Shnayim Mikra V'Echad Targum
(Redirected from Reading the weekly Torah portion)
This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent.
This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent.
Who is obligated?
- All men have an obligation to read the parsha that the Tzibbur is currently reading (Parsha HaShavua) twice with the targum once. This mitzvah is called Shenayim Mikrah VeEchad Targum. 
- Even someone who will hear the Torah reading in Shul must read Shenayim Mikra. 
- Even someone who is learned and wants to learn Talmud is obligated to read Shnayim Mikrah. 
- Even someone who doesn’t understand Targum very well should still read Shnayim Mikra VeChad Targum.
- Women are exempt from Shnayim Mikrah.  A woman who wants to read Shnayim Mikrah may do so. 
- A parent should teach his son to read Shnayim mikra. 
- A sick, blind, or illiterate man is exempt but it’s preferable to hear it read from another person.
- A mourner within the first 7 days can read it but not with Rashi.
- A teacher who teaches children the parsha and goes over the pesukim a few times he only needs to read targum to fulfill his obligation.
What Pesukim and What Targum?
- The Targum Unkelos we have printed in regular Chumashim, which includes a Targum of every pasuk, can be used even for pesukim that are just names or places.
- Rashi’s commentary also counts as Targum. A Yaare Shamayim should read also Targum Unkelos and Rashi 
- The pasuk Shema Yisrael can be said twice and then it’s Targum.
- One doesn’t need to do it on the Yom Tov reading, Rosh Chodesh, or the four parshiot or any reading that’s not in the weekly parsha.
- One should read the Haftorah of the weekly parsha even if the Haftorah read in shul is a special one for Rosh Chodesh or Zachor.
- Some poskim say that one could be yotze the targum with an English translation of Rashi's commentary. 
How should one read it?
- There are three practices as how to read Shenayim Mikra: 1. Read each pasuk twice followed by it’s Targum  1b. Read the entire parsha and then read each pasuk with it’s Targum, 1c. Read each pasuk with it’s Targum and then the entire parsha once.  2. Read each paragraph, petucha (a line break before the next paragraph) or setuma (a short break before the next paragraph) twice and then it’s Targum  3. Read the entire parsha twice and then the Targum. 
- Some have the practice to read a little bit every day and complete it day Shabbat. 
- One is allowed to read Shnayim Mikrah while seated. 
- Some say that it’s Lechatchila to go like the first practice of reading it pasuk by pasuk, and some say that there’s one can go like any of the above practices as one wishes 
- One shouldn’t read Targum and then the pasuk twice and not the pasuk, the Targum and then the pasuk 
- Bedieved if one did the pasuk, Targum and then the pasuk again he fulfills his obligation. 
- Some say that one is allowed to read the Shenayim Mikra during Torah reading even if one is reading a different section of the parsha than the Shliach Tzibbur. 
- All agree that one is allowed to read Shenayim Mikra between Aliyot. 
- Some say that one fulfills one’s obligation by listening the Torah reading however, others hold that one doesn’t fulfill his obligation even Bedieved. Therefore one shouldn’t only listen to the Bal Koreh rather one should read along word by word. 
- One is allowed to read the Shenayim Mikra along with the Shliach Tzibbur during Torah reading word by word and fulfill one’s obligation. Some say that this is Lechatchila, while others hold that this is only for Shat HaDachak. 
- Some say that one fulfills his obligation with listening to someone else read Shenayim Mikra. 
- Lechatchila, one should read a pasuk twice and it’s Targum but if one read the whole parsha then the Targum one has fulfilled his obligation.
- One shouldn’t read Targum and then the pasuk twice and not the pasuk, the Targum and then the pasuk, however bedieved if one did the pasuk, Targum and the pasuk he fulfills his obligation.
- One should read it with the tune of Torah reading  but Targum shouldn’t be read with a tune. One fulfills his obligation bedieved if he read it without a tune
- Someone who owns a Sefer Torah and knows how to read it with the tune and pronunciations should read it from a Sefer Torah. If one doesn’t know the correct way to read it well it’s preferable to read it from a Chumash that has Tamim and Nekudot.
