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Before eating on Shabbat or Yom Tov, both during the nighttime and daytime, Kiddush is recited over a cup of wine (preferably). The relevant halachot are detailed below:


  1. The mitzvah of Kiddush is a biblical commandment alluded to in the Ten Commandments. The Torah says, "זכור את יום השבת לקדשו" meaning "remember Shabbat to sanctify it," and one fulfills it by saying the text of kiddush on Friday night.[1] Many authorities consider Kiddush of Yom Tov to be Derabbanan, yet it shares all the same halachot of Kiddush of Shabbat.[2] In addition, Chazal instituted that kiddush be made over a cup of wine.[3]
  2. Some authorities hold that the biblical obligation is discharged with the prayer in Shul and that the kiddush at home is entirely Derabbanan.[4]

Amount to Drink

  1. The Kiddush cup itself must contain the volume of at least a revi'it of wine in order to be valid.
    1. The amount of a Revi'it is open to dispute:
    2. According to Rav Chaim Naeh, 3.2 fluid ounces is sufficient.
    3. According to Rav Moshe Feinstein, on Friday night (when the obligation of kiddush is biblical), one needs 4.42. During the day, Rav Moshe requires only 3.3 fluid ounces.[5]
  2. In order to fulfill this obligation, one should drink most of a cup that contains at least a revi'it. Most say that one need only drink a Melo Lugmav (lit: a cheekful), which amounts to slightly more than half of a revi'it, but some say that one should preferably drink a Revi'it.[6]
  3. For kiddush, the Revi'it should be considered to be 4.4oz.[7]

Kiddush in Shul

  1. In the days of the gemara, the Rabbis instituted saying kiddush in shul for the travelers who would eat and drink in the Shul. Nowadays, when guests don't eat their meals in shul, some say that its proper not to say Kiddush in shul, while others uphold this minhag to say Kiddush in shul on Friday night.[8]
  2. This minhag applies to Shabbat and Yom Tov except for the first day of Yom Tov of Pesach (and second in Chutz LaAretz).[9]
  3. The one making kiddush in shul shouldn't drink from the wine[10] but rather give it to children to drink.[11]
    1. Some say that the children should be below the age of chinuch (6 or 7), while others say that it's better to give it a child above that age.[12]
    2. If it is not possible to find a child to drink the wine, an adult should drink it, but should make sure to drink a Reviyit or more, say a Bracha Achrona, and have intent to fulfill the mitzvah of kiddush. Then he can still recite kiddush at home for his family members.[13]
    3. Some say it is sufficient that the children drink a little bit, and they need not drink a full Revi'it.[14]
  4. The minhag is to stand for kiddush in shul.[15] It is a segulah that one's knees won't feel tired.[16]

Kiddush at night

  1. On Friday night, one should hurry home after shul to bring in the Shabbat and not tary in conversation at shul.[17]
  2. Kiddush at night is considered greater than the Kiddush of the day.[18] Therefore, if one has two bottles of wine the better bottle should be used for Kiddush at night. (However, the day is considered greater in general and should have the better selection by everything else).[19]
  3. The text of kiddush includes Yom HaShishi, which are pesukim describing Shabbat, and two Brachot, Borei Peri HaGafen, and Mekadesh HaShabbat.[20]
  4. When reciting Kiddush on Friday night, we say the words "ויהי ערב ויהי בקר" - "Vayihi erev vayihi boker" quietly before saying "יום הששי" Yom Hashishi.
    1. While we generally avoid reciting Pesukim in ways which differ from their presentation in the Torah[21], nonetheless we only say the second part of this pasuk, and don't say the entire first part quietly[22], because Chazal understand the words "טוב מאד" as a reference to death. However, there is debate whether one is allowed to say only part of a pasuk, so some are careful to add the rest of the pasuk Vayar Elokim Et Kol Asher Asa Vehini Tov Meod, Veyihi Erev Vayihi Boker Yom Hashishi.[23]

Kiddush of the Day

  1. The text of kiddush during the day is just Borei Pri Hagefen.[24]
  2. However, many have the minhag to say Pesukim before saying the Bracha.[25]
    1. Some say two paragraphs, "Veshamaru" and "Zachor".[26]
    2. Others have the minhag to add another paragraph before these, starting with "Im tashiv Mishabbat Raglecha," which are the Pesukim in Yeshaya which discuss the sanctity of shabbat.
    3. While many have the practice to say just the last phrase of "Zachor", which begins with "Al cen berach", this is potentially problematic because it is not a complete verse.[27]

Pouring Off

  1. A person shouldn’t pour off to the other cups between the kiddush and drinking. However, if he is sick and worried about others drinking from his cup, then he may pour off before drinking, but should make sure to leave at least a reviyit in his cup after the pouring.[28]
    1. Some poskim allow pouring off wine for guests before he drinks from the kiddush cup (as long as one is careful to keep a reviyit in the cup).[29]
  2. The one reciting kiddush doesn't have to pour off into their cups unless their cups are invalid for kiddush (e.g. they drank from them already). In such a case, the one reciting kiddush can pour off from his cup into the others so that they are considered valid for kiddush.[30]

Listening to Kiddush

Should Those Listening Also Drink?

  1. Those listening to kiddush don't have to drink to fulfill their obligation, but it is a mitzvah for them to drink.[31]
    1. Any amount is sufficient in order to get this mitzvah.[32]
  2. Some say that for daytime kiddush, those listening must drink from the kiddush cup, while others disagree.[33]

Waiting to Drink

  1. Those who are listening to the kiddush shouldn't drink until the one making the kiddush drinks.[34]
  2. However, if they each have their own cup (see below section) they may drink without waiting.[35]

Everyone with their Own Cup

  1. Those listening don't need their own cup of wine. They can simply drink from the kiddush cup (see below section) if they want to fulfill the mitzvah of drinking wine at kiddush.[36]
  2. However, if they do have their own cups that are valid for kiddush, then we view it as if they are all reciting kiddush over their own individual cups, and thus they need not drink from the actual kiddush cup.[37]
    1. Some are more lenient and say that this is true even if their individual cups are not valid for kiddush.[38]

Everyone Drinking from the Same Kiddush Cup

  1. If the one who made kiddush drank and then gave it to everyone else at the table their drinking is considered like drinking from the kos shel bracha (Heb. כוס של ברכה; lit. cup of blessing) since it is all one series of drinking and it isn't considered as though the cup is invalidated (Heb. פגום; trans. pagum).[39]

Requirements for Hearing Kiddush

  1. One who hears kiddush must understand the words of the one making the blessing.[40]

The Cup for Kiddush

  1. Some authorities say that one may not use a plastic or paper cup for kiddush. However, many authorities permit them, but agree that it's preferable to use a real cup.[41] After the fact, one fulfilled one's obligation even if one holds that one shouldn't use a disposable cup.[42]
  2. The cup of kiddush should be rinsed out before being used if it isn't already clean.[43]
    1. According to Kabbalah, even if the cup is clean, one should still rinse it both inside and outside.[44]
  3. Some say it is a nice practice to surround the kiddush cup with six small cups of wine. The minhag is to not be concerned for this opinion.[45]
  4. The kiddush cup should be full.[46]
    1. If a person is afraid of spilling, it is sufficient that it is almost full (e.g. 1/4 inch below the top).[47]

Eating before Kiddush

  1. It is Rabbinically[48] forbidden to eat or drink anything, even water,[49] before making kiddush once the time for kiddush has come.[50] This applies to both the nighttime and daytime Kiddush.[51]
    1. Some explain the reason is because of the general prohibition to eat before performing a time-sensitive mitzvah that one is obligated to perform.[52]
    2. Others contend that it is based on kavod Shabbat, honoring Shabbat, to refrain from eating before acknowledging and declaring the sanctity of the day.[53]
    3. A third suggestion is based on the pasuk: ״וקראת לשבת עונג״ (and you shall call the shabbat a delight)[54]. We understand the phrase "and you shall call the shabbat" to refer to making kiddush, and the phrase "delight" to refer to eating and drinking, and conclude that kiddush must precede "delighting", just as comes first in the pasuk.[55]

When the Prohibition Begins

  1. Friday night:
    1. If one takes Shabbat upon oneself early, it's forbidden to eat before making kiddush.[56]
    2. If one doesn't take Shabbat upon oneself early, then the prohibition begins once the sun sets.[57]
      1. Sephardim are lenient until the end of Ben Hashemashot (13.5 minutes after sunset).[58]
  2. Shabbat day:
    1. Once one davens shacharit, they are obligated in kiddush, and the prohibition kicks in.[59]

Drinking Water

  1. It is forbidden to drink water before kiddush Friday night.[60]
  2. Rinsing out one's mouth is permitted since one doesn't intend to get benefit from the water.[61]
  3. If one is thirsty, it is permissible to drink water before Shacharit on Shabbat day, since the obligation of kiddush doesn't apply until one prayed.[62]

Someone who is Sick

  1. Someone who is sick and needs to eat before davening on Shabbat, (according to Ashkenazim) should recite Kiddush before eating, unless they don't need to eat a kezayit of mezonot within a kdei achilat pras.[63]
    1. According to Sephardim, it isn't necessary to make kiddush in any event.[64]
  2. If someone needs to eat after Shacharit before Mussaf, they should make kiddush first.
    1. If they don't have wine or another drink (חמרא מדינא) upon which to make kiddush, they still may eat fruit or mezonos foods.[65]


  1. It is permitted for children to eat before kiddush both by night and day. This applies even if they have reached the age of chinuch.[66]


  1. A woman who usually davens Shacharit before eating should also do so on Shabbat. She may drink before davening just like men.[67]
    1. If she's sick and needs to eat before davening, she does not have to recite kiddush.
  2. However, if she usually does not daven Shacharit at all, or if she usually davens after she eats (because she relies on the opinion that she only has to recite some request from Hashem in order to fulfill the mitzvah of davening), then she should recite kiddush before eating.[68]
    1. In an extenuating circumstance when she's weak and has no wine, she may eat without kiddush.[69]

Eating before Mussaf

  1. Once the time for Mussaf (from Olot HaShachar) it’s forbidden to eat a meal (more than a KeBaytzah of bread) before praying Mussaf, however, it’s permissible to have a KeBaytzah of bread or a lot of fruit.[70]
  2. The custom is to be lenient to permit eating even more than a Kabaytzah of baked Mezonot (cakes and cookies) before Mussaf after having made kiddush.[71]
  3. If one does eat before Mussaf one must first recite kiddush and have a Revi'it of wine or eat a Kezayit of baked mezonot (cakes and cookies) in order to fulfill kiddush.[72] It is good practice to repeat kiddush at the bread meal if he recited kiddush the first time before Mussaf.[73]


  1. Ideally, one should say Kiddush as soon as one gets home from Shul on Friday night.[74]
  2. One can say kiddush before nightfall if one accepts upon oneself Shabbat early.[75]
    1. If one needs to make Kiddush for someone else before Shabbat and one can't accept Shabbat then, some poskim allow making Kiddush then.[76] See further on the Yatzah Motzei page.
  3. If one missed Kiddush on Friday night, it can and should be made up at any point during Shabbat day, which means that one would recite the longer Friday-night version of Kiddush on Shabbat day.[77] Vayichulu is omitted when recited during the day.[78]
  4. If one forgot to say kiddush on Friday night and only remembered during Bein HaShemashot of Saturday, one should say kiddush then with Shem UMalchut.
    1. However, according to Ashkenazim as long as one davenned any of the Shabbat prayers, if one needs to make Kiddush during Bein HaShemashot, it should be done without Shem Umalchut.[79]

