaches the floor.[12]
  3. If no other alternative is possible, one should bow in a way that leans to his side and allows his head to fall onto his arm and not the floor.[13]


  1. Vayikra 26:1, Sefer HaMitzvot Mitzvah 349, Rambam Sefer HaMitzvot- Mitzvot Lo Taaseh 12
  2. Sifra 6:9
  3. Rosh on Berachot Perek 3:4, Kaf HaChaim Orach Chaim, 131:111
  4. Rambam Hilchot Tefilah 5:13-14
  5. Taanit 22b, see Rashi s.v. Elah Im Kein
  6. Rambam Hilchot Tefillah v'Birkat Kohanim 9:5 in his interpretation of the words, “Chazeina Abaye V’Rava d'matzlu atzluyei" (Brachot 34b)
  7. Mishna Berurah, Orach Chaim 131:8 Siman Katan 41
  8. Mishna Berurah, Orach Chaim 131:8 Siman Katan 42
  9. Shu”t Shevet HaLevi 1:23
  10. Rav Elyashiv as cited in Piskei Teshuvot 131:27
  11. Orach Chaim 131:8
  12. Yalkut Yosef Orach Chaim 621 Seif 4:2, Mishna Berurah Orach Chaim 131:8 Siman Katan 40
  13. See Yalkut Yosef, Orach Chaim 621 Seif 4:2, footnote 2