- If it's possible it's good not to interrupt when reading Shnayim Mikrah and a pious person should be strict about this.  Some allowed interrupting to answer a question. 
- One should repeat the last pasuk again after finishing the targum in order to end with mikra.  Some have the practice to repeat the last pasuk of the parsha twice without Targum (after having finished the whole parsha Shnayim Mikrah VeChad Targum). 
Earliest and latest time
- One can begin to read the weekly Parsha once the congregation (Tzibbur) read the Parsha at Shabbat Mincha. 
- Some have the practice to do the Shenayim Mikrah on Friday afternoon. 
- One should finish Shenayim Mikra VeEchad Targum by Shabbat lunch.  If one didn’t complete it by lunch time one shouldn't delay lunch for Shnayim Mikrah rather one should finish it by Mincha of Shabbat. If one didn’t complete it by then one can fulfill it until Tuesday night. Some hold one can even complete it by that year’s Shemini Esret. 
- The Shenayim Mikra VeChad Targum of Parshat Vezot Habracha should be read on Hoshana Rabba. However, if one read it on Shemini Esret one also fulfills the obligation. 
- Someone for whom it’s difficult to read it on Friday or Shabbat have those to rely to say it Friday night.
- If one misses a week one should read the previous Parsha's Shenayim Mikra and then the current weeks Parsha. 
- Ten Minute Halacha on Shnayim Mikra by Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz
- Article on Shnayim Mikra Vechad Targum by Rabbi Yair Hoffman
- Rav Huna Bar Yehuda in Gemara Brachot 8a says that a person should read the Parsha twice and Targum once. This is codified by the Rambam (Tefillah 13:25), Tur, Shulchan Aruch 285:1, and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 72:11. Mechilta Parshat Bo quoted by Bet Yosef 285:5 records that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi commanded his sons to fulfill this obligation before Shabbat lunch. Aruch Hashulchan 285:2 writes that this obligation is an institution since the times of Moshe Rabbeinu. Sh”t Maharsham (1:213 "ulam" writes that this has become a real obligation. Baal Haturim Shemot 1:1, Levush 285:1, Pri Megadim MZ 285:1 bring a hint to this obligation from the first pasuk in sefer shemot from the first letter of each word in the pasuk. see there for the small variations in the hint.
- The Hagahot Maimoniot (Tefillah 3:24) quotes the Raavan who says that Shenayim Mikra is only an obligation for those who live in villages that don’t have Torah reading on Shabbat, however, the Hagahot Maimon argues on the Raavan. The Rambam 13:25, Tur, and S”A 285:1 write explicitly that there’s an obligation of Shenayim Mikra even for someone who heard Torah reading in shul.
- Teshuvot HaGeonim 7 in name of Rabbenu Matatya says that even a talmid chacham must complete Shenyaim Mikra VeEchad Targum. Sh”t Rashba 1:206 agrees. This is brought as Halacha in Chazon Ovadya (Shabbat 1 pg 300), Sh”t Igrot Moshe 5:17, Shulchan Lechem HaPanim (Siman 285), and Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 42:57. Kuntres Hilchot Shnayim Mikra VeChad Targum (Rabbi Sender, pg 10) writes that he saw Rav Elyashiv reading Shnayim Mikra even though he never wastes any time from learning Torah. Bikkurei Chaim (pg 39) writes that those who think that it’s Bitul Torah since they are capable of learning more in-depth should know that by spending more time on Shnayim Mikra they will be rewarded with long life (Brachot 8a).
- Sh”t Yechave Daat 2:37, Yalkut Yosef (vol 1, pg 358), Kuntres Hilchot Shnayim Mikra VeChad Targum (Rabbi Sender, pg 12) quoting Rav Elyashiv, Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata (chap 42, note 215)
- Sh”t Mishna Halachot 6:60 writes that women are exempt from Shnayim Mikrah because many hold Shnayim Mikrah is included in the mitzvah of learning Torah from which woman are generally exempt. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 42:60 and Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 1 pg 361) agree. See Mishna Brurah 282:12 who writes that even though woman aren't obligated in Talmud Torah they should listen to the Kriyat HaTorah but the minhag isn't be strict about this. Regarding women listening to kriyat hatorah see Aruch Hashulchan 282:11.
- Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat vol 1, pg 328)
- Sh”t Shevet Halevi 8:46, Sh”t Teshuvot V’Hanhagot 1:661, Halichot Shlomo Tefilla 12:36
- Sh”t Radvaz 3:425, Kaf HaChaim 285:9-10, Sh”t Mahari Shtif 18
- Sh”t Habit HaYehudi 3:36(15), SH”t Orchot Yosher Y”D 1:28.
- S”A 285:6, Mishna Brurah 285:16, Kaf Hachaim 285:32 adds that according Kabbalah it’s better to read it again all together without a break
- The Gemara Berachot 8a says that one should also read the pesukim of just names such as “Atarot VeDevon”. Rashi explains that the pasuk chosen by the gemara has a targum but isn’t so well know, the targum Yerushalmi. On these pesukim one should still read it twice with targum rather than reading it three times without targum. So writes the Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah, Ravyah (Brachot 22), Mordechai (Brachot 1:17), Tashbetz 184, Orchot Chaim pg 64b:3, Kol Bo 37, and Leket Yosher pg 55. Since nowadays our Targum is the Mechlalta UMalbusta which is a derivative of Targum Yerushalmi one should read the Targum for the third time. so holds the Badei Shulchan 10b:1, Rabbenu BeChay (end of Matot), and Elfasi Zuta (Brachot 8b).
- S”A 85:2, Mishna Brurah 285:6 says reading Unkelos is important since it was the targum of Torah given at har Sinai, and Rashi is also important since he includes the comments of Chazal. Sh”T Kinyan Torah 6:146 in name of Meharash that someone who learns Rashi on the Parsha every week is deserving of a portion of Olam Haba in Rashi’s Yeshiva. See Sh”t Shalmat Chaim 171. See also Michtavei Chafetz Chayim #18, where he says that nowadays we don't fulfill the mitzva with reading the targum and one must read rashi instead.
- Maamar Mordechai 61:5 says since it’s recognizable that one is repeating every pasuk it’s not like he is acknowledging two deities (the issue with saying Shema twice usually see S”A 61:9). This is also the opinion of Sh”t Yam hagadol 3, Badei Shulchan 72:10, Sh”t Avnei Tzedek O”C 9, Divrei Menachem 61:2
- S”A 285:7, Mishna Brurah 285:18 and Kaf Hachaim 285: 35 explain that it’s because one is already completing the Torah by doing the weekly parsha. Kaf Hachaim 285:35, Sh”t Igrot Moshe O”C 3:40 extend this any time that’s not the regular weekly parsha.
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 72:11 writes that the minhag is to read the haftorah as well as the parsha. The Chida in Moreh Etzbah 4:131-2 writes that one should read the weekly Haftorah even if a special one is being read in shul. Kaf Hachaim 285:36 and Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha 11 agree.
- The Taz 285:2 quoted by Mishna Berurah 285:5 says that if you do not understand targum unkelos or Rashi you can read the tzena u'rena in german. Based on this Rav Moshe Feinstein (quoted in Yagel Yaakov page 208 and in Dirshu Mishna Brura 285: note 15), as well as Rav Moshe Shternbuch in his Teshuvot Vihanhagot 1:261: "vhiskamti" allow using an English translation of rashi if that is the best way for one to study and understand the parasha.
- The Arizal (Shaare Kavanot 62a) would read Shnayim Mikra pasuk by pasuk. The Sefer Itim (pg 244), Magen Avraham 285:1, Maharam MeRutenberg (Pesakim VeMinhagim, Mehura HaRav Kahana pg 217), Or HaShabbat (8:41 in name of the Bal Shem Tov), and Chida in Machzik Bracha 285:10 all hold that Shnayim Mikra should be done pasuk by pasuk. Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 7:33 writes that such was the minhag of the Chafetz Chaim.