Washing Before or After Kiddush

  1. One should make kiddush before washing for bread.
    1. However, if one washed by accident with a bracha before making kiddush, then according to Sephardim, one should now make kiddush on bread and not on wine.[80] However, if one person in the group hasn't yet washed and can perform kiddush over wine for everyone else (by saying it aloud while they listen), this is preferred.[81]
    2. According to Ashkenazim, Bedieved if one washed first, one can make still make kiddush on wine and then have the bread.[82]
  2. Some Ashkenazim (specifically German Jews) have the Minhag to wash before making kiddush over wine, and they have what to rely on.[83]
    1. If one has this minhag, it is still forbidden to dilute the wine (by adding water) between washing and kiddush, as that would constitute an interruption between washing and the meal.
    2. Some say that one also shouldn't pour the wine between washing and the meal, as this too constitutes an interruption.[84]
  3. Some distinguish with respect to the above question between the one making kiddush, who should not wash before, and other members of the family, who may. Others say that there is no difference.[85]

Eating in the Place One Made Kiddush

  1. In the place where one made kiddush, one should make sure to have a meal. This principle is referred to by chazal as Kiddush Bimakom Seuda.[86]
    1. This applies both for the nighttime and daytime Kiddush.[87]
  2. One should begin to eat something immediately after kiddush.[88]
    1. After the fact, as long as one had intent to eat immediately after kiddush, one doesn't need to make kiddush again, even if one made a long interruption or a Hesech HaDaat (interruption of thought).[89]
    2. However, if one did not have intent to eat right after kiddush, and then made an interruption of 72 minutes, a new kiddush is needed.[90]
      1. However, if there is a halachic need to delay the meal that is related to the meal, it is permitted to delay for that reason. For example, kiddush at the seder on Pesach is made much in advance of the meal due to the Maggid section of the Haggadah, but this is acceptable since Maggid is a necessary prerequisite to the meal.[91]
  3. In order to have kiddush in the place where one eats and that the kiddush is considered a proper kiddush, one must eat at least a kezayit of mezonot or bread, or drink a reviyit of wine.[92]
    1. Even though theoretically this applies also at night, one should be strict at night not to rely on this and to make sure to have an egg's volume of bread (once one has done this, he may finish his meal in a different location).[93]
  4. If someone is reciting kiddush in one room and someone else is hearing the kiddush in another room, if the person listening to the kiddush is going to eat his meal in the room where he currently is when he listens to kiddush, that is considered kiddush in the place of the meal.
    1. The reason is that the one fulfilling his obligation of kiddush needs to be in the room where he is going to eat his meal and not where the person making kiddush is.[94]
  5. Changing locations:
    1. It is a debate whether changing from one corner of the room to another is considered a new location, such that now the kiddush is not in the same place as the meal.[95] Some poskim say that ideally one should have intent during kiddush if they plan on switching locations within the same room,[96] while other poskim say that intent is not needed since we hold like the majority view that the whole room is considered a single location.[97]
    2. It is a debate whether changing from one room to another in the same house is permitted, if one had express intention to do so from the outset.[98] Some poskim permit it[99] while others say ideally it should only be done in extenuating circumstances.[100]
      1. Rav Ovadya thinks that if one would like to make kiddush in his house, but eat the actual meal in one's yard, one must fulfill two conditions: First, at the time of kiddush he must have intention to eat in the yard. Second, from wherever he is eating in his yard, he must be able to the see the place in house where he made kiddush. After the fact (bedieved), if one didn't have intention when making kiddush to eat in the yard, and ultimately did (as long as he could see the place he made kiddush in) he would have fulfilled his obligation.[101]
  6. One should try to make kiddush and eat the shabbat meal by the shabbat candles, but if for any reason this would cause an inconvenience (for example, would prefer to eat in the yard etc.), one may make kiddush and eat somewhere else.[102]


  1. The Mitzvah of kiddush is unique in that women are obligated even though it is a Mitzvat Aseh She’Hazman Grama (positive time-bound mitzvah), based on a Talmudic derivation that since women are obligated by the prohibitions of Shabbat, they are also obligated in the positive commandments of the day.[103]
  2. Since women are obligated on a biblical level, they should either listen to their husband or hear another adult make kiddush and answer Amen, or say it themselves.[104]
    1. A minor can't make kiddush for an adult woman, since she is biblically obligated in the mitzvah, whereas the minor is only rabbinically obligated.[105]
    2. A person who is questionably still a minor (i.e. a 13-year-old son whose physical signs of maturity have not been verified) also should not make kiddush for an adult woman.[106]
  3. Technically a woman can fulfill the obligation of her husband and family, though it isn't advised.[107]


  1. Once a child has reached the age of chinuch, they are required to hear the kiddush on Shabbat. Therefore in the event that the child did not hear kiddush, an adult may repeat kiddush on his behalf, even though the adult had already fulfilled his own obligation.[108]

Sitting or Standing for Kiddush

  1. Many have the practice to sit for kiddush. However, some have a Minhag to stand for kiddush.[109]
    1. Regardless, one should stand for Vayichulu.[110]
  2. For Shabbat day, the accepted custom is to sit.[111]
  3. For Yom Tov kiddush, many have the custom to sit,[112] but some have the practice to stand.[113]

What to Use for Kiddush

  1. One should use a full cup[114] of wine for kiddush.
  2. Grape Juice
    1. Some say that grape juice is considered equally suitable as wine[115], while others disagree.[116]
    2. Regarding grape juice from concentrate see Grape_Juice_and_Wine#Beracha.
  3. Red vs White
    1. It is better to use red wine for kiddush.[117]
    2. If only white wine is available, then one may make kiddush on it.[118]
    3. If one does not have enough red wine, it is preferable to use the white wine for Shabbat day as opposed to Friday night.[119]
  4. Fit for Mizbeach
    1. One may only make kiddush on wine that is proper (bdieved) for nisuch on the mizbeach.[120]
    2. Malodorous
      1. Bad-smelling wine is pasul for the mizbeach and therefore may not be used.[121]
      2. However, it can be fixed by adding other wine to it.[122]
    3. Mevushal (lit: cooked)[123]
      1. Most hold that mevushal wine may be used for kiddush.[124]
      2. However, some say that it may not be used.[125]
    4. Sweet
      1. Some say that since this is not fit for the mizbeach, it should not be used for kiddush.[126]
      2. Others disagree, and say that the rule that kiddush wine must be fit for the mizbeach is actually only meant to exclude malodorous wine and wine that has been left exposed.[127]
        1. The same ruling applies for all sweet wines.[128]
    5. Exposed
      1. One should not make kiddush on wine that has been left open overnight.[129]
        1. Nevertheless, bdieved one has fulfilled the obligation if one made kiddush on it.[130]
      2. It is permissible to use wine that was left open if it was stored in a closet or refrigerator.[131]
  5. If wine tastes like wine and smells like vinegar then it is permissible for making kiddush, but if wine tastes like vinegar and smells like wine then it is prohibited for making kiddush.[132]

If There's No Wine or Grape Juice

  1. Friday night
    1. If one doesn't have wine, kiddush should be recited on the bread.[133]
      1. One should keep one's hands on the bread throughout the kiddush.[134]
      2. Friday night, one shouldn't make kiddush on anything other than wine, grape juice, or bread.[135]
  2. Shabbat day
    1. If there's no wine available, one should use chamar medina (lit: wine of that locale) for kiddush.[136]
      1. For a discussion of what constitutes chamar medina, see the chamar medina page.
    2. If one doesn't even have chamar medina[137], one should just say hamotzi and eat the bread.[138]
    3. If he doesn't even have bread, one may eat without kiddush.[139]
    4. If wine is expensive or one likes chamar medina better:
      1. Ashkenazim
        1. One may recite kiddush shabbat day on chamar medina if one likes that better.[140]
        2. If wine is expensive, one may use chamar medina for the daytime kiddush.[141]
          1. However, one who uses wine is fulfilling a preferred mitzvah.[142]
      2. Sephardim
        1. One should only use chamar medina for Shabbat lunch if wine isn't available in the city and also this chamar medina is a popular drink in that city.[143]
        2. If wine is expensive but available, then one should still use wine.[144]

Beracha Acharona for Kiddush

  1. One should not say a bracha acharona after kiddush (made in the context of the meal), even though a reviit of wine was consumed, because saying birkat hamazon at the end of the seuda covers kiddush.[145]

Mistakes in Kiddush of Yom Tov

  1. If someone said Mikadesh Yisrael and didn’t add Ve’hazmanim, he didn’t fulfill his obligation.[146]
  2. If someone said Mikadesh Hashabbat instead of Mikadesh Yisrael Ve’hazmanim, he didn’t fulfill his obligation, unless he fixed it within toch kdei dibbur.[147]
  3. If someone said the Yom Tov kiddush for the main text of the bracha (which mentions Yom Tov in the middle), but then concluded with Mikadesh Hashabbat, one doesn’t fulfill his obligation.[148]
  4. If one forgot to say Shehechiyanu, one can say it afterwards anytime during the Yom Tov, for Pesach and Sukkot until the end of the 7 days.[149]
  5. Kiddush of Yom Tov that fell out on Shabbat includes both Shabbat and Yom Tov. If one only said the kiddush of Shabbat or Yom Tov one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation.[150]
  6. If one said the middle of the kiddush correctly and in the conclusion he made a mistake and only mentioned Shabbat, according to many poskim one fulfilled one’s obligation. If one said the middle of the kiddush correctly and in the conclusion he made a mistake and only mentioned Yom Tov according to many Ashkenazic poskim one didn’t fulfill one’s obligation but according to Sephardim one did fulfill one’s obligation.[151]
  7. If one mentioned Yom Tov in kiddush but not the specific holiday, there’s a dispute if one fulfilled one’s obligation.[152]

