Dosh

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General prohibition

  1. Dash includes removing any earth-grown food from its natural shell or attachment.[1]
  2. There is a dispute amongst the Rishonim whether Dosh is only violated by removing something that is covered by its encasing, as was the case in the mishkan, or that any detachment from something unwanted would be a violation of Dosh.[2]

In the Mishkan

  1. According to most Rishonim, the melacha of Dosh was done in the Mishkan by threshing the seeds from their shells so that they could be used for the dyes.[3]

Toladot

Mefarek

  1. Mefarek is a Toldah of Dosh. [4]
  2. Mefarek includes squeezing juice from fruit (Sechitah) or liquid from a cloth. [5]

Removing peas from a pod

  1. One may not remove peas from an inedible pod on Shabbat. [6]
  2. Peeling fruits (such as oranges or bananas) or vegetables (such as onions or cucumbers) is not considered a violation of Dosh. Nonetheless one should be careful of the conditions of Borer such as only peeling it right before eating and not using a peeler (but one may use a knife or one's hands). [7]
  3. One may not the husk from an ear of corn on Shabbat. [8]

Removing shell of nuts

  1. One may remove the shell of nuts (pecans, brazil nuts, filberts, peanuts) on Shabbat. [9]
  2. One may not remove the outer hull (a thick pulpy layer) of an almond or walnut on Shabbat, however, one may remove the inner hard wood-like shell. [10]
  3. There is a question of removing the outer thin peel of a garlic bulb on Shabbat however most poskim permit and certainly it's permitted to remove the peel around the individual cloves. [11]

Squeezing a fruit

  1. It is forbidden to squeeze a fruit in order to extract its liquid if one squeezes the fruit into a liquid or empty vessel. The prohibition is violated whether it is done by hand or with a utensil. [12] One may not squeeze a fruit into an empty vessel with intent to put solid food in afterwards. [13]
  2. It’s permitted to squeeze a fruit with one’s hand onto a solid food if either the food absorbs the liquid or the liquid is meant to improve the flavor of the food. [14]

Liquids that oozed out on their own

  1. Juice that oozed (by itself) out of fruit, which is specifically designated to be eaten, is permitted to drink. [15]

Squeezing a lemon

  1. It is permitted to squeeze a lemon on sugar even if one’s intent is to put the sugar in a liquid afterwards, however, there are authorities who are strict on this issue. [16]
  2. It’s permissible to cut a slice of lemon and put it into a drink even though the juice will seep out. [17] Note that if the drink is hot tea its only permissible if it is made in a Kli Shelishi (see Bishul). One may gently stir the tea but one may not press the lemon against the wall of the cup. Additionally, one should cut the lemon directly over the tea. [18]

Squeezing out excess liquid

  1. It’s permitted to squeeze out excess liquid in a food to improve it’s taste if it’s done immediately prior to eating. For example it’s permitted to squeeze a pickled cucumber to remove some of it’s vinegar if one is going to eat the pickle right away. [19]
  2. One may squeeze out latkes from excess vegetable oil if ones intention is to get rid of the oil and it is done right before eating.[20]
  3. It's commendable to refrain from squeezing a piece of meat, fish, or chicken to get rid of excess gravy if the gravy contains water or wine.[21]

Sucking on a fruit

  1. One may suck on any fruit except for grapes even though one is extracting liquid with one's mouth. However, one shouldn’t squeeze the fruit with one’s hand. [22]
  2. It’s permitted to dip bread in a soup or other dip and then suck off the liquid, but it’s preferable to eat a little of the bread with it. [23]

Cutting a grapefruit or watermelon

  1. It’s permitted to cut a grapefruit (or watermelon) even if liquids will ooze out as long as one doesn’t intend specifically to drink the juices rather to eat the fruit and that one doesn’t intentionally doesn’t squeeze the fruit. [24]
  2. One may scrape out grapefruit with a spoon to eat the pulp (the flesh of the fruit) attached to the peel, however, it's forbidden to press the spoon against the pulp in order to extract juices. [25]

Squeezing grapes

  1. It is permitted to squeeze grapes onto food, but it is forbidden to squeeze grapes into an empty dish even if it is for flavor. [26]
  2. However, if one is stringent and does not even squeeze fruits onto food shall be blessed. [27]
  3. It’s preferable not to squeeze grapes even onto solid foods that will absorb the liquid or be improved. [28]
  4. One shouldn’t suck on grapes while holding them in one’s hand, rather one should put the entire grape in one’s mouth, eat (or suck on it) and take out what’s left. [29]
  5. It is forbidden to drink juice that oozed out of grapes by itself. [30]