- The Birur Halacha (Beginning of 285) writes that reading the entire parsha once and then each pasuk followed by it’s Targum, or reading the each pasuk once followed by it’s Targum and then the entire parsha once are both valid options that are halachically the same as the Arizal’s method because the entire issue is reading the Targum close to the pasuk. This is brought by Bikkurei Chaim 3:1.
- Kitzur S”A 72:11 writes that one should read each paragraph twice whether it’s patucha or setuma and then the Targum. The Shelah brings the different opinions and writes that he prefers reading one paragraph at a time and then doing the Targum on that. So was the practice of the Gra (HaMaaseh Rav 60) quoted in Mishna Brurah 285:8. Rav Yaakov Kamenetsky in Emes Liyaakov 285:1 suggests something similar that one should read a paragraph just mikra once, and then a second time with the targum.
- Aruch HaShulchan 285:7 according to the simple understanding of “completing the parsha twice with Targum” and supports it from Rashi and Or Zaruah. Torat Shabbat 285 writes that such was the minhag of Mahara MeBalaza. Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) writes in name of the Steipler that there’s no difference between methods 2 and 3. Mishmeret Shalom 24:33 writes that his father and grandfather had the practice to read the Shenayim Mikra from the Torah and since it was difficult to interrupt between each pasuk to read Targum (and then have to find the place again), they read the entire Parsha twice and then Targum.
- Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah 4b s.v. LeOlam writes that some had the practice to read a little every day and complete it by Shabbat. This is brought as Halacha by the Aruch HaShulchan 285:1
- Pri Megadim (M”Z 690:1, Bikkurei Chaim 3:11
- S”A HaRav 285:3, Chazon Ovadya (Shabbat 1 pg 301-2), and Dvar Yom BeYomo (Cheshvan) write that Lechatchila one should follow the Arizal to read it pasuk by pasuk, however, there isn’t a lot of time one can follow the other methods.
- Aruch HaShulchan 285:7 writes this regarding all three practices, while Mishna Brurah 285:2 writes this regarding the first two practices.
- Mishna Brurah 285:6 says one shouldn’t say targum and then the pasuk twice. Seder Hayom (pg 21a) writes that one who reads Shenayim Mikra in this order doesn’t fulfill the obligation.
- Kiseh Eliyahu 285:1, Kaf HaChaim 285:6 say one shouldn’t say the pasuk, targum, and then the pasuk. On the other hand, the Levush writes that one is allowed to fulfill one reading of mikra by listening to the Torah reading. The Lechem Chamudot (on Rosh Brachot 41) writes that it’s clear from the Levush that the order Bedieved was to read it once with the pesukim, once with the targum and then again with the pesukim. The Lechem Chamudot is brought as Halacha in Mishna Brurah (Shaare Tzion 285:10), Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 16:18, Sh”t Beir Moshe 8:3, Sh”t Rivivot Efraim 5:216 all holding that it’s Bedieved. Nonetheless, Shulchan Lechem HaPanim (Vol 5 pg 139), Yesodei Yishurun (Erev Shabbat), Meon Bracha (Brachot 8b; in name of Tosfot Yom Tov) and perhaps Aruch HaShulchan 285:3. The practice of the Chazon Ish (Bekkurei Chaim pg 79 and Derech Sichah by Rav Chaim Kanievsky pg. 2) was to read the pasuk, targum, and then pasuk again because he felt that the targum helped him understand the pasuk better the second time.