Questions and Answers

  1. Is it permissible to have kiddush before Mussaf? click here


  1. Rambam Sefer Hamitzvot Aseh 155, Chinuch 31, Smag Aseh 29, Sefer Hamitzvot of Rav Saadia Gaon Aseh 33 all count the mitzva to sanctify the shabbat with words based on this pasuk.
    • Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:1) writes that there is a positive biblical commandment to remember Shabbat based on the pasuk "זכור את יום השבת לקדשו" (Shemot 20:7). In 29:4, he writes that the primary time for the mitzvah is Friday night. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:1 rules like the opinion of the Rambam. [However, it seems that Tosfot (Nazir 4a s.v. My Hee; first opinion) holds that the mitzvah of Kiddish is Derabbanan and the pasuk of Zachor is only an asmachta]. Tosafot Pesachim 106a “zochrayhu” states two opinions: 1) the cup of wine is diRabanan; 2) the cup of wine is diorayta, but the drinking is dirabanan.
  2. Mishna Brurah 271:2, Nitei Gavriel (Yom Tov vol 2, 29:1)
  3. The Gemara (Pesachim 106a) states that the Kiddush is supposed to be said over a cup of wine. Tosfot (s.v. Zochrayhu; first opinion) and Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:6) write that saying Kiddush over the cup of wine is Derabbanan. Tosfot's second opinion holds saying Kiddush over a cup of wine is Deoraitah, but drinking it is Derabbanan.
  4. Magen Avraham 271:1 writes that since the Rambam and Tosfot hold that the deoraita part of Kiddush is that it is stated orally, one should be able to fulfill this obligation with one's Maariv prayer in Shul. This is quoted as halacha by the Be'er Hetiev 271:2. However, there is a great discussion in the achronim and many argue on the Magen Avraham. Mishna Brurah 271:2 (based on the Tosfet Shabbat 271:3) argues that since one doesn't have intention to fulfill the obligation of Zachor, the prayer in shul doesn't fulfill the obligation of Kiddush. Chatom Sofer (OC 1:17 and 1:21) emphasizes that since a person intends to fulfill the mitzvah properly according to the halacha, it is like one had intent not to fulfill one's biblical mitzvah in davening. The Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha s.v. miyad) is also bothered with the Magen Avraham given that there is a requirement to mention yetziyat mitzrayim at kiddush, and one does not do that during shemoneh esreh. There is a dispute whether a women's lighting Shabbat candles can fulfill Kiddush deoraita, Sh"t Mishneh Halachot 7:37 holding that it can fulfill the Deoraita obligation, while Sh"t Az Nidabru 12:1 strongly disagrees.
  5. Haggadat Kol Dodi, Mishna Brurah 183:9, Shaar HaTziyun 183:14
  6. *What is the minimum amount of wine one should drink for Kiddush? Shulchan Aruch 271:13 writes that for kiddush one must drink a Melo Lugmav, which is a cheekful and is the equivalent of the majority of a Revi'it. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:9 agrees. Kaf HaChaim 271:83 and Or Letzion (vol 2, 20:22) write that it's preferable to drink a complete Reviyit. On the other hand, Beiur Halacha 174:6 s.v. VeChen writes that since there's a dispute whether the Birkat HaMazon will exempt the Bracha Achrona of the wine, one should preferably drink only a Melo Lugmav and not a Reviyit. Then he ends off by referencing the Shulchan Aruch's ruling in 190:3 and says that one should have intent that the Birkat HaMazon will exempt the wine before the meal. Additionally in opposition to the Or Letzion, the Brisker Rav (Chametz Umatzah 7:9 s.v. vhanireh cited by Dirshu 472:35) explains that there's no initial mitzvah to have a full reviyit for every kos shel bracha, but rather it is a unique halacha for the four cups of the seder. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1, p 274) simply writes that one must drink a Melo Lugav and doesn't say it's preferable to drink a Reviyit.
    • See also Shulchan Aruch 190:3 who writes that because there is a dispute whether one is obligated to make a Bracha Achrona for a Kezayit or a Reviyit of wine, one shouldn't enter into that dispute and for a Kos Shel Bracha, when one needs to drink more than a Melo Lugmav, one's only option is to drink more than a Reviyit. Kaf HaChaim 271:84 quotes the Pri Megadim who explains that this doesn't apply to Kiddush before a meal since the Birkat HaMazon exempts the wine from a Bracha Achrona.
    • Mishna Brurah 272:30 rules that the obligation to have most of a Revi'it applies regardless of which drink you use for kiddush. Rav Tzvi Pesach Frank in Har Tzvi 1:159, however, says that since the Taz (210:1) holds that one would be obligated to say a beracha acharona on less than a Revi'it of liquor because less than that already is considered to be significant enough for a beracha acharona, the same would apply for how much you need to drink for kiddush. In regards to Bracha Achrona, Mishna Brurah 190:14 based on the Magen Avraham 190 also writes that there's no difference between wine and other drinks in opposition to the Taz's opinion in that regard as well.
  7. Haggadah Kol Dodi (Rabbi Dovid Feinstein, 5730, pg 4) writes that the Revi'it for kiddush on Shabbat (using the method of measuring finger-widths) should be 4.42 oz.
  8. The Gemara Pesachim 100b discusses the custom to recite kiddush on Friday night in shul. The Tur 269 writes that saying Kiddush in shul was only established in order to fulfill the obligation of Kiddush for the guests who would eat their meal in shul. He says that nowadays that guests don't eat their meal in shul one shouldn't say Kiddush in shul. The Beit Yosef 269 quotes the Rabbenu Yonah, Ran, and Rashba who defend this practice of saying Kiddush in shul even if guests don't even their meal in shul. Additionally, the Rambam (Sh"t Harambam 37) writes that this minhag shouldn't be discontinued because all establishments that the rabbis made must remain even if the reason no longer applies. Rashba responsa 1:37 and Maharam Chalavah Pesachim 101a agree. Nonetheless, the Bet Yosef writes that the more proper minhag is not to say Kiddush in Shul. Shulchan Aruch 269:1 rules that some have this practice to say Kiddush in shul, but that it is better not to. Mishna Brurah 269:5 writes that the common minhag is to say Kiddush in shul, and that one shouldn't uproot it. Yalkut Yosef 269:2 writes that if there are some in shul who will not say Kiddush at their homes at all, it is not just justified, but actually encouraged to say Kiddush in shul. If that is not the case, then a shul which doesn't yet have an established minhag shouldn't say kiddush in shul, but if their minhag is to say it then they may continue to do so.
    • Sh"t Yachin Uboaz 118 writes that that the Rashbetz wouldn't answer amen to the kiddush in shul because of the safek beracha livatala.
    • See Chazon Ovadia (vol. 2 pg. 1) where he says that a community were everyone can be assumed to do kiddush at home, should not make kiddush in shul, but if this is not the case, then they should make kiddush in shul so that they can at least fulfill their obligation in kiddush mideorayta. He explains that the proper procedure would be to give the wine to a katan to taste to make sure it would not be considered a beracha levatalah. But also mentions that if the chazzan were to drink a reviet, that would also work as this can be considered kiddush bemakom seudah.
  9. Mishna Brurah 269:5, BeYitchak Yikare adds second day in chutz la'aretz
  10. Shulchan Aruch 269:1. He explains that since one can only fulfill his obligation of kiddush in the context of a meal - אין קידוש אלא במקום סעודה - the one making kiddush in shul won't be able to fulfill his obligation (since he's not eating in the shul) and thus he shouldn't drink the wine (since there is a prohibition to eat or drink before kiddush).
  11. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 269:1, Magen Avraham 269:1, Mishna Brurah 269:1, Yalkut Yosef 269:2. In general there is a prohibition of causing a minor to violate a prohibition. This is known as the isur of "ספייה בידיים". See Shulchan Aruch OC:343, as well as gemara shabbat 121a and yevamos 114a. Thus here it should seemingly be problematic to give a katan the wine, just like it is asur for the adult to drink the wine (since it's asur to drink before kiddush and one doesn't fulfill their obligation of kiddush outside the context of a seudah). The Magen Avraham 269:1 gives several reasons to explain why it is permitted to give the wine to a katan: (1) Since eating before kiddush is a prohibition implied from a mitzvah, it isn't an issue of feeding something forbidden to children. (Yalkut Mefarshim on Ran Yoma 3a agrees.) (2) According to the Geonim it is permitted to just have the cup of kiddush without the meal there, and for children that is sufficient to rely upon. (3) There is no other viable alternative (אי אפשר בעניין אחר). (4) According to the Rashba and Ran, it is permitted to feed a child a rabbinic prohibition (see Bet Yosef O.C. 343:1). While there may still be a concern in general of דילמא אתי למיסרח (perhaps the child will come to do the wrong thing even when they are older), this latter concern is mitigated if either we are giving them the isur because they need it (צרכו של תינוק), or if it isn't done בקביעות (with permanence; such as here, where it is possible that guests will show up to shul who need to rely upon the kiddush at shul and so they'll drink the wine). (5) Since the prohibition is only related to time and not intrinsic to the food, it is permitted to feed to children. (Meor Yisrael Yoma 78b agrees.)
  12. The Magen Avraham cites a debate between the Bach and the Ritva on this question. The Bach thought that one should davka give the wine to a child who is not yet הגיע לחינוך (under the age of instruction), because that way it is less bad that he is drinking before kiddush. However, the Rashbah thought that giving it to such a child would constitute a bracha l'vatala (bracha in vein), since he isn't obligated in kiddush, and so one should davka give the wine to a katan who is הגיע לחינוך.
  13. Mishna Brurah 269:1
  14. Chazon Ovadia Shabbat v. 2 p. 1
  15. Rama 269:1
  16. Mishna Brurah 269:6
  17. Yalkut Yosef Shabbat 1 271:1. See also Tur (very beginning of siman 271) who uses the language of ״ימהר לאכול מיד״.
  18. The Ran on Gemarah Pesachim 106a says that the Kiddush of the night is Deoraita while that of the day is Derabbanan.
  19. Gemarah Pesachim (105a)
  20. Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:7) writes that the order of Kiddush is Vayichulu (which are pesukim said based on Minhag), the Borei Pri Hagefen and then Mikadesh HaShabbat (the text of which can be found in Rambam 29:2).
  21. Tanit 27b, Megillah 22a. "כל פסוקא דלא פסקיה משה אנן לא פסקינן".
  22. The verse (bereishis 1:31) begins with the phrase: "וַיַּ֤רְא אֱלֹקים֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וְהִנֵּה־ט֖וֹב מְאֹ֑ד" - and G-d saw everything He had made, and behold it was very good.
  23. Rama 271:10, Levush 271:10, Aruch HaShulchan 271:25, Chatom Sofer OC 10. Chatom Sofer OC 1:51 explains the minhag is based on the fact that we want to mention yom hashishi before vayichulu hashamayim since there’s an acrostic of Hashem’s name of the first letter of each of those four words. But since we don’t want to mention only two words from a pasuk since it is meaningless we include a whole phrase. However, we don’t want to say the whole pasuk since the midrash says that there’s a reference to death in the beginning of the pasuk. Rav Aviner Nefesh Harav (p. 159) quotes Rav Soloveitchik as having the practice to say the beginning part of the pasuk quietly to himself. He also cites this as the practice of the Steipler (Orchot Rabbenu v. 1 p. 109).
  24. The Gemara Pesachim 106a states that the primary Kiddush is at night, but there's also a Kiddush of the day. Even though it seems to be Deoraitah, as the gemara learns it from a pasuk, the Rishonim agree that the pasuk is only an asmachta (Ravad and Magid Mishna (Hilchot Shabbat 29:10), quoted by Bear Heitiv 289:2) and the obligation of Kiddush during the day is only Rabbinic. The gemara concludes that the text of such a Kiddush is just Borei Pri HaGefen. Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:10) and Shulchan Aruch 289:1 codify this as halacha.