Squeezing a liquid out of a cloth

  1. It is forbidden to squeeze any liquid out of any cloth on Shabbat. [31]
  2. If wine spilled on a tablecloth one may not wring out the cloth. If some of the liquid didn't get absorbed one may scoop it off with a spoon if one is careful not to spread the colored wine over a wider area (which is an issue of Tzoveya. [32]
  3. A wet washcloth or rag is not Muktzeh and may be moved if one is careful not to grip it tightly. [33]

Using a sponge or brush on Shabbat

  1. One may not clean dishes or even gently wipe a countertop with a sponge because gripping the sponge will inevitably cause liquid to be squeezed out where one's fingers grasp the material. However, using a sponge which has a handle or a vinyl back one may gently wipe a countertop but it is still forbidden to wash dishes.[34]
  2. One shouldn't use a dry sponge to wipe up a spill unless the sponge has a handle or vinyl back.[35]
  3. One may not use a wet brush to scrub if the brush's fibers are soft and dense. However, if the fibers are stiff, sparse, and made out of synthetic material one may use that brush for scrubbing. Similarly, a plastic mesh or wire mesh may be used for scrubbing only if the fibers are thin and the netting is widely spaced. However, one may not use a mesh if the fibers are closely packed; for example, one may not use a steel wool pad. To determine whether the fibers are considered dense or sparse one should conduct the following test before Shabbat: Immerse it in water and upon removing it if the water drains out immediately the fibers are considered widely spaced, however, if water stays absorbed it is considered densely spaced.[36]
  4. A wet sponge is Muktzeh Machmat Issur and may only be moved if the space it is occupying is needed. When moving a wet sponge one should do so gently so as not to squeeze out any liquid. However, a dry sponge or a wet sponge which has a handle or vinyl backing aren't muktzeh and may be moved for any necessary purpose. [37]

Squeezing water from hair

  1. It is forbidden to squeeze water out of one's hair on Shabbat. [38]Similarly, one shouldn't shampoo one's hair on shabbat. [39]
  2. One may wet one's hair if one does not squeeze it out. [40]
  3. One should not shake one's head vigorously in order to remove the absorbed water. [41]
  4. One may tightly wrap a towel on one's hair to absorb the liquid because the liquid is absorbed immediately and becomes useless. [42]

Cleaning a counter or table

  1. One may use a rag or towel to wipe up a spill if the rag or towel is able to soak up the entire spill without needing to wring it out. One may also use many rags at the same time if together they can absorb the spill. [43]
  2. One may not wipe a surface such as a counter or table top with a wet cloth. However, if a counter is sticky one may sprinkle water on the surface and then wipe it clean with a dry rag but it's preferable to used a paper napkin.[44] When necessary one wipe a surface very gently using a saturated rag or wet wet napkin. [45]

Baby wipes

  1. Some say that one may use baby wipes to clean a baby if one does it gently and doesn't press down.[46] However, some advise not using baby wipes but rather tissues and water as described in the following halacha. [47]
  2. One should not wet a cloth and then wipe the baby rather the liquid such as water, thin lotion, or oil should be applied to the baby's skin and then wiped with a paper napkin or paper towel and if that's not available then one may use a dry cloth. If one uses a dry cloth then once it gets wet one should be very cautious not to apply pressure when wiping. [48]

Nursing

  1. It is only permissible to nurse on Shabbat if the infant feeds directly from the mother. A nursing mother who is experiencing pain may express excess milk if it goes directly to waste and is not collected in a cup or container. [49]

Milking an Animal

  1. It is forbidden to milk an animal on Shabbat, as this is a violation of mifarek, which falls under the melacha of Dosh. [50]
  2. It is permissible to tell a non-Jew to milk an animal for you on Shabbat because if you don't it will cause the animal pain, but the milk is considered muktzeh for the day. [51] If a non-Jew is not available one should let the milk go to waste so that the violation is only dirabanan which would be allowed to save the animal from the pain, and one should try to do it with a shinui. [52] This leniency to allow a Jew to do it, only applies if there are no baby animals who can milk the adults. [53]