- (a) The Shibolei HaLeket in name of his Rabbi, and Hagahot Maimon in name of the Maharam say that one shouldn’t read along with the Torah reading rather one should just listen. This is the opinion of the Magen Avraham 146:5 in name of the Shlah, Kitzur Shlah (pg 81b), Pri Chadash (quoted by Mishna Brurah 146:15), Eliyah Zuta (285:4 in name of Shaar Gedolim), Kaf HaChaim (285:31) in name of Mahara Tuvina, and Gra (Maaseh Rav). (b) On the other hand, the Mordechai (Brachot 19), Hagahot Ashurei (Brachot 1:7) in name of Or Zaruah (1:11), Smak 155, Hagahot Maimon (Tefillah 12:7) hold that one is allowed to read Shenayim Mikra while the tzibbur is reading the parsha. Accordingly, S”A 285:5 rules that one is allowed to read Shnayim Mikra during Torah reading even if one is reading a section of the parsha that the shaliach isn’t currently reading. The Eliyah Rabba says that one should follow this approach even lechatchila, while the rest of the achronim (including Maamer Mordechai 285:3 and Beiur Halacha 285 s.v. Yachol) argue that it’s only Bedieved or BeShaat HaDachak. (c) Mishna Brurah 285:14 suggests that one can be lenient to read along with the Shaliach Tzibbur word by word and fulfill one time of Mikra with this. The Levush 285:5 and Perisha 285:1 (explaining the Bet Yosef and Rambam) agree that this is a valid method. This is also the opinion of the Mateh Moshe (quoted by Magen Avraham 146:5) even lechatchila. Similarly, the Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) in says that the minhag of the Stiepler was to read it once on Friday afternoon and once with the Bal Koreh. However, Sh”t Yechave Daat 2:37 and Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 42:51 writes that only if a person doesn’t have time one is allowed to read it word by word with the Shliach Tzibbur.
- Mishna Brurah 285:14 writes that even the stringent opinions about reading the Shenayim along with the Bal Koreh, allow one to read Shenayim Mikra between Aliyot. Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) writes the minhag of the Stiepler was to read it once on Friday afternoon, once with the Bal Koreh, and the Targum in between aliyot.
- The Magen Avraham 285:8, Chaye Adam 7:9, Shulchan HaShabbat 60, Shitilei Zaytim 285:10 write that Bedieved one fulfilled one’s obligation by simply listening to the Bal Koreh. However, the Bet Yosef (D”H Katuv BeHagot) and Rambam (Tefillah 13:25) hold that by listening one doesn’t fulfill his obligation. Therefore, S”A HaRav 285:8 writes that one should rely on this only BeShaat HaDachak. Instead of just listening one is allowed to read along word by word
- Perisha writes that by reading the parsha word by word with the Shliach Tzibbur one fulfills one time of reading the parsha. This is brought as Halacha in Aruch HaShulchan 285:3.
- Shaarei Teshuva 285:6 quotes the Radvaz who says that listening to someone else read Shenayim Mikra fulfills the obligation if one had kavana for the words.
- Chazon Ovadya (Shabbat 1 pg 301-2). Sefer Itim pg 244 says one should read it pasuk by pasuk. Leket yosher pg 54 says if one doesn’t have targum he can read the whole parsha twice and do targum when he finds Targum. Shelah writes that some read it pasuk by pasuk and some read the whole parsha twice and then the Targum and he prefers reading one paragraph at a time and then doing the Targum on that. So was the practice of the Gra (HaMaaseh Rav 60). However the Arizal (Shaare Kavanot 62a) would read it pasuk by pasuk. Magen Avraham 285:1, Maharam MeRutenberg (Pesakim VeMinahgim, Mehura HaRav Kahana pg 217), and Chida in Machzik Bracha 285:10 agree.
- Mishna Brurah 285:6 says one shouldn’t say targum and then the pasuk twice. Kiseh Eliyahu 285:1, Kaf HaChaim 285:6 say one shouldn’t say the pasuk, targum, and then the pasuk. However bedieved one fulfills his requirement so holds Shaare Tzion 285:10, Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 16:18, Sh”t Beir Moshe 8:3, and Sh”t Rivivot Efraim 5:216.
- Chida in Machazik Beracha 285:8, Yechave Daat 2:37, Kaf Hachaim 132:6
- Yechave Daat 2:37, Chida in Machazik Beracha 285:7
- Sh”t Torah Lishma 406, Kaf Hachaim 132:6, 285:12-13, in 285:4 he writes in name of Maggid Mesharim one should say it slowly and carefully. Sh”t Teshuvot Vehanhagot 2:204 says bedieved one fulfills his obligation.
- Chazon Ovadya (Shabbat 1 pg 302-3)
- Mishna Brurah 285:6 writes if it's possible it's good not to interrupt when reading Shnayim Mikrah and a pious person should be strict about this. Kaf Hachaim 285:15 quotes this in the name of the Mekubalim and adds that if one is very thirsty one may interrupt to drink with a bracha before and after. Kaf HaChaim Palagi 27:4 writes that in middle of Shnayim Mikrah one may not interrupt to talk even in Hebrew.