  25. While this is a common practice, there were some poskim who felt that adding pesukim was improper, because it confuses people as to what is truly the "kiddush" and what is just a nice add-on. The essense of kiddush on shabbat day is just borei pri hagafen, and they felt that it was important to highlight that. See Dirshu Mishna Brurah (siman 289 ft. 4) that cites this position from the Chazon Ish and Rav Chaim of Brisk.
  26. Mishna Brurah (289:2)
  27. Mishna Brurah (289:2)
  28. *Piskei Teshuvot 271:32 quotes the Mishnat Yosef 4:35 who says that initially one shouldn't pour off before drinking because one should drink from a cup with a reviyit and also so that it shouldn't look like a disgrace to the mitzvah (bizuy mitzvah, see Mishna Brurah 296:4 and Eliya Rabba 271:23). However, if he’s sick he can pour off some and then drink from the cup which still has a reviyit. Rav Hershel Schachter (Brachot Shiur 92 min 44) agreed that one shouldn’t pour off so much that there’s not a reviyit left before you drink. He holds like the Magen Avraham as will be explained.
    • Should the cup one drinks from have a reviyit? Tosfot Pesachim 105b s.v. shema writes that one must drink from a cup that has a reviyit and not pour off some of the cup into another cup and drink. Agudah Pesachim 10:84 and Ritva Pesachim 105b s.v. shema agree. Magen Avraham 271:24 rules like Tosfot. Mishna Brurah 271:51 agrees. Shulchan Aruch 271:11 seems not to hold like Tosfot but see Eliya Rabba 271:23 who defends Shulchan Aruch but also accepts Tosfot. Korban Netanel Pesachim 10:200 writes that in fact the Rosh, Rabbenu Yerucham, and Shulchan Aruch disagree with Tosfot and you don’t have to drink from a cup with a reviyit. Netiv Chaim 271:11 agrees. Rabbi Akiva Eiger Pesachim 105b discusses whether the proof of the Korban Netanel is conclusive.
  29. Dor Hamelaktim (v. 1 p. 652) quotes Rivevot Efraim 1:194 and Zeh Hashulchan (2:190 s.v. im) as allowing this practice, but notes that Rav Chaim Kanievsky disagreed.
  30. Tosfot Pesachim 106a s.v. gachin, Tosfot Brachot 47a s.v. ein, Rosh Pesachim 10:16, Rosh Brachot 7:15, Shulchan Aruch OC 271:17
  31. Eruvin 40b and Pesachim 108b imply that only the one making kiddush needs to drink and no one else, but Pesachim 106a and perhaps 108b imply that everyone listening should drink. The Rosh (Pesachim 10:16) writes that although each person listening to kiddush doesn't need to drink wine to fulfill his obligation, there is nonetheless an added mitzvah to do so. Maharam Chalavah Pesachim 101a holds those listening don't need to drink. Tosfot Pesachim 99b s.v. lo originally assumes that those listening to the kiddush don't need to drink but afterwards questions that assumption. The Rambam Shabbat 29:7 implies that there is an obligation for everyone to drink. Maggid Mishna 29:7 just adds that those listening don't need to drink a melo lugmav. Shulchan Aruch OC 271:14 rules like the Rosh that as long as the one reciting kiddush drinks that is sufficient for everyone to fulfill their obligation, but that it is a mitzvah for them to drink. Mishna Brurah 271:83 agrees.
  32. The Levush 271:14 writes that those listening should drink a melo lugmav. However, the Maggid Mishna Shabbat 29:7 writes that those listening only need to drink a bit and not melo lugmav. The Taz 271:17, Eliya Rabba 271:29, and Mishna Brurah 271:71 follow the Maggid Mishna, that even a "טעימה בעלמא" (lit: a taste) is enough to achieve the מצוה מן המובחר (ideal mitzvah).
  33. Rav Schachter Inyonei Sefirat Haomer 5776 towards the very end quoted the Torah Temimah, Netsiv (see Haemek Shayla 54:4), and Rav Velve Soloveitchik that one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation if one doesn’t drink wine at the kiddush of the day specifically since it really is only a birchat hanehenin and not a bracha of a mitzvah. However, in Brachot Shiur 92 (min 23) he quoted that Rav Chaim was upset with this chiddush of the Netsiv and not everyone has to drink at the daytime kiddush. Teshuvot Vehanhagot 3:243 cites this dispute between the Brisker Rav and Rav Chaim. See Teshuvot Vehanhagot 1:264 and Piskei Teshuvot 289 fnt. 24 for more sources.
  34. Gemara Brachot 47a
  35. Yerushalmi Brachot 6:1, Tosfot Brachot 47a s.v. ein, Tosfot Pesachim 106a s.v. gachin, Rashba Brachot 47a s.v. amar, Maharam Chalavah Pesachim 106a s.v. chazyey, Shulchan Aruch 271:16
  36. Shulchan Aruch 271:14
  37. Rosh Pesachim 10:16 writes that the wine in each person's cup has to be fixed and not drunk from beforehand in order for them to use it for drinking at kiddush even though they aren't reciting the kiddush. He explains that since they are listening to kiddush and going to drink wine from their own cup it is considered as though they are reciting their own kiddush over their own cup. If so that cup should be valid for kiddush. Tosfot Pesachim 106a s.v. hava, Tosfot Brachot 47a s.v. ein, Rashba Brachot 47a s.v. amar, Tur 182:4, and Ohel Moed 6:6 cited by Bet Yosef 182:2 agree. The Shulchan Aruch O.C. 271:17 accepts the Rosh.
    • The Tiferet Shmuel on Rosh Pesachim 10:15:10 seems to have another understanding of the Rosh in which he assumes that those who are listening to the kiddush and have their own cups don't need their cups to be valid for kiddush and may be drunk from beforehand (like the Raah). However, the Divrei Chamudot Pesachim 10:15:36 understood the Rosh as above.
  38. The Raah cited by Bet Yosef 182:4 writes that those listening don't have to have valid cups for kiddush. The Shulchan Aruch O.C. 182:4 cites that opinion as a minority view.
  39. Mishna Brurah 182:24. Shaar Hatziyun 271:89 explains that even though generally speaking, once one drinks from a cup it becomes "פגום" (lit: blemished), and one should not make a bracha on such a cup, nevertheless if they are drinking from the kiddush cup it is viewed as just a continuation of the drinking began by the one who made kiddush, and so it is not considered to be like drinking from a כוס פגום (lit: blemished cup).
  40. Hacham Ovadia (Hazon Ovadia, Volume 2, Page 18) writes that a Sepharadi who does not understand kiddush in an Ashkenazic or Yemenite accent can not fulfill the obligation via shomea ke'one in such a way.
  41. Sh"t Igrot Moshe O"C 3:39 forbids using a plastic or paper cup as they aren't considered a nice cup and it's worse off than a broken cup (which is forbidden by Shulchan Aruch 183:3. Mishna Brurah 183:11 says that even if it is just the base that is cracked one should still be strict.) The Radiance of Shabbos (page 81 footnote 3) relates how in personal conversation with Rav Moshe he was told that this doesn't depend on the quality of the plastic at all. Rav Hershel Schachter (Brachot Shiur 101 min 25-30) agrees with Rav Moshe.
    • However, Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 12:23 differentiates between a cup that would be used for hot liquids and could be reused and one that's ruined after it's first use. Even if one personally doesn't reuse it, it is still considered a kli. This is true for kiddush, havdala, and netilat yadayim. Sh"t Beer Moshe 5:55 on the other hand, only allows cup that are commonly reused and therefore only permits plastic cups and not paper cups, or small shot glasses because those are rarely reused.
    • Sh"t Az Nidabru 6:49 is the most lenient allowing any disposal cup, however, it's still preferable to use a better cup as a hidur mitzvah. Shevut Yitzchak (vol 1, 4:5, pg 48) in name of Rav Elyashiv and Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat vol 2 p. 56) concur with the lenient opinion. See further: Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz on Although many poskim, say that using two plastic cups doesn't help at all, see Rav Dov Lior for the explanation of that practice, though he writes that he doesn't necessarily think that it helps the issue.
  42. Mishna Brurah 183:10 writes that the entire concept of having a proper cup for kiddush is important initially (lechatchila) but after the fact (b'dieved) it isn't critical and one still fulfills one's obligation without it. Therefore, Rav Hershel Schachter (Brachot Shiur 101 min 25-30) explained that Rav Moshe, who invalidated a disposable cup for kiddush because it is like it is already broken, would agree that if one nevertheless used such a cup one has still fulfilled their obligation.
    • Rashba 51a s.v. ha writes that if a person doesn’t have one of the four major rules of a kos shel bracha a person doesn’t fulfill their obligation, the others are enhancements initially. Meiri 51a s.v. asara quote some who said that they are all only critical initially. Mishna Brurah 183:10 implies that we follow the Meiri. Maaseh Rav n. 86 follows the Rashba that it would prevent fulfilling one's obligation.
  43. The Gemara Brachot 51a establishes that the kos shel bracha should be cleaned on the inside and outside before it is used. Shulchan Aruch OC 183:1 codifies this gemara but adds that it is only necessary if the cup is dirty, but if it is clean then it doesn't need to be rinsed out. Chaye Adam (Shabbat 6:13) agrees. Mishna Brurah 183:3 writes that it is proper to clean it out unless it is completely clean.
  44. Kaf Hachaim 183:4
  45. Gra in Maaseh Rav n. 174 states that it is nice to have six small cups surrounding the main kiddush cup. His reason is that this is the practice of Itur of the Gemara Brachot 51a and even though the gemara says we don't have that practice the gemara only meant that it isn't critical but it is still a nice practice. Kaf Hachaim 183:3 writes that it isn't our practice since we try to follow the other explanation of Itur is having talmidei chachamim around the table, which isn't always possible but when it is that's the main method to add significance to the kiddush.
  46. Gemara Brachot 51a, Shulchan Aruch OC 183:2
  47. Taz 183:4 writes that the practice of not filling up the cup to the very top is because of a concern that it will spill and make a mess. Kaf Hachaim 183:13 adds to the Taz that it isn't considered not full if it is almost full. Similarly, Rabbenu Yonah 37b s.v. al writes that even if the cup isn't completely full it is considered full for a kos shel bracha. Rav Hershel Schachter (Brachot Shiur 101 beginning) quoting Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach
  48. Mishna Brurah 271:11 writes that the prohibition is only Rabbinic.
  49. Maggid Mishna (Hilchot Shabbat 29:5) explains that the Rambam holds that drinking water before Kiddush is permitted, while the Rashba (Sh"t 3:264) forbids it. Hagahot Maimon 29:5 in name of Maharam as well as the Tur 271:4 also forbid. Bet Yosef says that the Rambam is unclear and may hold that even water is forbidden. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 271:4 rules that even water is forbidden.
  50. Pesachim 106b records a dispute whether one who tasted food before Kiddush can still make Kiddush. Bet Yosef 271:4 understands from there that everyone agrees that initially (lechatchila) it is forbidden to eat or drink before Kiddush. Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:5), Tur and Shulchan Aruch 271:4 all rule that it's forbidden to eat before making Kiddush.
  51. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:13. See Rambam (hilchot shabbat 29:10) who holds that it is forbidden to eat/drink before kiddush shabbat-day, just as Friday night. However, the Ra'avad (hasagot to 29:10) vehemently disagrees ("בחיי ראשי אם מסברא אמרה לא סבר מימיו סברא פחותה מזו"). Shulchan Aruch 289:1 sides with the Rambam.
  52. Levush 271:4, Ateret Tzvi 271:3, Mishna Brurah 271:11
  53. Aruch Hashulchan 271:12
  54. Yeshaya 58:13
  55. Igrot Moshe OC 4:63 s.v. aval af explains based on the Rashbam and Tosfot (Pesachim 101a) that the prohibition to eat before kiddush is built on the idea of וקראת לשבת עונג - במקום קריאה שם תהא עונג - that the meal may only be had where kiddush is recited and not elsewhere or beforehand.
  56. Magen Avraham 271:5 in name of the Bach writes that if one accepted Shabbat early, it is forbidden to eat before making Kiddush. Mishna Brurah 271:11 agrees.
  57. Magen Avraham 271:5, Mishna Brurah 271:11, and Ben Ish Chai Bereshit 17 write that the prohibition begins at Bein HaShemashot.
  58. Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Shemot 5779 min 12) explained that there's many reasons why it is permitted to drink water after accepting Shabbat during Ben Hashemashot. (1) The acceptance of Shabbat of an individual isn't a full acceptance that would make everything forbidden. (2) Bein Hashemashot might be like the day, especially since we might follow Rabbi Yose who holds that it is day until the end of Ben Hashemashot. (3) According to Rabbenu Tam, it is still the day. (4) He understands the Rambam's shita to be that one can drink anything besides wine before Kiddush.