Brushing Teeth

see Brushing Teeth on Shabbat

Related Pages

Links

Sources

  1. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 317) based on the explanation of Rabbeinu Chananel (Shabbos 74a).
    The Gemara Shabbos (75a) records a dispute between Rebbi Yehuda and the Chachamim whether the Melacha of Dosh only applies to giduley karka, meaning things that grow in the ground. The Rambam (hilchos Shabbos 8:7) rules like the Chachamim that mi’d’oraisa it only applies to giduley karka, and this is the opinion of most of the Rishonim.
  2. This dispute is quoted in Eglei Tal (Dosh #2:3). It is based on the machlokes between Rashi (73b s.v. mefareik) and Tosfos (73b s.v. v’achas) about how to explain why the Gemara says that one would be in violation of a toldah of Dosh when knocking off a tree.* Seemingly, this question is relevant to whether it is permitted to detach grapes from their vine, and, thus, the Achronim wonder why it is that the Ramo (siman 336:8) rules without question that it is permitted to remove a fruit from a branch that was detached before Shabbos. * The Pri Megadim (introduction to siman 320) explains that the Ramo concludes like those Rishonim who assume Dosh is only violated when it entails removing something usable from a covered p’soles. * However, many Achronim are weary of taking this approach. As an alternative, the Eglei Tal (Dosh #11) says that Dosh does not apply when the detachment is being done for immediate use, as threshing is done as a preparation for further processing. A similar approach is taken by Rav Moshe Feinstein (Igros Moshe O”C vol. 1, siman 125) to explain why the removal of a shell from a nut or a peel from garlic is only a question of Borer and not Dosh. * Another explanation is offered by the Shvisas HaShabbos (Introduction to Meleches Dosh, no. 4) quoting the Shem Chodosh who argues that Dosh is only violated when the ochel is extracted by putting pressure on the entire item, which was the way it was done in the Mishkan. * Rav Mordechai Willig (Am Mordechai Shabbos siman 21) suggests a fourth approach based on the Aruch Hashulchan (319:20) that Dosh is only violated when working on many items at the same time. Rav Willig notes that according to this explanation one would have to be careful not to pick many grapes at once.
  3. 39 Melachos, vol. 2, pg. 315. The Eglei Tal (Introduction #1) quotes the opinion of some Rishonim who maintained that Dosh was done in preparation for the bread that was needed in the Mishkan, in which the case the melacha was removing the grain kernels from their chaff and stalk (39 Melachos, vol. 2, pg. 315).
  4. Rashi Shabbat 73b and Rambam (Shabbat 8:7 and 21:12) write that Mefarek is a Toldah of Dosh.
    One major difference between Mefareik and its Av is that Dosh is the removal of ochel from p’soles, something unwanted, which is not the case with squeezing juice from fruit. In order to maintain the comparison, the squeezing of the juice must be viewed as squeezing liquid from food. Therefore, the Gemara (144b) rules that squeezing juice directly into food (not drink) is permitted since then it is viewed as removing food from food and is not similar to Dosh where the extract is different than what it is removed from.
    The Mishna Brurah (Sha’ar Ha’tziun Siman 320, no. 23) quotes a machlokes Rishonim regarding squeezing into a plate with the intention of subsequently pouring it into food. The Chazon Ish (O”C 55:6) rules that it is only permitted if it is direct and such is the opinion of Shmiras Shabbos k’Hilchisa (chap. 5, seif 5). See, however, Biur Halacha 320:1 s.v. muter
  5. Rambam (Shabbat 8:10 and 21:12) writes that squeezing fruit (Sechitah) is a violation of Mefarek. 39 Melachos (Dosh note 113) quotes Tosfot Ketubot 6a s.v. Hay who holds that squeezing a liquid from a cloth is also considered Mefarek.
  6. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325)
  7. Rama end of 321, Chaye Adam 14:1, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 323-4)
  8. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 327-8) writes that according to some opinions it's forbidden. However, Halachos of Shabbat (Rabbi Eider, chap 8, pg 95) writes that it's forbidden (and bases it on the Maharsham 320:83).
  9. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 324-5)
  10. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325-6)
  11. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 326)
  12. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:1,2. Squeezing a liquid out of a solid (Sechita) is Mefarek which is a Toldah of the Melacha of Dash (Iglei Tal, Dash #8, Mishna Brurah 320:1).
    • Shulchan Aruch 320:1 writes that it's forbidden to squeeze olives and grapes and the juice which flows from them on their own is also forbidden for consumption. However, berries and pomegranates even though they are forbidden to be squeezed the juices from them that flow on their own are permissible if the fruit was meant to be eaten and not be squeezed for the juice. Lastly, all other fruits may be squeezed. The Rama 320:1 explains that in places where it's normal to squeeze certain fruits for their juices it is also forbidden to squeeze those fruits just like berries and pomegranates; in other words, the Rama 320:1 holds that a fruit's usage is based location. Mishna Brurah 320:5 explains that squeezing berries and pomegranates is forbidden rabbinically because some people squeeze them for the juice like grapes and olives. However, all other fruit in the days of Shulchan Aruch weren't squeezed for juice and were eaten. That's why it is permissible to squeeze such fruits because the fruit if considered like a solid and extracting one solid from another is permissible.