- Rav Shlomo Zalman in Halichot Shlomo (Tefillah, chap 12, note 105) would interrupt reading Shnayim Mikrah in order to answer a question because that entails the mitzvah of Chesed. He adds that Shnayim Mikrah isn't different than other Talmud Torah which may be interrupted in certain situations such as a passing mitzvah.
- Magen Avraham 285:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 72:11, Aruch HaShulchan 285:6, Rabbi Nuestadt in Weekly Halachic Discussions
- Kaf Hachaim Palagi 27:3, Chida in Morah BeEtzba 4:131
- Rama (Darchei Moshe 285:1) quotes a dispute between the Mordechai who says one can begin to read Shenayim Mikra from mincha of Shabbat when the congregation begins to read that parsha and the Kol Bo who argues that one can not read it then because earlier that day the congregation read the previous parsha. S”A 285:3 writes that one can start on Sunday. Shulchan Aruch Harav 285:5 and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 72:11 agree. The Mishna Brurah 285:7 explains that the language of Shulchan Aruch is imprecise and really one is permitted to start once the Tzibbur began reading the Parsha at Shabbat Mincha. Shaar HaTziyun 285:12 notes that the opinion of the Kol Bo is a minority opinion. Kaf HaChaim 285:24 seems to agree. See Sh”t Yaskil Avdi O”C 5:39 and Sh”t Asse Lecha Rav 7:16.
- Kitzur S”A 72:11 writes that ideally one should read Shenayim Mikra on Friday afternoon. Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) writes the minhag of the Stiepler was to read it once on Friday afternoon and once with the Bal Koreh.
- Chayei Adam Shabbos 7:9, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 285:5, Aruch Hashulchan 285:8, Mishna Brurah 285:9 and Beiur Halacha "yashlim." The Shla quoted by the Magen Avraham 285:5-6 and the Arizal quoted by the Shaare Teshuva 285:1 say that one should finish by friday.
- S”A 285:4, Mishna Brurah 285:9. See Kaf Chaim Palagi 27:4, Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha 14. There are many opinions as to what is meant by until mincha.
- Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo, Tefilla 12:35) and Rav Chaim Kanievsky (quoted in Halichot Chaim v. 1, p. 95) say that one can recite it until he prays mincha.
- Shmirat Shabbat Kihilchata (2:42:footnote 218) says you can say it until the time of mincha gedola.
- Rav Avraham Chaim Naeh (Ketzot Hashulchan 72: Badei Hashulchan 7) says you can recite it until mincha is recited in the shul.
- The Chazon Ish (cited in Orchos Rabbeinu 3: page 234) held that you should finish by the time you eat seudat shlishit.
- The Chida in Birkei Yosef 285:4, Ben Ish Chai (Vezot Habracha 1:15), and Mishna Brurah 285:18 write that while it's preferable to read the Shenayim Mikra of Vezot HaBracha on Hoshana Rabba, it may also be read on Shemini Aseret. The Piskei Teshuvot 285:4 quotes the Sh"t Kaneh Beshem 1:16 who holds that if one read it prior to Hoshana Rabba one hasn't fulfilled his obligation. However, the Dvir Hakadosh (Siman 23:4, p. 124) argues that according to Tosfot one should be able to read it from the first time we read it on Shabbat mincha.
- Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 6:30(5), Sh"t Yitzchak Yiranen 1:29.
- Sh”t Bear Moshe 5:79 writes that if one misses a week one should read the previous Parsha's Shenayim Mikra and then the current weeks Parsha. Rav Shlomo Zalman Halichot Shlomo (Tefillah 12:36), Ketzos haShulchan 72:9, Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat, vol 1, pg 314), and Daily Halacha (by Rabbi Mansour) agree. However, Sh”t Yitzchak Yiranen 1:32 says one can make up a parsha out of order. Halichot Shlomo (Tefillah 12:37) adds that if one did begin the current week's parsha before one finished the previous one, one may finish it.