  59. Mishna Brurah 286:7 citing the Magen Avraham and the Bach. Before one davens shacharit, while the prohibition of eating before kiddush has not yet begun, there is a separate prohibition in effect of eating before davening. However, with respect to this latter prohibition, it is permitted to drink water. See Tur siman 289 who cites the practice of his father, the Rosh, who would drink water before davening on shabbat morning. He explains that this is allowed since drinking water before davening is not asur, and the obligation of kiddush does not begin until after shacharit.
  60. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 271:4. See above section on "eating before kiddush".
  61. Magen Avraham 271:5 writes that rinsing out one's mouth is permitted as it isn't called drinking. Bear Hetiev 271:4 and Mishna Brurah 271:13 agree. However, Ben Ish Chai Bereshit 17 is more stringent and only permits if one was fasting and only during Bein HaShemashot.
  62. Tur writes in the name of his father, the Rosh, and Shulchan Aruch 289:1
  63. Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha 289:1 s.v. chovat) and Igrot Moshe OC 2:26:2 write that someone who is sick and needs to eat before davening on Shabbat should make kiddush first, unless he doesn't need to eat pat haba bekisnin. Piskei Teshuvot 289:8 note 63 writes that the best option is for the sick person not to have a kezayit of pat haba bekisnin within a kedi achilat pras, and that way he won't be obligated to make kiddush.
  64. Yabia Omer OC 8:31 and Or Letzion 2:20:14 write that someone who is sick and needs to eat before davening on Shabbat does not need to make kiddush. See also Kaf Hachaim 276:28 who is lenient in extenuating circumstances. See Chazon Ovadia (Shabbat v. 2 p. 149) where Rav Ovadia recommends that a sick person who needs to eat bread or pat haba bekisnin before davening should recite kiddush.
  65. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 52:15. Mishna Brurah 286:9 in the name of the Eliyah Rabah.
  66. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 52:18 is lenient, since the prohibition of eating before kiddush is not a prohibition on the food itself (איסור חפצא) but rather just on the person not to eat at this time (איסור גברא). We can therefore be more lenient with respect to the prohibition of ספייה (abetting a minor in the performance of a prohibition), and since the child needs the food, it is permitted.
  67. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 52:13
  68. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 52:13
  69. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 52:13 quoting Minchat Yitzchak 4:28:3, who includes a factor of relying on Maharam Chalavah that women are not obligated in Kiddush during the day.
  70. The Gemara Brachot 28b writes that the halacha doesn’t follow Rav Huna who says that it’s forbidden to taste any food before praying Mussaf. The Tur 286:3 writes that even though we don’t hold like Rav Huna we only permit have a snack but a meal is forbidden. The Bet Yosef quotes the Raavad, Rashba, and perhaps the Rabbenu Yerucham who agree. S”A 286:3 writes that it’s forbidden to eat a meal before praying Mussaf but it’s permissible to have a snack. The Magen Avraham 286:2 writes that the snack is the same as before Mincha where S”A 232:3 writes that one may have a KeBaytzah of bread and a lot of fruit but not more. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:15 agrees. See Rav Mordechai Eliyahu's comment on Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:15 where he writes that we only rely on this in situations of pressing need.
  71. Shaar HaTziyun 286:7 writes that the measure for a meal before mussaf in regards to baked mezonot is the same as by Sukkah. Mishna Brurah 639:15-6 (regarding Sukkah) quotes some who say that if one establishes a meal out of the Pas HaBah Bekisnin certainly it requires a Sukkah. However, if one didn’t have it as a meal if one had more than a KeBaytzah then there’s a dispute whether one needs a Sukkah and if one eats less than a KeBaytzah then certainly it doesn’t require a Sukkah. Nonetheless, Halichot Shlomo (Tefillah 14:9, pg 179-80) writes that the minhag is to lenient to have even more than a Kabaytzah of baked mezonot.
  72. Magen Avraham 286:1, Beiur Halacha 286:3 s.v. Achilat, Mishna Brurah 286:7, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 52:17
  73. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 52:16 citing Yabia Omer 5:22:4 relying on the opinion that the mitzvah of Kiddish doesn't apply until after Mussaf.
  74. Pesachim 106a learns that the primary way to do Kiddush, a remembrance of Shabbat, is with wine on Friday night because that's the beginning of the day (in the Jewish calendar). Shulchan Aruch, O”C 271:1
  75. Magen Avraham writes that Kiddush can be made during the day if one accepts upon oneself Shabbat early. Many achronim including Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:2 and Mishna Brurah 271:11 concur.
  76. Minchat Shlomo 1:3 allowed it non-regularly. Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Shemot 5779 min 43) and Tzitz Eliezer 14:25 allowed it. They cite Rabbi Akiva Eiger who was unsure about this.
  77. The Gemara Pesachim 105a rules that if one missed saying Kiddiush on Friday night one can make it up through the rest of Shabbat. Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:4), Tur and Shulchan Aruch 271:8 rule like this gemara. This is agreed upon by the achronim, including Aruch HaShulchan 271:21, Ben Ish Hai (Bereshit 19), and Hacham Ovadia Yosef, in Halichot Olam. Aruch HaShulchan and Ben Ish Chai write that even if the person ate intentionally, one can and should still make Kiddush the next day.
  78. Orchot Chayim (Kiddush n. 3), Rama O.C. 271:8, Misna Brurah 271:40, Chaye Adam (Shabbat 6:2), Aruch HaShulchan 271:21, and Ben Ish Chai (Beresheet 19) hold that we don't say Vayichulu if the Kiddish is said during the day since Vayichulu was instituted for the incoming of Shabbat. [This finds it's source in the Magid Mishna (Hilchot Shabbat 29:4).]
  79. Ben Ish Chai Bereshit 19 writes that one could argue that according to the Magen Avraham (271:1), once one prayed on Shabbat the obligation of Kiddush is only Derabbanan and whenever there is a doubt about a Derabbanan obligation one may be lenient (Safek Derabbanan Lekula). If this was the case, one should say that if it is Bein HaShemashot one no longer needs to say Kiddush. However, the Ben Ish Chai rejects such an argument because some commentators limit the Magen Avraham to a case where one doesn't have wine or one specifically had Kavana in davening to fulfill one's obligation. Therefore, the Ben Ish Chai rules that one can still make Kiddush during Bein HaShemashot with a Bracha because of the rule Safek Deoraitah LeChumra, just like if there's a doubt concerning Birkat HaMazon. Halichot Olam (vol 3, pg 25-7) agrees. However, the Mishna Brurah 271:39 (Shaar Hatziyun 47) rules that if one did say Tefillot Shabbat and it's Bein HaShemashot, one should make the bracha without Shem UMalchut. See Rabbi Mansour on
  80. *Tur 271:12 quotes Rav Amram Goan (Siddur vol 2, Siman 17) who wrote that one should make Kiddush on wine and then wash for bread. However, if one washed first, one should make Kiddush on bread in accordance with Rav Bruna in Pesachim 106b ("הנוטל ידיו לא יקדש"). Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 29:9-10) and the Ran in explaining the Rif (22a) concur. The Maharam MeRotenburg (quoted by the Tur 271:12) also had the practice to make Kiddush before washing. Shulchan Aruch 271:12 rules that one should make Kiddush and then wash; however, if one washed first, then one should make Kiddush on the bread.
    • Kaf HaChaim 271:76 adds that the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot 71c) agrees because the order should be kept as Kiddush being the completion of prayer and washing as the start of the meal. Gra 271:12, Maamer Mordechai 271:16, and Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 273) concur with Shulchan Aruch. Therefore, Sephardim shouldn't change from the ruling of Shulchan Aruch even Bedieved. However, the Kaf HaChaim 271:77 argues that Bedieved one should say Kiddush on wine because one has what to rely on.
  81. Menuchat Ahava (vol 1 pg 143) see dailyhalacha
  82. The Rashbam (Pesachim 106b), and Baal HaMoar (Pesachim 21b s.v. Amar Rav Bruna) explain the gemara differently than the Rambam/Ran. Rav Bruna in the gemara holds that if one washed then they can't say kiddush since that would be a hefsek between washing and hamotzi. However, the gemara (according to them) rejects Rav Bruna, and therefore we do not view the kiddush as a hefsek between washing and hamotzi that would be me'akev. Nonetheless, one should ideally not wash before kiddush, because of a different gemara (Brachot 51b) in which Beit Hillel holds that one should first pour the wine and then wash for hamotzi (״מוזגין ואחר כך נוטלין״). According to the Rashbam, then, it comes out that one should lechatchila make kiddush first, but bdieved if one washed first then they can still make kiddush on wine. Rabbenu Tam (Pesachim 106b s.v. Mekadesh) and the Ri (Pesachim 106b s.v. Zimnin) hold that even Lechatchila one can wash before making Kiddush on wine. They explain the gemara in brachot 51b to be limited to pouring wine during the week, since that is a big hefsek, but merely making kiddush is not such a hefsek and so can be done after washing before saying hamotzi. Hagahot Maimon 29:100, Sh"t Rashba 1:752, Rokeach (115), and Mordechai (Pesachim 106b; pg 37c) side with Rabbenu Tam and Ri. Such was the minhag of the Rosh (quoted by Tur 271:12) and the minhag of Ashkenaz as writes the Rama 271:12. However, the Beit Yosef points out that it is difficult to understand why someone would specifically wash before kiddush, as even according to Rabbenu Tam it is not preferable to wash first, but merely permitted. The Taz 271:14 and Chaye Adam (Shabbat 6:12) rule that the Rama is only bedieved. Therefore, Mishna Brurah 271:62 writes that since many achronim side with Shulchan Aruch and one satisfies all opinions that way, one should make Kiddush first. However, Bedieved one can rely on the Rama to still make Kiddush on wine if one did in fact wash first. Kaf HaChaim 271:77 adds in the name of the Bach that if one didn't make the bracha on Netilat yadayim one should make Kiddush on wine and then rewash so that one doesn't loose the Kiddush over wine.
  83. See previous note. As noted there, this was the practice of the Rosh based on Rabbenu Tam's reading of the various gemaras. Rama O.C. 271:12 writes that such was the absolutely overwhelming Ashkenazi minhag to wash before Kiddish. Darkei Moshe 271:11 in fact says that he never saw anyone who made kiddush before they washed. The Bet Yosef 271:12 comments that he saw some Sephardim who also had such a practice, but he sternly disagreed based on the Rif and Rambam. Given that making kiddush satisfies the shitot of all the rishonim, and washing first is only permitted according to Rabbenu Tam, what is the logic of this minhag? The Mishna Brurah (271:61) suggests that since if one makes kiddush on bread they would have to wash first, in order to be consistent the minhag developed to always just wash before kiddush, even when making it on wine. The Eliyah Rabah (s.k. 27) suggests that perhaps the minhag developed because people were concerned that their hands were not properly clean to be able to make kiddush (one shouldn't say shem Hashem with dirty hands), and so they would wash before.
  84. Magen Avraham 271:27 writes that even Rabbenu Tam (Pesachim 106 s.v. Mekadesh) who holds that Lechatchila one can wash before Kiddush, agrees that one cannot dilute the wine after washing. This is based on Bet Hillel (Brachot 51b) who says that one should make Kiddush first in the case where one has to dilute the wine, because diluting wine takes precision and is definitely an interruption between washing and hamotzi. Magen Avraham adds that according to the stringent opinion in Shulchan Aruch 166:1 (which is the Tur based on the Yerushalmi) one should be strict not to make any interruption. The Magen Avraham is brought as halacha by the Tosfet Shabbat 271:34 and Kaf HaChaim 271:78.