    • Therefore, the Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (chap 5 note 4) writes that nowadays that it is common to squeeze all fruits for their juice it is forbidden to squeeze any fruit on Shabbat. On the other hand, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 328) lists certain fruits which are rabbinically prohibited to squeeze including oranges, lemons, grapefruits, apples, pineapples, cherries, strawberries, peaches, plums, pomegranates, and tomatoes. Similarly, Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 3, 343 and 491) delineates certain fruits which are squeezed for the juices in some places such as grapes, olives, berries, pomegranates, apples, grapefruits, pears, mangoes, tangerines, and pineapples would be forbidden to squeeze on Shabbat, however, fruits which are not squeezed anywhere such as quince or watermelon one be squeezed on Shabbat. Yalkut Yosef (pg 344) adds that even when it is permissible to squeeze a fruit, it may only be done by hand and not with a juicer (tool).
  13. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:5. The Mishna Brurah (Sha’ar Ha’tziun Siman 320, no. 23) quotes a machlokes Rishonim regarding squeezing into a plate with the intention of subsequently pouring it into food. The Chazon Ish (O”C 55:6) rules that it is only permitted if it is directly onto food and such is the opinion of Shmiras Shabbos k’Hilchiso (chap. 5, seif 5). See, however, Biur Halacha 320:1 s.v. muter
  14. Gemara Shabbat 144b, Shulchan Aruch 505:1, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:3,7, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 345)
  15. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:11
  16. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:5,6, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 346). Although the Shulchan Aruch 320:6 states that one may squeeze a lemon on Shabbat, the Mishna Brurah 320:22 explains that the reason for the leniency doesn't apply today. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 80:12 writes that it is forbidden to squeeze lemons to make lemonade.
  17. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:2. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata’s source is the Kalkelet Shabbat (Dosh) who cites the Taz 320:7 for this halacha. It seems that the primary reason for the leniency is that the juice being squeezed out isn’t intentional.
  18. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 340)
  19. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:8, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 3 pg 350)
  20. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 342)
  21. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 342)
  22. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:10, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 339). Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol 3 pg 248) and Halichot Olam (vol 4 pg 106) permit even regarding grapes but add that it's a proper practice to refrain.
  23. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:9
  24. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:12, Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 3, pg 345), 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 340), Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com
  25. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com
  26. Shulchan Aruch 320:4
  27. Mishnah Brurah 320:17
  28. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:4
  29. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:10
  30. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:11
  31. Shulchan Aruch 320:12, 18, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 347)
  32. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 348)
  33. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 354)
  34. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 348-9)
  35. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 349)
  36. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 349-50)
  37. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 354)
  38. Mishna Brurah 326:25
  39. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371)
  40. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371)
  41. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 372)
  42. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371)
  43. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 350-1)
  44. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 351)
  45. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 355)
  46. Yalkut Yosef 302:31 based on Har Tzvi OC 1:190, Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com
  47. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 353)
  48. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 351)
  49. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 356)
  50. Yalkut Yosef Shabbat vol. 2 pg. 110. see there for discussion if this is a torah violation or rabbinic
  51. Yalkut Yosef vol 2. pg. 110, Sh"t Yabea Omer 9:30
  52. Yalkut Yosef Shabbat vol 2. pg. 111
  53. Yalkut Yosef Shabbat vol. 2 pg. 112