  85. Magen Avraham 271:26 in name of Hagahot Mordechai (it seems that he means Mordechai pg 37b), Bach 271:11 (s.v. VeleInyan) distinguish between the one making Kiddush (who should not wash before) and the other members of the family (who may wash before, since they aren't saying kiddush and there is thus no hefsek). Mishna Brurah (271:58) cites this as well. Kaf HaChaim 271:79 argues that there's no difference between the one making Kiddush and the other family members.
  86. Shmuel in Gemara Pesachim 101a says that one should only say Kiddush in the place where one is going to have a meal. The Rosh (Pesachim 10:5) says that this is based on the pasuk "VeKarata LeShabbat Oneg" (Yishayahu 58:13). Chazal explain that "Kriyah" is a reference to Kiddush, and "Oneg" is a reference to eating the meal. Hence, the pasuk means: in the place of Oneg (i.e. meal) one should have Kriyah (i.e. kiddush). Shulchan Aruch O.C. 273:1 and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:14 codify this as the halacha. See Biur Halacha (273:3 s.v. l'alter) who understands that this drasha is really only an asmachta (hint), and that the requirement that kiddush be made by the meal is only rabbinic.
  87. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:14; Shulchan Aruch 289:1
  88. Preferably, Rama 273:3 quotes from the Mahari Mulin that one should make one's meal immediately after Kiddush. This is presumably in order to link the kiddush to the meal as much as possible. Mishna Brurah 273:12 explains that preferably, one should eat one's meal right after Kiddush without waiting.
  89. The Rama 273:3 seems to say that lechatchila one needs to either eat right after kiddush, or have had intention to eat right after kiddush. Thus, as long as one made kiddush with intention to eat soon afterwards, then even if some unforeseen circumstance arose that delayed the meal, this would seemingly be ok bedieved. Indeed, Mishna Brurah 273:12, and Piskei Teshuvot 273:3 based on Aruch HaShulchan 263:1, write that one shouldn't make a new Kiddush even if one had a long break or made a change in place and returned to the place of the Kiddush.
  90. Mishna Brurah 273:14 explaining the Rama that a new kiddush is needed if there was no initial intent to eat immediately, and there was an interruption between kiddush and the meal. Halichot Olam (vol 3, pg 3) defines this interruption as 72 minutes.
  91. Rav Ovadia Yosef in (Kol Sinai Tevet 5724 p. 15) writes that Maggid doesn't make the Kiddush before the meal not adjacent to the meal because the Maggid is necessary for the meal as we need to speak about the Matzah (Lechem Shonim Alav Devarim Harbeh). Halichot Shlomo of Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Moadim v. 2 p. 248 9:14) agrees and explains that the Maggid is intrinsically part of the meal and such was the establishment of chazal. See Rav Chaim Palagi Haggadah regarding how Maggid is an extension of Kiddush (like the Rif cited by Avudraham why there's no bracha on Maggid since Kiddush already fulfills the mitzvah of Maggid).
  92. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 273:5 writes in name of the Geonim that one can fulfill the obligation to eat in the place of where one makes kiddush by eating bread or drinking wine. Magen Avraham 273:10 and Mishna Brurah 273:21 rule that a Kezayit is needed to fulfill this obligation. Mishna Brurah 273:25 comments that certainly mezonot fulfills the obligation, as it is more significant than wine. Rabbi Akiva Eiger (on MA 273:11) points out that Magen Avraham 188:9 quotes Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 36b s.v. birkat who disagrees with the logic of the Bet Yosef 273:5 in explaining the geonim. Mishna Brurah 273:25 writes in name of Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger and Tosefet Shabbat that wine doesn't fulfill one's obligation according to many rishonim, and so one should only rely on this in cases of need. Piskei Teshuvot writes that it seems that there's a dispute between the Magen Avraham 273:11 and the Shaarei Teshuva 289:1 whether one can fulfill this obligation with mezonot that's not Pat HaBah Bekisnin. The Mishna Brurah 273:25 holds like the Magen Avraham and one can fulfill one's obligation by having any mezonot. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchato 52:24, Sh"t Az Nidabru 8:31, Kiddush KeHilchato (pg 195), Sh"t Or Letzion (vol 2, 20:28), and Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 196; Halichot Olam (Vol 3, pg 1)) agree. There's a discussion in the achronim whether the geonim's shita is that one can simply drink a reviyit of the cup of kiddush, or whether needs to drink an additional reviyit of wine in order to constitute a meal. See Mishna Brurah (273:27) who cites this latter position. See Shaar Hatziyon (273:29) who thinks that regarding kiddush shabbat day one can be lenient, but regarding kiddush Friday night one should be strict, and perhaps not even rely on the geonim at all.
  93. Rav Ovadia Yosef in (Kol Sinai Tevet 5724 p. 13) writes that since some disagree with the geonim, we shouldn't rely on them at night when kiddush is biblical. Mishna Brurah (Shaar Hatziyun 273:29) questions whether or not we should rely on the geonim for the kiddush at night and leaves it unresolved. See also Mishna Brurah (273:25) who cites Rebbe Akiva Eiger as proving that many rishonim disagreed with the geonim, and that therefore one should only rely upon them in a pinch.
  94. Maharam Chalavah Pesachim 101a explains that they used to make kiddush in shul and people in a nearby room would hear the kiddush and fulfill their obligation and eat there. It is considered kiddush in the place where they're going to eat since they're fulfilling their obligation and they're the ones eating. The location of the one making kiddush doesn't impact that. Tosfot Pesachim 101a s.v. dochlu implies otherwise. Nonetheless, the Bet Yosef 273:6 cites the Rabbenu Yerucham, Smag, and Hagahot Maimoniyot who agreed with Maharam Chalavah. Shulchan Aruch OC 273:6 holds like Maharam Chalavah. Rabbi Akiva Eiger 273:2 explains that those listening to the kiddush are like making kiddush themselves (שומע כעונה), and so the only thing that matters is if they eat in the place where they were when they heard kiddush.
  95. The Tur (273) cites from Tosfot that moving one from corner to another corner in the same room doesn't constitute a change in location at all. The Bet Yosef cites this as the position of the Rosh (Pesachim 10:5) and the Rambam (hilchot shabbat 29:8). However, the Bet Yosef cites the Ran (daf 20a in the dapei harif) who argues and thinks that even changing from one corner of the room to another is considered a change in location.
  96. The Shulchan Aruch (273:1) paskens somewhat ambiguously. He first says that the entire room is viewed as a single location. But then he says that if one made kiddush without intent to switch locations, and then decided to switch, they don't need to repeat kiddush. This latter formulation sounds like it is only ok post-facto (i.e. after kiddush was made), but that if one made kiddush without intent to switch locations, then it would be prohibited at that point to switch locations for the meal, even within the same room. The Magen Avraham (273:1) makes this inference. However, Rebbe Akiva Eiger (on MA) argues and says that the Shulchan Aruch chose this formulation just to show that one doesn't need intent to switch locations from the outset. The Mishna Brurah (273:3) paskens that ideally one should not change locations like the Magen Avraham. However, in the shaar hatziyon (273:4) he seems to agree to Rebbe Akiva Eiger that one can lechatchila change locations within the same room, even if they did not have intent to do so when they made kiddush. See also Biur Halacha (273:1 s.v. v'chen ikar) who holds explicitly like Rebbe Akiva against the Magen Avraham.
  97. Rebbe Akiva Eiger on Magen Avraham 273:1. See previous note. Chazon Ovadia 2 pg. 126 paskens that one should ideally only switch locations within the same room if they have intent for it initially when making kiddush. However, if one did not have intent when they made kiddush, they may still switch locations after the fact.
  98. The Tur (273) cites from Rabbenu Nisim that if one had intent from the outset (during kiddush) to change locations, then there is no problem of eating the meal in that intended location, even though it isn't where one made kiddush. The Tur cites Tosfot as limiting the din of Rabbenu Nisim to where the second location is in the same house as the first, such as between rooms or between floors. However, if the second location was in a different house entirely, or in a courtyard, then this tnay (lit: stipulation) wouldn't help. The Bet Yosef brings the Ran (daf 20a in the dapei harif) who disagrees entirely with Rabbenu Nisim and thinks that a tnay is never ineffective here, so there would be no permitted way of making kiddush in one room and having the meal in another.
  99. The Shulchan Aruch 273:1 paskens like Tosfot, and the Rama concurs (he adds the phrase "וכן עיקר").
  100. Biur Halacha (273:1 s.v. v'chen ikar) suggests that one should refrain from relying upon this tnay except in cases of need. The reason is because the Magen Avraham (273:1) is strict to not even change from one corner of the room to another (when there is no stipulation), so we should at least be strict not to move from room to room to be chosheish (lit: concerned) for the opinion of the Ran. However, the Mishna Brurah is lenient if one can also see the second location from the place where one made kiddush.
  101. Chazon Ovadia 2 - pg. 127
  102. Chazon Ovadia vol.2 pg. 145-146 - he says although its considered a "mitzva min hamuvchar" to eat by candles, at the same time, the mitzva of shabbat candles were only given to us to enjoy shabbat, not to bother us...
  103. On Berachot 20b, Rava says that women are obligated in Kiddush on a Deoraita level because the torah compares the positive and negative commandments of Shabbat by interchanging the terms "Zachor" and "Shamor" implying that anyone who is obligated in the negative commands is also obligated in the positive ones. Shulchan Aruch 271:2 and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:4 codify this as the halacha. A woman's obligation applies both at night (Mishna Brurah 271:3) and during the day (Mishna Brurah 289:6). Maharam Chalava pesachim 106a "bayom mai" disagrees and says that women aren't obligated during the day, but we don't pasken this way.
  104. Since women are obligated in Kiddush on a biblical level, they can definitely make Kiddush for themselves. Additionally, since a man is obligated, a women can fulfill her obligation with the man's Kiddush as they both have a Deoraitah obligation. According to the Magen Avraham that one fulfills the Deoraitah obligation in prayer, if a man and women have both already prayed, they can fulfill each other's obligation since they have equal obligations. However, if the man prayed and the women didn't, then the man is obligated on a Rabbinical level and the women is obligated on a biblical level. If so, asks Rav Yechezkel Landau in Dagul Mirvavah 271:2, perhaps the women can't fulfill her obligation with the man's reading, since he isn't obligated to the same degree that she is. However, perhaps she can still fulfill her obligation through his recitation since men are able to fulfill the obligation of others based on the principle of Kol Yisroel Arevim Zeh LaZeh (the Jewish people are guarantors for one another to fulfill the mitzvot). This second side is not simple though, because the Rosh (Brachot 3:13, last line) writes that women aren't included in Arevim, and so perhaps a man wouldn't be able to fulfill her obligation based on this principle. The Dagul Mirvava leaves his question unanswered. The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:4 writes that it's preferable that women say the kiddush along with the one making kiddush so that they are fulfilling their own obligation. However, the Sh"t Rabbi Akiva Eiger 1:7 argues that certainly women are included in Arevim Zeh LaZeh, and explains that the Rosh was only talking about mitzvot that women are exempt from. But here the women is obligated in the mitzvah of kiddush in general, so even a man who has davenned already and only has a rabbinic obligation, can fulfill the biblical obligation of a woman who has not davenned. See also Haga'ot Rebbe Akiva Eiger on Magen Avraham 271:2 who says the same thing. Aruch HaShulchan 271:6 and Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat vol 2 pg 24) concur.
  105. Mishna Brurah 271:3
  106. Mishna Brurah 271:3 explains that even though there is a chazaka (lit: presumption) that a 13-year-old already has simanei gadlus (i.e. 2 pubic hairs), nonetheless we are only willing to rely upon this chazaka with respect to rabbinic laws, but not with respect to biblical laws. Here, since women are biblically obligated in kiddush, they should not rely upon this chazaka and cannot assume that the child is truly a halachic adult.
  107. Shulchan Aruch 271:2 writes that since women are obligated in Kiddush on a Deoraitah level, they can fulfill the obligation of a man. Even though the Maharshal and Bach argue with this, the Taz, Magen Araham, Gra, Mishna Brurah 271:4 all agree with Shulchan Aruch that a women can fulfill the obligation of a man. Nonetheless, Eliyah Rabbah, Derech Chaim, and Mishna Brurah 271:4 write that it's preferable that a women not fulfill the obligation of men not in her family because it's not entirely appropriate.
  108. Children in Halacha pg. 39
  109. *(1) Sources that one should sit: The Mishnah in Brachot 42a implies that in order to make a bracha on behalf of another, the two parties need to be kove'ah (established). Tosfos 42a s.v. Heseibu explains that even though in the times of the mishnah, keviyut (establishment / permanence) was achieved via reclining, for us this is achieved through sitting down. Tosfot Brachot 43a s.v. Ho'il writes that it is preferable that one should sit for havdala, since one must sit in order to fulfill the boreh pri hagafen bracha on behalf of another. However, the minhag in the times of Tosfot was clearly to stand, so he defends the minhag by suggesting that since everyone is focused on the person making the bracha in order to hear the havdalah, this can be viewed as keviyut with respect to both the havdalah and the boreh pri hagafen. Nonetheless, he concludes that it is preferable to sit. Additionally, the Rambam (Hilchot Succah 6:12) writes that one the first night of Sukkot one should say kiddush standing so that one can make the bracha of LeShev BaSukkah before sitting down, implying that during the rest of the year one should say kiddush sitting.
    • (2) Reasons one should sit: Mishna Brurah 271:46 brings the reason of the Kol Bo that one should sit as a part of kiddush BeMakom Seuda (making kiddush in the place one will eat), and the reason of the Gra (citing Tosfot; see above) that because sitting represents an established setting and one is able to fulfill the obligation of others only is such a setting. Mishna Brurah extrapolates from the Gra's reasoning that even those listening should preferably sit (not just the one making kiddush), and that if they are moving about during kiddush then they certainly don't fulfill their obligation. Chaye Adam (Shabbat 6:13) writes that it's preferable to sit during kiddush so that one can see the cup (like the Rama writes 271:10 that one should look at the cup) and one's family as one makes kiddush.
    • (3) Practices: Shulchan Aruch 271:10 rules that one should stand for Vayichulu, implying that one should sit for the rest of kiddush. However, Arizal (quoted by Aruch HaShulchan 271:21) held one should stand for kiddush out of respect for the Shabbat queen (similar to the reason Ashkenazim stand for Havdalah, see Mishna Brurah 296:27). Lastly, Rama 271:10 writes that one is permitted to stand for the entire kiddush, but that it's preferable to sit. Sh"t Igrot Moshe 5:16 writes that even the Rama only writes that it's permissible to stand for kiddush but that preferably one should sit, and so if one doesn't have a custom one should follow the Shulchan Aruch. The Aruch Hashulchan (271:24) says a fascinating idea, that really since it isn't clear in the gemara or poskim what the proper practice is, there is in fact no k'peidah (meaning that one can follow any one of the various practices). His language is: "אם צריכים לעשות קידוש מעומד או מיושב - אינו מבואר להדיא לא בגמרא ולא בפוסקים, ומשמע דאין קפידא".
  110. Shulchan Aruch 271:10 rules that one should stand for Vayichulu. Mishna Brurah 271:45 explains that the one should stand for Vayichulu because it acts as a testimony that Hashem created the world, which in court would require one to stand. Rama 271:10 writes that the Minhag was to sit for Vayichulu except for the beginning of Vayichulu (during the words of Yom HaShishi Vayichulu HaShamayim because the first letter of those four words spell Hashem's name). Mishna Brurah 271:47 explains that one can sit for Vayichulu because since one stood while it's said in shul, it can be said seated during kiddush. Nonetheless, Mishna Brurah 268:19 writes that the minhag is like Shulchan Aruch to stand for Vayichulu. See further Rabbi Lebowitz's article on [].
  111. Rav Moshe Shternbuch (Teshuvot V’hanhagot #254) writes that even those who stand for Friday night kiddush should sit for Shabbat day kiddush, because the reason of standing for the testimony of Vayichulu and then remaining standing for the Shabbat queen doesn't apply, as there is no Vayichulu nor a Shabbat queen to greet.
  112. Sh"t Igrot Moshe 5:16 writes that the only reason to stand the entire kiddush on Shabbat is because once one is standing for Vayichulu one can continue standing for the rest of the kiddush. However, since there's no Vayichulu on Yom Tov, it follows that one should sit according to all opinions.
  113. Aruch HaShulchan 271:24, Nitei Gavriel (Yom Tov vol 2, 29:18)
  114. Gemara Brachot 51a, Shulchan Aruch 271:10. Rav Schachter ("Hilchos Shabbos 4", min 33-5) based on Rabbenu Yonah holds that if the cup is two thirds full it is considered full.
  115. Bava batra 97b cites the amora Rava as saying that one can squeeze a cluster of grapes into a cup and make kiddush on it. Shulchan Aruch 272:2 paskens this. It would thus seem like a closed case that one may make kiddush on grape juice. However, it isn't that simple. Perhaps the gemara only permitted wine from freshly squeezed grapes because it can potentially become wine if given time. However, modern grape juice has been processed in a way that it will never be able to become wine, and so perhaps might be unfit for kiddush. See Dirshu Mishna Brurah (272 footnote 11) citing the positions of contemporary poskim on this question. Shevet Halevi and Minchat Yitzchak permit grape juice even lechatchila, whereas Rav Elyashiv holds that one may not make kiddush on modern grape juice since it doesn't have the ability to become wine. Yachave Daat 2:35 writes that one can use grape juice for kiddush, and Hacham Ovadia's opinion is also found in Chazon Ovadia, Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 81. Or Letzion 2:20:18, Yesodei Yeshurun 3:214-215 and Mishneh Halachot 13:38 agree. Rav Schachter ("Hilchos Shabbos 4", min 90-2) quotes Rav Moshe as allowing grape juice for Kiddush but saying it is best to avoid the dispute. An article on writes that the majority of poskim hold grape juice is fit for Kiddush.
  116. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 53:2 citing Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach concludes that preferably one shouldn't use grape juice for kiddush. Laws of Brachos p. 316 writes that one shouldn't use grape juice for kiddush.
  117. The discussion here revolves around how to understand two gemaras in bava batra. Towards the top of 97b the gemara says that wine which is "borak" is fit bdieved for the mizbeach, and thus fit lechatchila for kiddush. Rashbam there says that this refers to white wine. However, the gemara at the end of the daf asks whether wine which is "chavaryan" is fit for kiddush, and answers with the verse "אל תרא יין כי יתאדם" (lit: do not look at wine when it is red). The context of this verse from sefer mishlei is that Shlomo Hamelech is speaking of the ills of drinking, but the verse implies that red wine is considered better and more respectable. Thus, by answering with this pasuk, the gemara seems to be saying that one should not use white wine for kiddush. How do we resolve these two gemaras? The various approaches in the rishonim will help clarify our question of whether one may use white wine for kiddush. (1) Rashbam understands that really the latter gemara (regarding חמר חווריין) is asking only with respect to bringing it as a libation on the mizbeach. Thus there is no contradiction at all! The first gemara says that white wine is fit for kiddush, and the second gemara is simply saying that it is preferably not brought as nesachim (which the first gemara agrees to). Thus, white wine would be perfectly acceptable for kiddush. (2) Ramban disagrees. He thinks that both gemaras are discussing kiddush. They are just talking about two different types of wine. The latter gemara rules that white wine ("חווריין") is not fit for kiddush. The first gemara is either talking about wine which is not as white (see Tosfot s.v. chamar who says something similar), or really the correct girsa is "יין בודק" which refers to wine that is so strong that it is "bodek" (lit: checks) one's entire body. Thus there is no contradiction between the two gemaras since they are just discussing different types of wine. According to the ramban then, white wine would be unfit for kiddush. The Shulchan Aruch 272:4 cites the position of the Rashbam as the stam (that one may use white wine for kiddush lechatchila), and then cites the Ramban by name as a dissenting view (that even bdieved one is not yotzeh with white wine), but concludes that the minhag accords with the Rashbam. The Mishna Brurah 272:10 writes that even the Rashbam that all things being equal (i.e. the two wines are identical other than their color), it's better to make kiddush on red wine. Furthermore, in 272:12 the Mishna Brurah cites the Elya Rabah that if the wine which is very white, it is proper to be concerned for the shita of the Ramban and not use it for kiddush. Chazon Ovadia (Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 82) says it's preferable to make kiddush on red wine.
  118. See previous note. Chazon Ovadia, Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 82
  119. Rav Schachter ("Hilchos Shabbos 3" min 73) quoting Rabbi Akiva Eiger
  120. Bava batra 97a. Tur siman 272.
  121. Shulchan Aruch 272:1
  122. Chazon Ovadia, Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 78
  123. The Tur (272) cites from Rabbenu Shmaya b'shem Rashi that the bracha on cooked wine is shehakol (since cooking it changes it for the worse), and therefore one would not be able to make kiddush on it. However, the Tur then cites that Rabbenu Tam and the Ri and the Rosh all disagree and say that the bracha is still hagafen, and thus one could make kiddush on it. See Tosfot (bava batra 97a s.v. ileimah) who explicitly cites Rashi and rejects him based on the yerushalmi (found both in shkalim and arvei psachim) that one may use cooked wine for the four cups on the seder night, the first of which being kiddush. The debate between all the aforementioned rishonim seems to be whether cooking the wine turns the bracha into shehakol (so can't use it for kiddush), or not (so you could use it for kiddush). The Rambam (hilchot shabbat 29:14), however, has an interesting position. He holds that the bracha on cooked wine is hagafen (see Maggid Mishnah there who makes this point), but still one may not use it for kiddush since it is unfit to be brought as a libation on the mizbeach.
  124. Shulchan Aruch 272:8 cites the lenient position as a stam, and then cites the strict position as a yesh omrim. Generally speaking, when the mechaber has a stam v'achar kach yesh omrim, the halacha follows the stam. Chazon Ovadia, Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 115.
  125. As mentioned, the Shulchan Aruch 272:8 cites this shita as a yesh omrim. The Rama says that the minhag is to make kiddush on cooked wine, even if one has uncooked wine available, but only if the cooked wine is better. The Mishna Brurah 272:23 explains that if there is no difference in quality between the two wines, then one should use the uncooked wine. The Shar Hatziyon s.k. 31 points one to the Elyah Rabah citing the Agudah, who suggests (as explained by dirshu footnote 21) that even if the cooked wine is superior to the uncooked wine, one should still make kiddush on the uncooked wine provided that it is still good (just not as good as the cooked one).
  126. Rambam hilchot shabbat 29:14. Shulchan Aruch cites this as a "yesh omrim" in 272:8. This is essentially the same shita previously discussed regarding cooked wine, as that too is pasul to be brought on the mizbeach, but perhaps still acceptable for kiddush.
  127. The Rashbam (bava batra 97b s.v. ela l'm'utay) understands that even though Rav's meimra sounded like he was excluding all wine for kiddush if it is pasul for the mizbeach, in reality he was really only excluding wine whose psul is a function of its being inferior (e.g. left exposed, smells bad), based on the verse of "הקריבהו נא לפחתך וכו׳" (malachi 1:8). Rambam hilchot shabbat 29:14 cites this position as well, even though he disagrees with it. The Shulchan Aruch 272:8 paskens like this shita as the stam. The Rama says that the minhag is to make kiddush on wine with honey added, even if one has other wine available, but only if the honey-wine is better. The Mishna Brurah 272:23 explains that if there is no difference in quality between the two wines, then one should use the regular wine, in order to be chosheish for the shita of the Rambam where possible.
  128. Chazon Ovadia, Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 119
  129. Shulchan Aruch 272:1 based on gemara bava batra 97b. Even though nowadays we are no longer concerned for the possibility that a snake came overnight and drank from it, nevertheless we still do not use it for kiddush. Mishna Brurah 272:3 explains that this is because of the principle of הקריבהו נא לפחתך (lit: bring it now to your governor), which basically says that we shouldn't do things for Hashem that wouldn't be befitting to do for a ruler of flesh and blood. It is considered unseemly to give someone of importance a gift of wine that has been left out, and therefore we shouldn't use it for kiddush either.
  130. Chazon Ovadia, Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 78
  131. Chazon Ovadia, Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 78
  132. Chazon Ovadia, Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 82, based on Rambam, Hilchot Shabbat, Perek 29, Halachot 15 and 17, and Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim, 272:3
  133. The gemara pesachim 106b says that the amora Rav would sometimes make kiddush on bread if it was more appealing to him then, and sometimes he would make kiddush on wine when it was more appealing to him (depending on what he was in the mood for). This gemara seems to clearly indicate that one may kiddush on either wine or bread, and that one can choose which they prefer. Indeed, the Rambam 29:9 understood the gemara this way, and thus holds that one may make kiddush on bread if they were more in the mood for bread (or if they didn't have wine). Similarly, the Rashbam (pesachim 106b) understood the gemara to be saying that Rav would make kiddush on bread when he was hungry and didn't want to wait longer to start the meal. However, tosfot (s.v. mekadesh) cites the shita of Rabbenu Tam, who thinks that one may not make kiddush on bread. His proof is that the gemara 107a indicates that one may not make havdala on bread, and since kiddush is more strict than havdala, certainly one should not be able to make kiddush on bread [the Rashbam presumably would respond that havdala and kiddush are just not comparable; kiddush is in the context of a meal and so it is reasonable that bread would be valid for kiddush even if it isn't valid for havdala]. He therefore understood the gemara about Rav differently. When it states that Rav would be "מקדש אריפתא" (lit: make kiddush on bread), really it means that he would wash before kiddush and then make kiddush on wine and then immediately after kiddush eat the bread (as opposed to only then going to wash). The Rosh (pesachim 10:17) sides with the Rambam / Rashbam against Rabbenu Tam, and states that this was the psak of all the geonim, as well as the common practice. The Shulchan Aruch 272:9 cites the position of the Rosh and makes no mention of Rabbenu Tam (that bread is invalid for kiddush). Thus, if one has no wine or grape juice for Friday night kiddush, they should make it on bread. The Biur Halacha (s.v. v'im yayin) discusses whether one may rely upon the position of the Rambam that if one simply likes bread better or is more in the mood for it, then one may make kiddush on bread and not wine. He concludes that if one actively dislikes the wine that is available to him, then one may indeed make kiddush on bread lechatchila Friday night.
  134. Magen Avraham 272:7 and Mishna Brurah 272:28 comment that one should put one's hands on the challah. Rav Avigdor Neventzahl in his commentary on Mishna Brurah (Biyitzchak Yikare 272:28) says that one should actually hold the challah.
  135. Mishna Brurah 272:27
  136. The Gemara Pesachim 107a presents the opinion of Ravina that it is permissible to use chamar medina for havdalah, as well as Rav Chisda's opinion that chamar medina may not be used for kiddush and havdalah. The Rosh Pesachim 10:17 argues that since we follow Ravina for havdalah, we also would allow chamar medina for kiddush. The Rambam Shabbat 29:17, however, holds that for havdalah one could use chamar medina but for kiddush one may not. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 272:9 cites the dispute between the Rosh Pesachim and Rambam and sides with the Rosh. Rama also accepts the ruling of the Rosh. Kaf HaChayim 272:50 and Yalkut Yosef 272:16 write that Shulchan Aruch holds like Rosh.
  137. As for the definition of chamar medina, Mishna Brurah 272:24 says that even beer is only permitted in a place where it is a common drink. Mishna Brurah 272:25 prohibits the use of milk or oil, and Mishna Brurah 272:30 permits the use of liquor. Rav Avigdor Neventzahl in Biyitzchak Yikare footnote 25 says that according to Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach milk is not allowed even in places where it is commonly used like Switzerland. He also says that juice, tea, or coffee maybe permitted but soda is definitely not because it is just like water. Rav Moshe Feinstein in Iggerot Moshe OC 2:75 defines chamar medina as something you would serve to guests who you want to show respect to. Also see Shevet Halevi 3:26 and 5:32 where Rav Vosner says even where you have wine, chamar medina can be used because in the times of the gemara, wine was far more widespread. Today however, most people do not drink wine so often so other drinks are not inferior to wine for kiddush.
  138. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 289:2, Mishna Brurah 289:10. The logic behind not using bread for kiddush during the day (but rather using chamar medina) is explained by Mishna Brurah 272:3 (citing the Rosh pesachim 10:17), that if one were to recite the daytime kiddush over bread, it would be the same procedure as if he wasn't saying kiddush at all. Therefore, to make it apparent that we are actually saying kiddush, we say a bracha that wouldn't normally be recited, even if that is a shehakol.
  139. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 289:2. Mishna Brurah 289:10 explains that even though there is a rabbinic prohibition to eat before making kiddush that applies to both the Friday night and shabbat day kiddush, we do not require one to fast if there is nothing available with which to make kiddush, since this would be mevatel the mitvah of oneg shabbat (lit: enjoying shabbat).
  140. Magen Avraham 272:9
  141. Mishna Brurah 272:29
  142. Mishna Brurah 272:29
  143. Chazon Ovadia, Hilchot Shabbat, Chelek 2, Page 124
  144. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 1, pg 289)
  145. Shulchan Aruch 272:10. Mishna Brurah 272:37 explains that the cup of kiddush is considered to be included in food that is בא מחמת הסעודה (i.e. part of the meal), and therefore covered by bentching.
  146. The Gemara Pesachim 117b has a dispute between the elders of Pumpedita and Rava in tefillah whether you should say Mikadesh Yisrael or Mikadesh Yisrael Vehazmanim on Yom Tov. In Kiddush everyone agrees that you should recite Mikadesh Yisrael Vehazmanim. Magen Avraham 487:1 writes that if in Kiddush someone only say Mikadesh Yisrael he didn’t fulfill his obligation. Kaf Hachaim 487:17 and Zichron Yonah Avodat Halevim 30:1 agree.
  147. Regarding Tefillah, Shulchan Aruch 487:1 and Mishna Brurah 487:5 hold that the Shabbat conclusion doesn’t fulfill the obligation of the Yom Tov one. Mishna Brurah holds that it can be fixed within a toch kdei dibbur. Magen Avraham 487:2 implies that the same is true of kiddush. Zichron Yonah 30:2 writes so explicitly.
  148. Regarding Tefillah, the Magen Avraham 487:2 writes that mentioning Yom Tov in the middle is sufficient even with a wrong conclusion but he seems to retract that opinion. Mishna Brurah 487:4 concludes that one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation. Zichron Yonah 30:2 applies this to Kiddush.
  149. Eruvin 40b, Mishna Brurah 473:1, Zichron Yonah 30:4
  150. Shulchan Aruch 487:1 writes that if one said Shabbat kiddush on Yom Tov one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation. Zichron Yonah 30:6 writes that if on Shabbat Yom Tov one said either the Shabbat or Yom Tov kiddush separately and not both one didn’t fulfill one’s obligation. Rivevot Efraim 4:117 agrees.
  151. Regarding Tefillah there is a dispute between the Knesset Hagedola who holds that concluding with one of the two conclusions is sufficient and the Pri Chadash who disagrees. Biur Halacha 487:1 makes a compromise and says that if he mentioned Shabbat that is sufficient but if he only mentioned Yom Tov that is insufficient. Kaf Hachaim 487:20 holds that in all cases out of doubt he shouldn’t repeat the bracha. Zichron Yonah 30:7 applies this discussion to Kiddush.
  152. Leket Shichacha Vtaut p. 397 writes that the Bet Yehuda 4 holds that one fulfills one's obligation if one mentioned Yom Tov but just didn't mention which Yom Tov it was, but the Mishna Brurah 427:11 holds that one doesn't fulfill one's obligation. Shemirat Shabbat Khilchata v. 2 p. 110 holds like the Mishna Brurah.
Category Topic
Mitzvot of Shabbat
Kiddush Levana - Enjoying Shabbat - Fourth meal of Shabbat - Havdalah - Having a meal on Friday - In the Spirit of Shabbat - Kiddush - Lighting Shabbat Candles - Making Early Shabbat - Making one hundred Brachot on Shabbat - Preparing foods on Shabbat - Preparing for Shabbat - Shenayim Mikrah - Kavod Shabbat - Shabbos Davening - Seudat Shabbat - Seudat Shelishit - Lechem Mishneh - Motzei Shabbat - When Does Shabbat Start?
Restrictions of Shabbat
Allowing Carrying Using an Eruv Chatzerot - Animals on Shabbat - Asking a Jew to work on Shabbat - Asking a non-Jew to work on Shabbat (Amirah LeNochri) - Benefiting from a Violation of Shabbat (Maaseh Shabbat) - Books, notebooks, and papers - Brushing Teeth on Shabbat - Building a structure on Shabbat (Boneh) - Carrying on Shabbat - Cleaning the dishes - Cleaning and Folding Garments on Shabbat - Clearing the table - Cooking (Ofeh and Bishul) - Cosmetics on Shabbat - Dancing and clapping on Shabbat - Electricity on Shabbat - Eruv Chatzerot - Eruvin - Games on Shabbat - Getting dressed on Shabbat - Giving birth on Shabbat - Grinding (Tochen) - Handling objects on Shabbat (Muktzeh) - Infants on Shabbat - Introduction to the Modern Eruv - Kneading (Lash) - Mail on Shabbat - Medicine on Shabbat (Refuah on Shabbat) - Melacha That Begins Before Shabbat - Opening bottles and containers (Boneh) - Plants on Shabbat (Zoreah) - Preparing for after Shabbat (Hachana) - Reading on Shabbat (Daber Davar) - Recreation on Shabbat - Sechirut Reshut - Separating mixtures (Borer) - Squeezing fruits (Sechita) - Speaking on Shabbat (Daber Davar) - Taking a cruise over Shabbat - Taking measurements on Shabbat - Techum - Transactions on Shabbat - Transportation on Shabbat - Going to and Staying in the Hospital on Shabbat - Wages on Shabbat (Sachar Shabbat) - Washing one’s body on Shabbat
Introduction to Melechet Machshevet - Marbeh Bshiurim - Plowing - Planting - Harvesting - Gathering - Threshing - Winnowing - Separating - Grinding - Sifting - Kneading - Baking and Cooking - Shearing - Laundering - Combing - Dyeing - Spinning - Mounting warp threads - Making two loops - Weaving - Unraveling fabric - Tying - Untying - Gluing, taping, or stapling - Ripping - Trapping - Slaughtering - Skinning - Tanning - Smoothing - Scoring - Cutting precisely - Writing - Erasing - Building - Demolishing - Completing a vessel - Extinguishing a flame - Kindling a fire - Carrying